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Nuclear Chemistry

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**Nuclear Symbols Mass number, A (p+ + no) Element symbol**

Atomic number, Z (number of p+)

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**Balancing Nuclear Equations**

Areactants = Aproducts = (1) = (0) Zreactants = Zproducts

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**Balancing Nuclear Equations #2**

222 226 = 4 + ____ 222 Rn 86 88 = 2 + ___ 86 Atomic number 86 is radon, Rn

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**Balancing Nuclear Equations #3**

95 = (1) + ____ 95 Y 39 39 = (0) + ____ Atomic number 39 is yttrium, Y

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**Alpha Decay Alpha production (a): an alpha particle is a**

helium nucleus Alpha decay is limited to heavy, radioactive nuclei

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Alpha Radiation Limited to VERY large nucleii.

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**Beta Decay Beta production (b): A beta particle is an**

electron ejected from the nucleus Beta emission converts a neutron to a proton

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Beta Radiation Converts a neutron into a proton.

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**Gamma Ray Production Gamma ray production (g):**

Gamma rays are high energy photons produced in association with other forms of decay. Gamma rays are massless and do not, by themselves, change the nucleus

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**Deflection of Decay Particles**

Opposite charges_________ each other. attract Like charges_________ each other. repel

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**Positron Production Positron emission:**

Positrons are the anti-particle of the electron Positron emission converts a proton to a neutron

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Electron Capture Electron capture: (inner-orbital electron is captured by the nucleus) Electron capture converts a proton to a neutron

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Types of Radiation

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Nuclear Stability Decay will occur in such a way as to return a nucleus to the band (line) of stability. The most stable nuclide is Iron-56 If Z > 83, the nuclide is radioactive

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**A radioactive nucleus reaches a stable state by a series of steps**

A Decay Series

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Half-life Concept

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Decay Kinetics Decay occurs by first order kinetics (the rate of decay is proportional to the number of nuclides present) N0 = number of nuclides present initially N = number of nuclides remaining at time t k = rate constant t = elapsed time

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**Calculating Half-life**

t1/2 = Half-life (units dependent on rate constant, k)

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Sample Half-Lives

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**Nuclear Fission and Fusion**

Fusion: Combining two light nuclei to form a heavier, more stable nucleus. Fission: Splitting a heavy nucleus into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers.

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Energy and Mass Nuclear changes occur with small but measurable losses of mass. The lost mass is called the mass defect, and is converted to energy according to Einstein’s equation: DE = Dmc2 Dm = mass defect DE = change in energy c = speed of light Because c2 is so large, even small amounts of mass are converted to enormous amount of energy.

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Fission

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Fission Processes A self-sustaining fission process is called a chain reaction.

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A Fission Reactor

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Fusion

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