RESEARCH TEAM RESEARCH SCIENTIST Saada Mohammed Samuel Obiri Dr. Osmund Ansa- Asare TECHNOLOGIST Grace Dartey Richard Kudi
OUTLINE Introduction Objective Methodology Results and Discussion Conclusion and Recommendation
The internationally accepted FAO definition of pesticides is: "Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal diseases, unwanted species of plants or animals causing harm or otherwise interfering with the production.
INTRODUCTION Unlike most other chemical products, pesticides are deliberately released into the environment for controlling undesired organisms such as weeds, fungi and insects. Organochlorines are highly toxic compounds Organophosphates considered less toxic Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including DDT, HCH, HCB, dieldrin and endrin, have a long history of use in the world for control of agricultural pests.
INTRODUCTION The Ministry of Food and Agriculture, the Ghana Cocoa Board and the Ministry of Health appear to be the major importers(EPA-NIP,2007). In a survey conducted by CODAPEC it was estimated that about 370,000 litres of lindane is still in Ghana (NLP-Ghana, 2007). According to the WHO, 30% food consumption consists of fruit and vegetables on the average. Vegetables are mainly consumed raw or semi- processed.
INRODUCTION Household processes may reduce pesticide residues depending on a number of factors: Location Age Water solubility Temperature Type of washing solution (Hasmukh et al 2012, )
OBJECTIVES To administer a questionnaire to the market women to find out whether they are aware that of the use of pesticide by vegetable farmers. Screen and quantify the vegetables for organochlorines.
Study Sites and Samples Vegetables Samples: Carrot, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Cucumber, Lettuce and Tomatoes. Four different markets namely; Agbogbloshie, Buulu Djaano, Mallam Atta and Mamobi all in the Greater Accra region of Ghana.
Methods The US EPA methods 3510 and 3540 (2007). Washed water - M3510 Washed uncooked vegetable – M3540 Washed and cooked vegetable – M3540
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 1 Sources of vegetables from Agbogloshie market
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 2 Washing of vegetables
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 3 Knowledge of pesticide use
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 4 Pesticide residue in water used in washing some selected vegetables µg/kg OCP
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 4 Pesticide residue in washed uncooked vegetable µg/kg OCP
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fig. 6 Pesticide residues in washed and cooked vegetables OCP µm/kg
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The market women are aware of the use of pesticides in vegetable farming. Organochlorine pesticide were found in all the vegetable but were all within the EU guidelines. Lindane was the only pesticide whose value exceeded the EU guidelines.
RECOMMENDATION The EPA Ghana should ensure that all the stock pills of the OCP are well secured. Education and monitoring. Further research may also be carried out at the same study area to include other pesticide residues that were not covered in this research.