10Gamma Ray Production Gamma ray production (g): Gamma rays are high energy photons produced in association with other forms of decay.Gamma rays are massless and do not, by themselves, change the nucleus
11Deflection of Decay Particles Opposite charges_________ each other.attractLike charges_________ each other.repel
12Positron Production Positron emission: Positrons are the anti-particle of the electronPositron emission converts a proton to a neutron
13Electron CaptureElectron capture: (inner-orbital electron is captured by the nucleus)Electron capture converts a proton to a neutron
18Decay KineticsDecay occurs by first order kinetics (the rate of decay is proportional to the number of nuclides present)N0 = number of nuclidespresent initiallyN = number of nuclidesremaining at time tk = rate constantt = elapsed time
19Calculating Half-life t1/2 = Half-life (units dependent on rateconstant, k)
21Nuclear Fission and Fusion Fusion: Combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus.Fission: Splitting a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers.
22Energy and MassNuclear changes occur with small but measurable losses of mass. The lost mass is called the mass defect, and is converted to energy according to Einstein’s equation:DE = Dmc2Dm = mass defectDE = change in energyc = speed of lightBecause c2 is so large, even small amounts of mass are converted to enormous amount of energy.