Presentation on theme: "INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE SONORA Cuerpo académico: Ambiente y Salud Exposure assessment of pesticides, arsenic and lead in children from the Southern Sonora,"— Presentation transcript:
INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE SONORA Cuerpo académico: Ambiente y Salud Exposure assessment of pesticides, arsenic and lead in children from the Southern Sonora, Mexico. Dra. Ma. Mercedes Meza-Montenegro April 05, 2013
Background The Yaqui and Mayo valleys could be considered “high risks areas” Major economic activity is agriculture: grains and vegetable Since 1950s there have been reports of heavy application of pesticides (lead and sodium arsenate). Reports of high incidence of lukemia in children and adults in this area. 266,673 ha Yaqui valley 129,514 ha Mayo valley
Persistent Lipophilic High mobility Are incorporated into food chains (biomagnified) Pesticide characteristics En las aves se han encontrado hasta 25 ppm de insecticida En los grandes peces: 2 ppm En los peces pequeños: 0.5 ppm En el agua: 0.000,003 ppm En el zooplancton: 0.04 ppm
Acute effects –Dermatitis –Loss of consciousness - Seizures -Respiratory depression -Death Chronic effects –Neurological system –Immunological system –Cancer –Genotoxicity –Endocrine disruptor - Reproductive system Effects of pesticides
Environmental Mexican Legislation 1.Mexican Constitution (Art. 4) Everyone has the right to the healty environment. Everyone has the right to access to drinking water for personal consumption and domestic: enough, healthy, acceptable quality. The state must to ensure these rights and establish rules for equitable and sustainable use. Participation: federal, state, and everyone from the population. 2. Ley General del Equilibrio Ecológico y Protección al Ambiente (LGEEPA). Toda persona tiene derecho a vivir en un ambiente adecuado para su desarrollo, salud y bienestar. 3. Official Mexican Norms (NOMs)
Banned pesticides in México: DOF 3 de Enero 1991 Triamifos Mercurio Acido 2,4,5-T Aldrin Cianofos Cloranil Nitrofen Paration etilico Fluoroacetato de sodio (1080) Erbon Formotión Scradan Fumisel Kepone/Clord econe Mirex HCH Toxafeno Acetato o propionato de fenil DBCP Dialiafor Dieldrin Dinoseb Endrin Monuron EPN Sulfato de talio Fuente: El Catálogo Oficial de Plaguicidas publicado por la Comisión Intersecretarial para el Control del Proceso y Uso de Plaguicidas, Fertilizantes y Sustancias Tóxicas.ControlProceso (CICOPLAFEST),1999.
Previous studies in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora Previous studies in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora (1990-1998) (1990-1998) 1991, García Bañuelos, different ways for pesticides contamination in new born and neonatos residentes in Pueblo Yaqui: lindano, p,p’-DDE, p, p’-DDT, aldrin. 1998, Soto Alvarado reported POC in serum blood of children from the Yaqui Valley. 100 % of the samples had residues of p-p’DDT y p-p´DDE. 1998, Guillette et al compared two communities with different exposure to pesticides (agricultural vs foothills) founding differences in funtional abilities. 1990, Reyes-Blanco, detected for first time POCs (DDTs, aldrín, lindano, endrín…in human milk in Pueblo yaqui.
Guillete et al 1998. Environ Health Perspec 106:347-353 García BML, MezaMMM (1991) Principales vias de contaminación por plaguicididas en neonatos-lactantes residentes en Pueblo Yaqui, Sonora, Mexico. Inst Tecnol Sonora ITSON-DIEP. 1:33-42
First studies in environmental samples 2008, Flores-Casillas, Osorio-Rosas, Acuña-García analyzed soil and drinking water of 25 agricultural towns from the Yaqui and Mayo valley. Superficial soil:DDTs, endosulfán, lindano, aldrín, endrín y BHC. Water : trace residues of pp-DDE FOMIX-CONACYT-SONORA PROJECT (2007-2009) First biological studies in children residents from the Mayo and yaqui communities.
Including hot spots and vulnerable groups. Are including Yaqui valley and …….indigenous communities 2008- SEMARNAT-INE-CONACYT Schockholm Convention Commitment of the agreement: Mexico must propose and establish the National Plan of Implementation (PNI). Goal: work on strategies to reduce or eliminate COPs 2004 started the Schockholm Convention: COPs
Justification Geographic distribution of COPs is not known and is scarce in Mexico. The human levels of COPs show the real concentration in the environmental which is absorbed for the human. Evaluate the corporal levels of COPs: international agreement for reduction/elimination. 12 industrial chemicals: aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, DDT, heptacloro, HCB, mirex, toxapheno, polichlorinated byphenyls Bejarano-González, 2004
Banned pesticides in other countries: still used in Mexico. Alaclor MetidatiónAldicarb MetamidofosMetoxicloroCaptafol Azinfos MetílicoMevinfosCarbarilo MonocrotofosOmetoatoClordano CaptanDDTDicofol OxyfluorfenParaquatEndosulfán Paratión Metílico DiurónPentaclorofenol QuintocenoForatoSulprofos FosfamidónTriazofosKadetrina TridemorfLinuronVamidothion Maneb2,4-D
Materials and Methods Environmental sampling: 24 towns Biological sampling: 9 towns Study sites
Pueblo Yaqui Tobarito Environmental sampling: soil and water Potam
Study design Cross section study N=165 children (6-12 yrs old) 10 children by town Inclusion criteria: 5 years living in the town Drinking water from the well Yaqui valley: six towns Mayo valley: 3 towns
Biological sampling: blood and urine Urinary arsenic Lead and pesticides in blood
Results Volumen de venta anual (l ó kg) PLAGUICIDA Ingrediente Activo Nombres comerciales 122,000Paratión Parathion, Paratión Metílico. 42,000Dimetoato Danadim, Afidox, Perfektion. 34,600Amina 6 (2,4-D) Herbipol, Diamine, Uniamina 6, Dioneed, Amina 6. 21,200Metamidofos Monitor, Tomaron, M-600, Tamaron-600, Biofos. 11,850Metsulfurón Situi, Amber, Armony. 8,790Endosulfán Endofon, Thiodan. Fuente: Rodríguez, 2009 Table 1. Pesticides used in yaqui and mayo valleys during 2007.
Major diseases reported during the interview -Bronquitis -Dolores de cabeza -Diarreas -Anemia -Dermatitis -Rinitis -Asma -Dolores de cabeza -Diarreas -Bronquitis -Dermatitis -Urticarias -Asma -Rinitis Table 2. Most frequent diseases in residents from the yaqui and mayo valley.
Meza-Montenegro et al (2013). Arch. Environ Contamination and Toxicol 64:519-527 Table 3. Blood Pb levels in chidren from the Yaqui and Mayo valleys
Meza-Montenegro et al (2013). Arch. Environ Contamination and Toxicol 64:519-527 Table 4 Urinary InAs levels in chidren from the Yaqui and Mayo valleys, Sonora, Mexico.
Meza-Montenegro et al (2013). Arch. Environ Contamination and Toxicol 64:519-527 Table 5. Serum levels of OCP in children from the Yaqui and Mayo valleys in Sonora, Mexico.
5782 residents Major activities: agriculture, fishing and livestock. School: 3 elementary, 1middle, 1 high school. Most residents are bilingual Houses are of “carrizo y lodo” Houses have no floor Streets have no pavement Average income/day = 5.5 Dls Demographics and socioeconomic status
Potam: Arsenic levels in drinking water NOM-127-SSA1-1994 25 ppb of As Levels in Potam: 93.82 ppb of As
Potam: study case of different contaminants Soil and water sampling sites for OCP.
Organochlorine Pesticides levels in soils from Potam
Organochlorine pesticides in blood in children from Potam.
Study of pyretroids in Potam Soil water Cejudo, 2010
Well photo Drinking water is not chlorinated Contaminated with fecal coliforms (NMP 39.6% of drinking water samples) According the Mexican Legislation NOM-127-SSA1-1994 The water quality for human consumption in Potam no met Mexican Standards. Water: its essencial role in quality of life Microbiological data: september 2009-Jun 2010 Félix-Fuentes et al. 2010
Study of Cryptosporidiun parvum and Giardia intestinalis in drinking water (sep 2009-sep 2010) These parasites cause gastrointestinal diseases Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in human and animals 100% of drinking water samples were positives for ooquistes de Cryptosporiduim parvum and quistes of Giardia intestinalis. Was found that 1/100 persons could have giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis by year. Balderrama-Carmona et al. 2011. IV International Congress of Sciences, Ats, and Humanities-Mexico.
Helycobacter pylori study in Potam Higher prevalence of H. pylori compared with other Latin countries (Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia,Honduras, Nicaragua). Have no drainage system Greenberg et al 2011. The Lancet 378:507-514. Gastritis and stomach cancer. n= 200 adults latrine
Conclusion pp DDE was present in 100% of the samples, followed by pp-DDT, lindane and in a much lower proportion, aldrin y endosulfan. The variety of OCP detected was lower than the reported one decade ago and the levels were within the reported ones in previous studies (28-145 ppb). In-blood lead level were below the ones established on the regulation. Arsenic levels in urine were slightly higher compared with the reference value from other countries. Potam’s water is not suitable for human consumption.
Production and environmental release of OPCs violates the fundamental Human Rights: Right to health. Women and children’s rights; right to healthy food, free of pollutants and to an appropriate environment for human dignity and development. Conclusion….. Governments are responsible for solving issues as the ones related to access to: 1. Environmental justice. 2. Compensation for harms to health and environment.