4We’re particularly interested in e-accessibility ... Accessibility is ...‘the usability of a product, service, environment, or facility by people with the widest range of capabilities’ (ISO)We’re particularly interested in e-accessibility ...
5W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative The impact of disability is radically changed on the Web because the Web removes barriers to communication and interaction that many people face in the physical world. Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can access, use and interact with the Web.
6Four Principles of Web Accessibility PerceivableOperableUnderstandableRobustPerceivable - Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceiveOperable - User interface components and navigation must be operableUnderstandable - Information and the operation of user interface must be understandableRobust - Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies
9Accessibility matters for several reasons: Social reasons for accessible designLegal obligations and standardsUsability benefits that accessibility bringsDiscoverability benefits from accessibility
10UN Convention on Rights of People with Disabilities Article 9 - Accessibility… the identification and elimination of obstacles and barriers to accessibility, shall apply to … InformationTo promote access for persons with disabilities to new information and communications technologies and systems, including the InternetIn Australia, the DDA provides protection against discrimination based on disabilityBut as developed in 1992, no reference to the internet, web, e-books, etc
11Australian policy context An inclusive Australian Society thatenables people with a disability to fulfiltheir potential as equal citizens.National Disability Strategy (NDS) has six areas of policy actions – some of the specific directions are directly dealing with online information and service delivery ...Communication systems that are accessible, reliable, and responsive to the needs of people with disabilityRemove societal barriers preventing people with disability from participation as equal citizensIncrease access to employment opportunities as a key to improving economic security and personal wellbeing for people with disability
12AGIMO’s RoleDevelop and oversee a National Transition Strategy for the implementation of WCAG 2.0Establish Communities of Expertise to collaborate and educate web managersDevelop supporting projects to resolve common issues = Mitigation ProjectsAim: unified, consistent and cost effective implementation of updated web standardNTS – national adoption of Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0
14Accessibility beneficiaries? There is an increasing need for Universal DesignWho is the newbie? Who is the Geek? Who has a disability?
15How are people affected? Many disabilities impact access to the web:Visual (e.g. colour blindness, low vision, blindness)Auditory (e.g. hearing loss, deafness)Physical (e.g. limited motor skills)Cognitive and neurological (e.g. difficulty reading, concentrating, understanding, remembering, concentrating)Users may have multiple disabilities (e.g. a deaf-blind user, older people)Plus situational requirements …1 in 5 Australians experience long term impairment (3.95m people)15% of the under 65 population (2.6m)50% of the over 65 population (1.4m)
16Not just disability …People using smart phones and other mobile devicesPeople with poor communications infrastructurePeople with old equipmentOlder people and casual usersPeople working in restricted access environmentsPeople with temporary impairmentsPeople coping with environmental distractionsMobile webresizing and reflowing; colour and images; navigation and layout; multimedia and scriptingPoor communications infrastructureslow downloads – text quicker than imagesOld equipmentslow downloads; old browsersOlder peopleimpairments – can be multipleRestricted access environmentsscripting disabled; multimedia disabledTemporary impairmentsmultiple issues, but will get betterEnvironmental distractionsnoisy; brightness; distractions
18Study into Accessibility of PDF for People with a Disability Findings:The design of the PDF file by the author to incorporate accessibility featuresThe technical ability of the assistive technology (AT) to interact with the PDF fileThe skill of the users and their familiarity with the interaction between their AT and PDF filesYou can’t do much about the Assistive Technology interaction or the skill of the user, but can address poor document design!!
19Key PDF accessibility issues Published as an imageHeadings missingTable of Contents not navigableContrast poorAuthor and Publisher responsibility!
22Top e-Doc Accessibility Elements Semantic structureImage descriptionsColour not relied onContrastUnderstandable contentAlternatives providedAim: e-documents that are universally accessibleSemanticsHeadingsListsTablesLinksNavigationImagesNo images of text – all text is e-textInclude alternative textAdd in-line descriptions for informative imagesColourDo not use colour alone to impart informationContrastEnsure sufficient contrastMinimum 4.5:1UnderstandableMeaningful sequence – reading orderFocus orderAcronyms & AbbreviationsLanguage of page & sectionsLeft justification & other presentation practicesAlternatives
23Alternative Formats – NDS Report Alternative formats – provide CHOICEAHRC WWW DDA advisory notes –“organisations that publish documents only in PDF risk complaint under the DDA unless they make the content available in at least one additional format and in a manner that incorporates principles of accessible document design. Additional formats should be published simultaneously with the PDF version, and at least one such format should be downloadable as a single document if the PDF version is available as a single download.”Australian Government takes the same position.
24Starting points Word InDesign Hard Copy PDF Use styles and other structural elementsInDesignTagging for semantic structureHard CopyOCR the scanned documents to give digitised textPDFUndertake remediation
25Guidance Web Guide on PDF Accessibility Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0W3C draft PDF techniques for WCAG 2.0Canadian/UN Accessible Digital Office Document ProjectAdobe guidance for InDesign
26Publishing processesInclude accessibility in your internal publishing processesInclude accessibility in your RFTsAccessible PDFAlternative accessible format(s)
28DAISY & EPUB Convergence between DAISY and EPUB based on XML Both mainstream readers and those who require accessible reading materials will benefitAllows for indexed text + indexed audio
29Other developments Book Industry Strategy Group Review of digital technologies 2010DBCDE Convergence ReviewTo guide media and communications policy frameworkHardware and softwareKindle / iPad / Cloud / etcSocial media – accessible interfacesBISGFundamental changes to the way books are distributedVA submitted that minimum accessibility standards need to be adoptedConvergence ReviewThe Convergence Review is an independent review established by the Australian Government to examine the policy and regulatory frameworks that apply to the converged media and communications landscape in Australia.Hardware & softwareBuilt in reading aloud and some navigation – iPad/iPhone/KindleCloud - built in highlighting with read-aloudGPII - Global Public Inclusive InfrastructureSocial media interfacesEasy Chirp for Twitter -YourTube for YouTube -
30Accessibility is about people World made for disabilities
32Contacts Contact the AGIMO Accessibility Team: Read the Web Guide: Read the Web Guide:Read the AGIMO Blog:
33Additional ResourcesAHRC World Wide Web Access: Disability Discrimination Act Advisory NotesWeb Accessibility National Transition StrategyAustralian Govt study into the Accessibility of PDF for people with a disability
34References WCAG 2.0 seal World Made for Disability Video – EDF World Made for Disability Video – EDF