2 D2-1: THE Cardiovascular System September 2-3, 2010
3 I. Your Cardiovascular System This system consists of a collection of organs that transport blood throughout the body.“Cardio”-heart“Vascular”-blood vessel
4 I. Your Cardiovascular System The blood vessels carry blood pumped by the heart.Your main blood vessels include:ArteriesCapillariesVeins
5 II. The HeartAs we discussed in our previous chapter, our heart is mostly made up of cardiac muscle tissue.In humans, our heart is about the size of our fist.Your heart also consists of fours separate chambers known as atria and ventricles.
6 II. The Heart Each atrium is a part of the upper chamber of the heart. Each ventricle is a part of the lower chamber of the heart.The right side of your heart pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.The left side of your heart pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of your body.
7 II. The HeartFlap-like structures called valves are located between the atria and the ventricles and well as in places where large arteries are attached to the heart.As blood flows through the heart these valves open and close to prevent blood from going backwards.
8 II. The Heart Why does your heart go “lub- dub,” lub-dub”? The sound of a beating heart is caused by the valves closing.
9 II. The HeartLet’s go through the flow of blood found in Figure 3 on p. 31.
10 III. Blood VesselsBlood vessels are hollow tube structures that blood travels through.Veins=De-oxygenized bloodArtery=Oxygenized bloodCapillaries=Small blood vessels
11 A. ArteriesA blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the body’s organs.Have thick walls, which contain a layer of smooth muscle.Blood pressure is caused by your heart pumping blood.Your pulse is the rhythmic change your blood pressure.
12 B. CapillariesA tiny blood vessel that allows an exchange between blood and cells in other tissue.Blood cells give up oxygen and nutrients as they pass through.Body cells give up wastes and carbon dioxide.Capillaries are so small that blood cells must pass through single file.
13 C. Veins A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart. Skeletal and Smooth muscles both push blood towards the heart.
14 IV. Two Types of Circulation Pulmonary Circulation:The Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart through the pulmonary arteries, capillaries, and veins.Systemic Circulation:The flow of blood from the heart to all parts of the body and back to the heart.
15 IV. Two Types of Circulation Here is the order of blood circulation beginning in the Right Ventricle.Right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary artery (Oxygen-poor blood).This blood passes through capillaries found in the lungs to take in oxygen.This oxygen-rich blood passes through the pulmonary vein and back into the heart.Pulmonary Circulation complete!
16 IV. Two Types of Circulation The Left Ventricle then pumps oxygen-rich blood into the aorta.The pressure pushes blood throughout body passing oxygen to all of the body’s cells.As it passes through the capillaries, wastes and carbon dioxide are carried away from the cells.Oxygen-poor blood passes back through the main veins and returns to the Right atria.Systemic Circulation complete.REPEAT!
17 V. Cardiovascular Problems Cardiovascular problems can be cause by several different things including:SmokingHigh levels of cholesterol in bloodStressPhysical InactivityPoor eating habitsHeredityExercise and a proper diet can reduce these problems.
18 V. Cardiovascular Problems AtherosclerosisResults when cholesterol builds up inside blood vessels.Platelets can often stick together, which can also lead to blockages.This narrows the blood vessels and makes them less elastic.This continued blockage can eventually lead to a heart attack.
19 V. Cardiovascular Problems High Blood PressureHypertensionAbnormally high blood pressure.This can lead to:Heart attackHeart failureKidney diseaseStrokeBlood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or ruptures.
20 V. Cardiovascular Problems Heart AttackOccurs when heart muscle cells die and part of the heart muscle is damaged.May result from a blockage in an artery or vein.If the heart does not receive oxygen, hearts cells quickly die and may stop.Heart FailureOccurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.Vital organs, such as the brain, lungs, and kidneys, may get damaged by lack of oxygen or a build-up of waste materials.