Presentation on theme: "Anatomy of Female Reproductive System"— Presentation transcript:
1 Anatomy of Female Reproductive System Lecture 1, NUR 324
2 Learning Objectives Define the terms listed. Identify the female external and internal reproductive organs.Explain the structure of the bony pelvis.Explain the functions and structures of pelvic floor.
4 External female reproductive organs Collectively, the external female reproductive organs are called the Vulva.Which means coveringFunction: protect the urethral and vaginal openings
5 External Female Structures (Vulva) Mons Pubis.Labia Majora & Minora.Clitoris.Vestibule.Perineum
6 1.Mons Pubis Is rounded, soft fullness of subcutaneous fatty tissue, prominence over thesymphysis pubis.It is covered with varying amounts of pubic hair after puberty.Funtion: it protects sympyhsis pubis during sexual intercourse
7 2. Labia MajoraThe labia Majora are two rounded, fleshy folds of tissue that contained sweat and sbecuos glands , they are coverd with hairFunction: It is protect the labia minora, urinary meatus and vaginal introitus.
8 3. Labia MinoraIt is located between the labia majora, are delicate hairless inner foldsThe lateral and anterior aspects are usually pigmented.The inner surfaces are similar to vaginal mucosa.They are highly vasculer and sensitve
9 4. Clitoris. The term clitoris comes from a Greek word meaning key. Erectile organ.It’s rich vascular, highly sensitive to temperature, touch, and pressure sensationFunction: sexual stimulation
10 5. Vestibule.It is oval-shaped area formed between the labia minora, clitoris, and fourchette.Vestibule contains the external urethral meatus, vaginal introitus, and Bartholins glands and skene gland that secret mucus.
11 The vaginal opening is surrounded by hymen, the hymen is a tough, elastic, perforated mucosa across the vaginal introitus.
12 PerineumIs the most posterior part of the external female reproductive organs.It is located between vulva and anus.And is composed of fibrous and muscular tissues that support pelvic structures.Episiotomy: incision of the perineum area
14 1. VaginaIt is an elastic fibro-muscular tube and membranous tissue about 8 to 10 cm long.Lying between the bladder anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly.The vagina connects the uterus above with the external genitals.
15 Cont.. VaginaThe vaginal lining has multiple folds, or rugae and muscle layer. These folds allow the vagina to stretch considerably during childbirth.The reaction of the vagina is acidic, the pH is 4.5 that protects the vagina against infection.
16 Anatomical relation of the vagina Anterior Urethra and bladderPosterior Perineal body &rectumLateral Pelvic floor musclesSuperior The cervix.Inferior The vulva
17 Functions of the vagina To allow discharge of the menstrual flow.As the female organs of coitus.To allow passage of the fetus from the uterus.
18 2. UterusThe uterus is a hollow, pear shaped muscular organ at the top of vagina.The uterus measures about 7.5 long X 5 wide X 2.5 thick cm and weight about 50 – 60 gm.It lies behind the bladder and in front of the rectum and is anchored in position by eight ligaments and is not attached by skeleton.The uterus divided into three parts
19 The uterus divided into three parts: 1. Body of the uterusThe upper part is the corpus, or body of the uterusThe fundus is the part of the body above the area where the fallopian tubes enter the uterus.Length about 5 cm.
20 The uterus divided into three parts: 2. IsthmusA narrower transition zone.Is between the corpus of the uterus and cervix.During late pregnancy, the isthmus elongates and is known as the lower uterine segment.
21 The uterus divided into three parts: 3. CervixThe lowermost position of the uterus “neck”.The length of the cervix is about 2.5 t0 3 cm.The os, is the opening in the cervix that runs between the uterus and vagina.The upper part of the cervix is marked by internal os and the lower cervix is marked by the external os.
22 Layers of the uterusEndometrium.Myometrium.Perimetrium
23 1. EndometriumIs mucosal inner layer of the uterus. It varies thickness 0.5 to 5mmIt is responsive to the cyclic variations of estrogen and progesterone during the female reproductive cycle every month.The three layers of the endometrial are:*Compact layer*The basal layer*The functional or Sponge layer this layer is shed during each menstrual period and after child birth.
25 2. Myometrium 3. Perimetrium Is the middle layer of thick muscle. The myometrium contains three types of smooth muscle fiber3. PerimetriumIs the outer peritoneal layer of serous membrane that covers most of the uterus.Laterally, the perimetrium is continuous with the broad ligaments on either side of the uterus.
26 Anatomical relation of the uterus Anterior BladderPosterior The rectumLateral F. T& ovariesSuperior The intestines.Inferior The Vagina
28 The Functions of the uterus Menstruation ----the uterus sloughs off the endometrium.Pregnancy ---the uterus support fetus and allows the fetus to grow.Labor and birth---the uterine muscles contract and the cervix dilates during labor to expel the fetus
30 3. Fallopian tubesThe two tubes extended from the uterus to the ovary.It runs in the upper free border of the broad ligament.Length average is 10 cmIts divided into 4 parts.The ends of the fallopian tubes lying next to the ovaries feather into ends called fimbria (Latin for "fringes" or "fingers"). Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and interior of the fallopian tubes
31 Segments of the fallopian tube Fimbria segment - faces the ovaryInfundibulum segment - funnel shaped segment behind the fimbriaAmpulla segment - wide middle segment Fertilization occurs in the ampulla.Isthmus segment - narrow muscular segment near the uterus
39 Support structuresThe bony pelvis support and protects the lower abdominal and internal reproductive organs.Muscle, Joints and ligaments provide added support for internal organs of the pelvis against the downward force of gravity and the increases in intra-abdominal pressure
40 Bony Pelvis 2. Sacrum. 3. Coccyx. Bony Pelvis Is Composed of 4 bones: 1. Two hip bones.2. Sacrum.3. Coccyx.
41 1. Two hip bones. *Ischium *Pubis Each or hip bone is composed of three bones:*Ilium*Ischium*Pubis
42 2. Sacrum Is a wedge shaped bone consisting of five vertebrae. The anterior surface of the sacrum is concaveThe upper border of the first sacral vertebra known as the sacral promontory
43 3. Coccyx.Consists of four vertebrae forming a small triangular bone.
44 Pelvic Joints There are four pelvic joints: * One Symphysis pubis * Two sacro-iliac joints* One sacro-coccygealjoint
45 PELVIC SHAPE 1-GYNECOID Typical female pelvis found in 50% of women Rounded—slightly oval inletStraight pelvic sidewallsGood sacral curvePubic arch is wide
46 PELVIC SHAPE2-ANDROIDTypical male pelvis found in 1/3 white women 1/6 non-whitePelvic brim is heart shapedPelvis funnels from above downwardsNarrow pubic arch
47 PELVIC SHAPE 3-ANTHROPOID 25% white women & 50% nonwhite Pelvic brim APD > TDLong & narrow pelvic canal with long sacrumStraight pelvic sidewalls4-PLATYPELLOID3% of womenPelvic brim TD >>>APD kidney shapeSacral promontory pushed forwards
50 Frolich, Human Anatomy, Pelvis I Female MaleCavity is broad, shallowPelvic inlet oval + outlet roundBones are lighter, thinnerPubic angle largerCoccyx more flexible, straighterIschial tuberosities shorter, more evertedCavity is narrow, deepSmaller inlet + outletBones heavier, thickerPubic angle more acuteCoccyx less flexible, more curvedIschial tuberosities longer, face more mediallyFrolich, Human Anatomy, Pelvis I
51 Blood SupplyThe uterine blood supply is carried by the uterine arteries, which are branches of the internal iliac artery.These vessels enter the uterus at the lower border of the broad ligament, near the isthmus of the uterus.
52 Student Practice 1Describe the internal and external female reproductive system and function of each part?What are the types of bony pelvis?