Presentation on theme: "Overview of Environmental Contamination in Lao PDR Dr. Kesiny Phomkeona Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science National University of Laos."— Presentation transcript:
Overview of Environmental Contamination in Lao PDR Dr. Kesiny Phomkeona Department of Chemistry Faculty of Science National University of Laos
Department of Chemistry (DOC) was found along with the establishment of National University ( 05-11-1996 ). DOC is a department member of Faculty of Science (FOS). Chemistry Department Establishment Mrs. Sysavad LUANGSISUPHAN Head of Chemistry Department
Analytical Chemistry Environmental Chemistry General Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Organic Chemistry Physical Chemistry Pesticide Residue and water Quality Researches
Chemistry Department Academic Distribution Theoretical and practical works are distributed to not only chemistry students but also to other students from other institutes.
Chemistry Department Main Research Facilities HPLC/UV-Vis or RID and IC/CD UV-Vis Spectrophotometers AAS/Hydride Generation for As and Cold for Hg TOC Analyzer CO 2 Analyzer DI water production system and electric Balance GC-MS
Chemistry Department Previous Research activities Water Quality research Pesticide Residue Research
Research Activities in Chemistry Department, NUOL Pesticide Residues Analysis: Research is focused on contamination of organochlorine pesticides in foods and environmental samples (2005-2012). Water Qualities Analysis: Conduct research in water contaminations and water quality test for fresh and wastewater, and drinking water.
General Information Land area: 236,800 km 2 Stocked forest land >40% Population: 6.5 million people (2012) Approx. 83% of population live in rural area.
Current Environment Issue in Lao PDR The environment and natural resources of Lao PDR are being threatened by a number of factors associated with the mining sector, including hazardous chemicals, including heavy metals such as mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc as well as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins and furans, PCBs, and various pesticides and herbicides.
Current and Future Interested Researches Water Quality. Pesticide Residue. Chemical Contaminants in Food and water. Renewable Energy-Biodiesel. Air pollution.
Previous Study on Pesticide Residue Department of Chemistry have had assistance from International Program in Chemical Science (IPICS)/ISP, Sweden, to set up capacity on pesticide residue analysis including laboratory and methods to be used since 2005. The primary focus of the project was qualitative analysis of organochlorine pesticides in samples, including evaluation of extraction methods by recovery tests, to get an idea of which pesticides can be found in the environment.
2008 (Department of Chemistry, NUOL) The following organochlorine pesticides were found in sediments, water and aquatic animals samples collected from Vientiane capital. Pesticides Amount found, ng/g. Lowest-Highest Dry seasonRainy season α-HCH0.023 - 19.6300.023 - 32.194 β-HCH0.115 - 19.7210.526 - 146.200 γ-HCH1.865 - 424.8710.362 - 274.611 Aldrin0.584 - 52.1642.589 - 89.9 Heptachlor-endo-epoxide6.485 - 104.6863.458 - 7.349 α-Endosulfan0.387 - 76.9974.842 - 75.329 β-Endosulfan501.31915.831-203.166 Dieldrin60ND 4,4’-DDE0.218 - 245.4410.051 - 132.385 4,4’-DDD7.352 - 201.2035.347 - 16.042 4,4’-DDT0.134 - 91.1331.691 - 128.078
2009 (Department of Chemistry, NUOL) The following organochlorine pesticides were found in fruits and vegetable samples collected from local markets in Vientiane capital. PesticidesHighest amount found, μg/g. α-HCH5.99 β-HCH0.721 γ-HCH0.04 Aldrin1.487 Dieldrin6.107 4,4’-DDE0.131 2,4’-DDT14.876 4,4’-DDT0.417
Previous Studies on Water Contamination by Heavy Metals Water Quality Unit of Chemistry Department has conducted researches on water contamination of heavy metals. The studies were done by staff members and together with supporting undergraduate students to undergo their final projects.
Analysis of heavy metals in samples were performed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) with suitable technique for each element. Hg : AAS with cold vapor generation As : AAS with hydride generation Zn, Cd, Fe, and others: AAS with flame
Hg Contamination in Aquatic Samples (2012) MPL = Maximum Permissible Level
Hg Contamination in Water Samples MPL = Maximum Permissible Level
Hg Contamination in Sediment Samples MPL = Maximum Permissible Level
Arsenic Contamination in Ground Water (UNESCO 2011) River mouth & along Mekong River STD = 10 ppb
Arsenic Contamination in Ground Water (ISP 2012) MPL = Maximum Permissible Level
Environmental samples in Laos are nowadays contaminated by toxic heavy metals (As and Hg) which exceed maximum permissable limit. Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid are nowadays widely used in Laos. Studies on Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid are not able to do. Due to the limitation of chemicals and equipments and human resourse. Conclusion
Acknowledgement Ms. S. Louangsysouphan Ms. V. Chounlamany Dr. P. Inthapanya Mr. V. Phouthavong Assoc. Prof. Dr. Peter Sundin Mr. Lars Lundmark IPIC/ISP Mr. S. Bouta