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Anatomy of Female Reproductive System Lecture 1, NUR 324 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy of Female Reproductive System Lecture 1, NUR 324 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy of Female Reproductive System Lecture 1, NUR 324 1

2 Learning Objectives 1.Define the terms listed. 2.Identify the female external and internal reproductive organs. 3.Explain the structure of the bony pelvis. 4.Explain the functions and structures of pelvic floor. 2

3 Component Parts 1.Internal female reproductive organs 2.External female reproductive organs 3

4 External female reproductive organs Collectively, the external female reproductive organs are called the Vulva. Which means covering Function: protect the urethral and vaginal openings 4

5 External Female Structures (Vulva) 1.Mons Pubis. 2.Labia Majora & Minora. 3.Clitoris. 4.Vestibule. 5.Perineum 5

6 1.Mons Pubis Is rounded, soft fullness of subcutaneous fatty tissue, prominence over the symphysis pubis. It is covered with varying amounts of pubic hair after puberty. Funtion: it protects sympyhsis pubis during sexual intercourse 6

7 2. Labia Majora The labia Majora are two rounded, fleshy folds of tissue that contained sweat and sbecuos glands, they are coverd with hair Function: It is protect the labia minora, urinary meatus and vaginal introitus. 7

8 3. Labia Minora It is located between the labia majora, are delicate hairless inner folds The lateral and anterior aspects are usually pigmented. The inner surfaces are similar to vaginal mucosa. They are highly vasculer and sensitve 8

9 4. Clitoris. T he term clitoris comes from a Greek word meaning key. E rectile organ. I t’s rich vascular, highly sensitive to temperature, touch, and pressure sensation F unction: sexual stimulation 9

10 5. Vestibule. It is oval-shaped area formed between the labia minora, clitoris, and fourchette. Vestibule contains the external urethral meatus, vaginal introitus, and Bartholins glands and skene gland that secret mucus. 10

11 The vaginal opening is surrounded by hymen, the hymen is a tough, elastic, perforated mucosa across the vaginal introitus. 11

12 Perineum Is the most posterior part of the external female reproductive organs. It is located between vulva and anus. And is composed of fibrous and muscular tissues that support pelvic structures. Episiotomy: incision of the perineum area 12

13 Internal Female Reproductive Organs 1.Vagina 2.Uterus 3.Fallopian tubes 4.Ovaries 13

14 1. Vagina It is an elastic fibro-muscular tube and membranous tissue about 8 to 10 cm long. Lying between the bladder anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly. The vagina connects the uterus above with the external genitals. 14

15 The vaginal lining has multiple folds, or rugae and muscle layer. These folds allow the vagina to stretch considerably during childbirth. The reaction of the vagina is acidic, the pH is 4.5 that protects the vagina against infection. 15 Cont.. Vagina

16 Anatomical relation of the vagina Anterior------------Urethra and bladder Posterior-----------Perineal body &rectum Lateral------------- Pelvic floor muscles Superior-----------The cervix. Inferior------------- The vulva 16

17 Functions of the vagina 1.To allow discharge of the menstrual flow. 2.As the female organs of coitus. 3.To allow passage of the fetus from the uterus. 17

18 2. Uterus The u terus i s a h ollow, p ear s haped muscular o rgan a t t he t op o f v agina. The u terus m easures a bout 7.5 l ong X 5 wide X 2.5 t hick c m a nd w eight a bout 50 – 60 g m. It l ies b ehind t he b ladder a nd i n f ront o f the r ectum a nd i s a nchored i n p osition b y eight l igaments a nd i s n ot a ttached b y skeleton. The u terus d ivided i nto t hree p arts 18

19 The uterus divided into three parts : 1. Body of the uterus The upper part is the corpus, or body of the uterus The fundus is the part of the body above the area where the fallopian tubes enter the uterus. Length about 5 cm. 19

20 2. Isthmus A narrower transition zone. Is between the corpus of the uterus and cervix. During late pregnancy, the isthmus elongates and is known as the lower uterine segment. 20 The uterus divided into three parts :

21 3. Cervix The lowermost position of the uterus “neck”. The length of the cervix is about 2.5 t0 3 cm. The os, is the opening in the cervix that runs between the uterus and vagina. The upper part of the cervix is marked by internal os and the lower cervix is marked by the external os. 21 The uterus divided into three parts :

22 Layers of the uterus 1. Endometrium. 2. Myometrium. 3. Perimetrium 22

23 1. Endometrium Is mucosal inner layer of the uterus. It varies thickness 0.5 to 5mm It is responsive to the cyclic variations of estrogen and progesterone during the female reproductive cycle every month. The three layers of the endometrial are: *Compact layer *The basal layer *The functional or Sponge layer this layer is shed during each menstrual period and after child birth. 23

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25 2. Myometrium Is the middle layer of thick muscle. The myometrium contains three types of smooth muscle fiber 3. Perimetrium Is the outer peritoneal layer of serous membrane that covers most of the uterus. Laterally, the perimetrium is continuous with the broad ligaments on either side of the uterus. 25

26 Anatomical relation of the uterus Anterior------------Bladder Posterior-----------The rectum Lateral-------------F. T& ovaries Superior-----------The intestines. Inferior------------- The Vagina 26

27 27

28 The Functions of the uterus 1.Menstruation ----the uterus sloughs off the endometrium. 2.Pregnancy ---the uterus support fetus and allows the fetus to grow. 3.Labor and birth---the uterine muscles contract and the cervix dilates during labor to expel the fetus 28

29 29

30 3. Fallopian tubes The two tubes extended from the uterus to the ovary. It runs in the upper free border of the broad ligament. Length average is 10 cm Its divided into 4 parts. The ends of the fallopian tubes lying next to the ovaries feather into ends called fimbria (Latin for "fringes" or "fingers"). Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and interior of the fallopian tubes 30

31 Segments of the fallopian tube 1.Fimbria segment - faces the ovary 2.Infundibulum segment - funnel shaped segment behind the fimbria 3.Ampulla segment - wide middle segment Fertilization occurs in the ampulla. 4.Isthmus segment - narrow muscular segment near the uterus 31

32 32

33 Functions of fallopian tube 1.Transport of fertilized and unfertilized ovum to the uterus. 2. Fluid environment for early embryonic development 33

34 4. Ovaries Oval solid structure, 1cm in thickness, 2 cm in width and 4 cm in length. Each weights about 4–5 gm. Ovary is located on each side of the uterus, below and behind the uterine tubes 34

35 Structure of the ovaries Cortex Medulla 35

36 Ovaries and Relationship to Uterine Tube and Uterus Figure 28–14 36

37 Function of the ovary 1.Secrete estrogen & progesterone. 2.Production of ova 37

38 Bony pelvis 38

39 Support structures Support structures The bony pelvis support and protects the lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs. Muscle, Joints and ligaments provide added support for internal organs of the pelvis against the downward force of gravity and the increases in intra- abdominal pressure 39

40 Bony Pelvis Bony Pelvis Is Composed of 4 bones: 1. Two hip bones. 2. Sacrum. 3. Coccyx. 40

41 1. Two hip bones. Each or hip bone is composed of three bones: *Ilium *Ischium *Pubis 41

42 2. Sacrum Is a wedge shaped bone consisting of five vertebrae. The anterior surface of the sacrum is concave The upper border of the first sacral vertebra known as the sacral promontory 42

43 3. Coccyx. Consists of four vertebrae forming a small triangular bone. 43

44 Pelvic Joints There are four pelvic joints: * One Symphysis pubis * Two sacro-iliac joints * One sacro-coccygeal joint 44

45 PELVIC SHAPE 1-GYNECOID Typical female pelvis found in 50% of women Rounded—slightly oval inlet Straight pelvic sidewalls Good sacral curve Pubic arch is wide

46 PELVIC SHAPE 2-ANDROID Typical male pelvis found in 1/3 white women 1/6 non-white Pelvic brim is heart shaped Pelvis funnels from above downwards Narrow pubic arch

47 PELVIC SHAPE 3-ANTHROPOID  25% white women & 50% nonwhite  Pelvic brim APD > TD  Long & narrow pelvic canal with long sacrum  Straight pelvic sidewalls 4-PLATYPELLOID  3% of women  Pelvic brim TD >>>APD  kidney shape  Sacral promontory pushed forwards

48 Pelvic Shape

49 Differentiation between female and male pelvic

50 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Pelvis I Female Male Cavity is broad, shallow Pelvic inlet oval + outlet round Bones are lighter, thinner Pubic angle larger Coccyx more flexible, straighter Ischial tuberosities shorter, more everted Cavity is narrow, deep Smaller inlet + outlet Bones heavier, thicker Pubic angle more acute Coccyx less flexible, more curved Ischial tuberosities longer, face more medially

51 Blood Supply The uterine blood supply is carried by the uterine arteries, which are branches of the internal iliac artery. These vessels enter the uterus at the lower border of the broad ligament, near the isthmus of the uterus. 51

52 Student Practice 1 1.Describe the internal and external female reproductive system and function of each part? 2.What are the types of bony pelvis? 52


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