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Mobile and Wireless Computing CITS4419 Week 6: It’s not all about technology Rachel Cardell-Oliver 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Mobile and Wireless Computing CITS4419 Week 6: It’s not all about technology Rachel Cardell-Oliver 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mobile and Wireless Computing CITS4419 Week 6: It’s not all about technology Rachel Cardell-Oliver 2014

2 Users and Buyers: acceptance Users: interfaces Users: perceptions e.g. comfort Sellers : licensing

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4 Technology Adoption Outcomes stabilisation (success), path-dependent adoption (adoption of “efficiency” innovations), backlash (unsuccessful adoption) or system breakdown (continuation of business as usual) Source R. Brown Enabling-the-Transition_Presentation_ pdf

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6 Technology Adoption Process Adoption of new technologies has been mapped as a six-stage transition process, issue emergence, issue definition, shared understanding and issue agreement, knowledge dissemination, policy and practice diffusion, embedding new practice.

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8 Advocating and Contesting Narratives For each stage there is an advocating narrative and a contesting narrative. Contesting narratives for each adoption stage include there is no problem, the science is biased won't work and not necessary, too expensive, not feasible, too difficult to manage, too narrow and limited to a particular agenda. The corresponding advocating narratives are: we have a problem, the cause of the problem is X, the solution (backed by scientific evidence) is Y, we have responsibility for solving this problem, there are multiple benefits to solving this problem, prosperity and liveability are enhanced by embedding the new practice.

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10 Smart Home examples Advocating Narrative Problem : how to support disabled people living at home Cause: lack of support for some basic tasks of living eg controlling doors or window We are the ones who can/should address this need System can be extensible and adaptable for different users Roll out to homes and tests Contesting Narrative There is no problem The technology is untested, unsafe It would be too expensive People won’t use it, its not feasible Too specialised, can’t be used in enough situations

11 Users and Buyers: acceptance Users: interfaces Users: perceptions e.g. comfort Sellers : licensing

12 Accessibility Smart homes will be used by people from many backgrounds and will be accessed with many different user interfaces. Designing user interfaces for disabled people has a number of special conditions.

13 Type of Disability Visual Auditory Physical Speech Cognitive Language Learning Neurological

14 Ms Kaseem Teenager with deaf-blindness At home she uses: – Screen magnification SW to enlarge text to a suitable font size – Screen reader SW to display screen text on a refreshable braille device – Large computer screen with high res and high luminosity – Portable refreshable braille device Mobile phone: – Buttons or braille characters on the screen – Vibration function to signal touching the buttons on the touch screen – GPS for orientation, searching and recording Problem: Public transport (bus) timetables get distorted when enlarged Source:

15 Mr Yunus Retiree (85) with low vision, hand tremor, mild short-term memory loss At home he uses: – Specialised mouse to compensate hand trembling – Enlarges web site text using web browser settings – Zoom whole web page vs enlarge text only – Bookmarks with images to help remember favourite web sites Web activities: – Maintains his own blog and tracks several blogs on art history – Read news websites – Uses the web to stay in touch with family and friends – Photo sharing web site with his grandchildren Problem: CAPTCHAs Source:

16 Designing for Disabled Users Guide for designing (web sites) for people with disability. It contains information on different types of disability as well as ways of making web pages accessible. Features to be considered include contrast, readability, mouse-free use. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are international guides for accessible web page design. The recommendations are available from Author tools for assessing accessibility, such as W3C CSS validator and HTML validation service, are listed on

17 Accessibility Guidelines Most web servers provide user tools and plugins that can be used by people with disability e.g. mouse free, readability. For example, a catalogue of extensions for disabled people for the Chrome web browser is available from https://chrome.google.com/webstore/category/ext/22- accessibility?hl=en-US Some quick guides for accessible web design include quick-guide.php quick-guide.php

18 WCAG 2 at a Glance

19 Mobile Device Users Another accessibility problem is designing interfaces that are suitable for use on mobile devices such as tablets and phones as well as traditional computer screens. Design guidelines for web sites for mobile devices : web web mobile-ui-frameworks/ mobile-ui-frameworks/

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21 Users and Buyers: acceptance Users: interfaces Users: perceptions e.g. comfort Sellers : licensing

22 Thermal Comfort Function of personal and environmental features. Personal features: metabolic rate and clothing insulation Metabolic rate of 0.7 met is sleeping, 1.0 seated, 1.2 to 1.4 light activity and 2.0 moving activity. Environmental features: air temperature, mean radiant temperature (from surrounding surfaces), air speed and relative humidity. ASHRAE standard

23 CBE Thermal Comfort Tool

24 Users and Buyers: acceptance Users: interfaces Users: perceptions e.g. comfort Sellers : licensing

25 Software Licensing Much of the software in for smart homes is open source However, there are also many companies building closed-source products for what is expected to be a huge market In this context, it is particularly important to consider intellectual property (IP) for software development. There are many free SW licenses. GPL is popular.

26 Gnu Public License (GPL) Anyone can use the SW – Users are free to cooperate and share bug fixes and improvements Future users can not make it private – Requires that all released improved versions be free SW

27 Asserting the GPL recommends: The following statement should go near the beginning of every source file, close to the copyright notices.

28 GPL License Statement This file is part of Foobar Foobar is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. Foobar is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with Foobar. If not, seehttp://www.gnu.org/licenses/http://www.gnu.org/licenses/

29 Summary Successful SW development depends on more than the SW technologies used Adoption of new technology is a process of working out advocating and competing narratives Usability (and knowing your intended users) is an important part of SW design Get to know the GPL software license (or others)


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