Presentation on theme: "Lecture 1: RDCH 702 Introduction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lecture 1: RDCH 702 Introduction Reading: Chart of the nuclides and Table of the isotopes (http://radchem.nevada.edu/docs/course%20reading/TOI.PDF)Provide blog input when lecture completedComments, questions, or statement that lecture completedClass organizationOutcomesGradingChart of the nuclidesDescription and use of chartDataRadiochemistry introductionAtomic propertiesNuclear nomenclatureX-raysTypes of decaysForces
2 RDCH 702: Introduction Outcomes for RDCH 702 Understand chemical properties in radiation and radiochemistryUse and application of chemical kinetics and thermodynamics to evaluate radionuclide speciationUnderstand the influence of radiolysis on the chemistry of radioisotopesUnderstand and evaluate radioisotope productionEvaluate and compare radiochemical separationsUtilization of radioisotope nuclear properties in evaluating chemical behaviorUse and explain the application of radionuclides in researchDiscuss and understand ongoing radiochemistry research
3 Grading Homework (5 %) PDF provide at end of lecture response directly after lectureQuizzes (12.5 % each)Take home quizDevelop tools for research (spreadsheets)Presentation (20 %)Based on recent literatureEnd of semester20-25 minutesParticipation (12.5 %)Blog response, skype, in classClass developed to assist and compliment research activities
4 #DateTopic1Monday25-AugChart of the Nuclides2Wednesday27-AugChemical Speciation and Thermodynamics301-SepLabor Day403-Sep508-SepQuiz 1 (Chart of the Nuclides)610-SepNuclear Reactions715-Sep817-SepOrigin of the Elements922-SepMeet: Scinfinder and literature search (Poineau)1024-SepQuiz 2 (Speciation and Thermodynamics)1129-SepElectron orbitals and energy1201-OctNuclear Models1306-OctMeet: Topic review with Prof. Poineau1408-OctDecay Kinetics1513-Oct1615-OctQuiz 3 (Electron Orbitals and Decay Kinetics)1720-OctDosimetry and Interaction of Radiation with Matter1822-Oct1927-OctIsotope production2029-OctMeet: Topic review with Prof. Poineau2103-NovQuiz 4 (Dosimetry, Radiation Interaction, Isotope Production)2205-NovSolvent Extraction2310-Nov2412-NovIon Exchange2517-NovMolten Salt2619-NovMeet: Separations and Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Prof. Poineau2724-NovIn Reactor Chemistry2826-NovReactors and Fuel Cycle2901-DecNuclear Forensics3003-DecQuiz 5 (Separations, Fuel Cycle, Nuclear Forensics)31FinalPresentations (TBD)
5 Radiochemistry Introduction Chemistry of the radioactive isotopes and elementsUtilization of nuclear properties in evaluating and understanding chemistryIntersection of chart of the nuclides and periodic tableAtomZ and N in nucleus (10-14 m)Electron interaction with nucleus basis of chemical properties (10-10 m)Electrons can be excitedHigher energy orbitalsIonizationBinding energy of electron effects ionizationIsotopesSame Z different NIsobarSame A (sum of Z and N)IsotoneSame N, different ZIsomerNuclide in excited state99mTc
6 Types of Decay 1. decay (occurs among the heavier elements) 3. Positron emission4. Electron capture5. Spontaneous fission
7 Fission Products Fission yield curve varies with fissile isotope 2 peak areas for U and Pu thermal neutron induced fissionVariation in light fragment peakInfluence of neutron energy observed235U fission yield
8 Photon emission Gamma decay Emission of photon from excited nucleus Metastable nuclide (i.e., 99mTc)Following decay to excited daughter stateX-rayElectron from a lower level is removedelectrons from higher levels occupy resulting vacancy with photon emissionDe-acceleration of high energy electronsElectron transitions from inner orbitalsX-ray productionBombardment of metal with high energy electronsSecondary x-ray fluorescence by primary x-raysRadioactive sourcesSynchrotron sources
9 X-rays Removal of K shell electrons Electrons coming from the higher levels will emit photons while falling to this K shellseries of rays (frequency n or wavelength l) are noted as Ka, Kb, KgIf the removed electrons are from the L shell, noted as La, Lb, LgIn 1913 Moseley studied these frequencies n, showing that:where Z is the atomic number and, A and Z0 are constants depending on the observed transition.K series, Z0 = 1, L series, Z0 = 7.4.
10 Chart of the Nuclides Presentation of data on nuclides Information on chemical elementNuclide informationSpin and parity (0+ for even-even nuclides)Fission yieldStable isotopeIsotopic abundanceReaction cross sectionsMassRadioactive isotopeHalf-lifeModes of decay and energiesBeta disintegration energiesIsomeric statesNatural decay seriesFission yields for isobars
11 Chart of Nuclides Decay modes Alpha Beta Positron Photon Electron captureIsomeric transitionInternal conversionSpontaneous fissionCluster decay
17 Terms and decay modes: Utilization of chart of the nuclides Identify the isomer, isobars, isotones, and isotopes60mCo, 57Co, 97Nb, 58Co, 57Ni, 57Fe, 59Ni, 99mTcIdentify the daughter from the decay of the following isotopes210Po (alpha decay, 206Pb)196Pb204Bi (EC decay, 204Pb)209Pb222At212Bi (both alpha and beta decay)208Pb (stable)How is 14C naturally producedReactions with atmosphere (14N as target)Identify 5 naturally occurring radionuclides with Z<84
18 Chart of the Nuclides Questions How many stable isotopes of Ni?What is the mass and isotopic abundance of 84Sr?Spin and parity of 201Hg?Decay modes and decay energies of 212BiWhat are the isotopes in the 235U decay series?What is the half-life of 176Lu?What is the half-life of 176YbHow is 238Pu produced?How is 239Pu made from 238UWhich actinide isotopes are likely to undergo neutron induced fission?Which isotopes are likely to undergo alpha decay?What is the half life of 130TeWhat is its decay mode?What cross section data is provided for 130Te?
19 Table of the Isotopes Detailed information about each isotope Mass chain decay schememass excess (M-A)Mass difference, units in energy (MeV)particle separation energyPopulating reactions and decay modesGamma dataTransitions, % intensitiesDecay levelsEnergy, spin, parity, half-lifeStructure drawing
23 Half Lives N/No=e-t N=Noe- t =(ln 2)/t1/2 l is decay constant No=number at time zero (atoms, mass, moles)N= number at time tRate of decay of 131I as a function of time.
24 Equation questions Calculate decay constant for the following 75Se examplel= ln(2)/ day = d-1l= d-1 *1d/24 hr * 1 hr/3600 s =6.7E-8 s-1Isotopet1/2ll (s-1)75Sedays5.79E-3 d-16.78E-874mGa10 seconds6.93E-2 s-16.93E-281Zn0.32 seconds2.17 s-12.17137Cs30.07 years2.31E-2 a-17.30E-10239Pu2.41E4 years2.88E-5 a-19.11E-13
25 Equation QuestionsWhat percentage of 66As remains from a given amount after 0.5 secondsUse N/No=e-tt1/2 = 95.6 ms; l=7.25 s-1N/No=e-t = N=/No=e-7.25(.5) = =2.66 %After 5.23 half livesHow long would it take to decay 90 % of 65Zn?90 % decay means 10 % remainsSet N/No=0.1, t1/2 = 244 d, l= 2.84E-3 d-10.1=e-2.84E-3tln(0.1)= -2.84E-3 d-1 t=-2.30/-2.84E-3 d-1 = t =810 days
26 Equation QuestionsIf you have 1 g of 72Se initially, how much remains in 12 days?t1/2 = 8.5 d, l=8.15E-2 d-1N=Noe- tN=(1 g) e- 8.15E-2(12)N=0.376 gWhat if you started with atoms of 72Se, how many atoms after 12 days?0.376 (37.6 %) remains10000(0.376) = 3760 atoms
27 What holds the nucleus together: Forces in nature Four fundamental forces in natureGravityWeakest forceinteracting massive objectsWeak interactionBeta decayElectromagnetic forceMost observable interactionsStrong interactionNuclear properties
28 Particle Physics: Boundary of Course fundamental particles of nature and interaction symmetriesParticles classified as fermions or bosonsFermions obey the Pauli principleantisymmetric wave functionshalf-integer spinsNeutrons, protons and electronsBosons do not obey Pauli principlesymmetric wave functions and integer spinsPhotons
29 Standard Model Boson are force carriers Photon, W and Z bosons, gluon Integer spinWhat are the quarks in a proton and a neutron?
30 Topic review Definition of radiochemistry Types of radioactive decay Understand and utilize the data presented in the chart of the nuclides and table of the isotopesUnits for dataRelationships between isotopesFission yieldsIdentify common fission productsDefine X-raysRead introduction to chart of the nuclides and table of the isotopes
31 Study Questions What are the course outcomes? What are 3 isotones of 137CsWhat are the different types of radioactive decay?Provide 5 radioelementsWhy is Tc naturally radioactiveWhat are the stable isotopes of Sn?What is the beta decay energy of 90Sr?Which has more stable isotopes, Cr or Fe?