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URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable.

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Presentation on theme: "URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable."— Presentation transcript:

1 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA CYPRUS Case Study Presentation – Dhiarizos river Presented by: Charalambos Panayiotou Environmental Scientist, MSc Manager Atlantis Consulting ltd Case study area

2 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA – INTRODUCTION – TOPOLOGICAL REPRSENTATION OF THE DIARIZOS WATERSHED

3 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA GENERAL OVERVIEW The Diarizos river valley covers about 260 km2 in SW Cyprus and extends along approx. 33 km from headquarters to sea Minimum elevation is 0 m and maximum elevation is 1800 m. Bunding box [lat/long of upper left (lat: 458,978.47, long: 3,872,690.42) and lower right (lat: 488,606.67, long: 3,838,161.32) corner minimally The Dhiarizos River Basin consists of seven sub catchments

4 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Water Demand - Diarizos Valley _ Irrigation - Diarizos Valley _ Drinking water - Limassol Municipality _ Drinking Water - Paphos Municipality _ Irrigation - Paphos Municipality _ Drinking Water - Instream Runoff Cultivated crops in watershed: DECARS (1000 m2) Citrus: 880 Deciduous : 1460 Olives: 250 Vines: 130 Fodder: 80 Potatoes: 30 Vegetables: 30 TOTAL Communities - 18 communities downstream of Arminou Dam and 10 communities upstream Total Population: 3,550 inhabitats, mostly farmers

5 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA LANDUSE ARMINOY DAM DIVERSION PIPE TO KOURRIS WELLS LOCAL IRRIGATION AND POTABLE WATER NETWORKS DRIP IRRIGATION WELLS AND DIVERSION CHANNELS TO PAPHOS WATER MANAGEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE

6 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA GEOLOGY IGNEOUS ROCKS 43% (upstream of Arminou Dam ) MAMONIA (MELANGE) 13% CHALKS 19% CHALKS AND MARLS 24% ALLUVIUM 1% Fault Diarizos aquifer Fault

7 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA MODEL TOPOLOGY 4 upper valley subcatchments Arminou dam Diversion to Kourris Drinking and Irrigation wells for local use Local irrigation demand nodes Local Drinking water demand nodes Diversions to Paphos and wells feeding the diversions Hypothetical desalination plan for scenario analysis River Basin Topology

8 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA River Basin Topology The 4 Upper Catchment Start Nodes (SUB1-4) Diversion to Kouris Dam SUB-1 SUB-3 SUB-4 SUB-2 ARMINOU DAM SUB-7 KOURIS Subcatchment 6 Wells for Irrigation Subcatchment 6 Wells for Drinking Water SUB-5 SUB-5 DRINK SUB-5 IRRIG SUB-6 DRINK SUB-6 IRRIG SUB-6 SUB-7 DRINK SUB-7 IRRIG FAULT 1 FAULT 2 Diversion to villages AVDIMOU-ALEKTORA-PARAMALI PISSOURI Diversion to Pissouri village WETLAND WELL PAFOS IRRIG WELL This node arrangement represents the wells (Start Node) used for the water demands of the Pafos Irrigation Works

9 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Case study Analysis

10 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA The main INFLOW to the basin for the year 2005 comes from the subcatchments runoff: Subcatchment 1 (Start Node) = 3 Mm3/ year Subcatchment 2 (Start Node) = 3.51 Mm3/ year Subcatchment 3 (Start Node) = 3.42 Mm3/ year Subcatchment 4 (Start Node) = 3.39 Mm3/year Subcatchment 5 (Start Node) = 7.10 Mm3/year Subcatchment 6 (Start Node) = 5.91 Mm3/year Subcatchment 7 (Start Node) = 3.77 Mm3/year Total Inflow from Subcatchments = Mm3/year WATER IN

11 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA WATER OUT The main basin’s OUTFLOW for the year 2005 goes to irrigation and drinking water: Irrigation = 2.08 Mm3/year Drinking Water = 1.01 Mm3/year Kouris Dam (Irrigation & Drinking) = 4.39 Mm3/ year Pafos Irrigation Works = 2.31 Mm3/ year Avdimou-Alektora-Paramali villages (Irrigation & Drinking) = 0.62 Mm3/ year Pissouri Municipality(Irrigation & Drinking) = 0.30 Mm3/ year Wetland Well = 0.01 Mm3/ year Total Basin Outflow = Mm3/ year

12 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Scenario WRM Results

13 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Scenario 2 Results

14 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Water management scenario 1 In this scenario, a storage dam is constructed at Souskiou village of the Lower Dhiarizos basin. The dam’s capacity is 2.5 million cubic meters and is intended to store surplus lower catchment runoff. After the construction of Souskiou dam, the surplus lower catchment runoff is diverted to Asprokremmos dam. The scenario shows that a recharge dam with a capacity of 2.5 million cubic meters will reduce the spills to the sea to 7.2 Mm3. The spills to the sea prior the dam construction are 18.8 Mm3.

15 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Optimization scenario 2 According to this scenario, the Dhiarizos farmers change to more water efficient crops. If for example in the Dhiarizos watershed there were: 800 decars olives x 430 m3/decare = 344,000 m3 water 1460 decars almond trees x 355 m3/decare = 518,300 m3 water 600 decars table grapes x 306 m3/hectare = 183,600 m3 water 1,045,900 m3 of water would have been used for the above crops irrigation. In the year 2005, 1,903,900 m3 of water was used for irrigation in the watershed. The crop change alone, would result in 858,000 m3 water or 45% water savings.

16 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Water management Scenario 3 According to Scenario 3, all communities in the watershed experience great water losses in the irrigation piping system and decide to change the irrigation pipelines in order to decrease losses from the grid. The capital investment for replacing the irrigation piping system of the basin is 3,600,000 €. The result is 95% reduction in conveyance losses.

17 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Water management Scenario 4 According to this scenario, there is a drought in the island and all the desalination plants are prompted to produce the drinking water for the population of the island. The Aphrodite Hills desalination plant will provide for the Dhiarizos basin drinking water requirements. In the basin there are 3550 inhabitants with an average daily water consumption of 180 l/ capita. As a result, the drinking water requirements are 639 m3/ day. Assuming 30% conveyance losses, a total of 830 m3/ day of water have to be transferred from the Aphrodite Hills desalination plant to the Dhiarizos basin villages.

18 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Water management Scenario 5 According to this scenario, there is water shortage in the island and the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and the Environment announces the reduction in the supply of irrigation water by 70%. As a result the farmers remove all deciduous trees from lowland and change their crops to more water efficient crops i.e. almond trees, olive trees, tables grapes etc.

19 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Costs & Benefits The shortfall cost for Irrigation or the cost for buying 1m3 of water for irrigation during shortage of water was set at €/ m3 which is the price for desalinated water in Cyprus and The use benefit or the benefit gained for using 1m3 of water was assigned at 0.20 €/ m3 which is the price for irrigation water in Cyprus. The shortfall cost for Drinking Water is the same as for irrigation water and was again assigned at €/ m3 (price of desalinated water) and The use benefit or the benefit gained for using 1m3 of water was assigned at 0.57 €/ m3 which is the price for drinking water in the Dhiarizos river basin.

20 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES

21 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA CONSTRAINTS

22 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA INSTRUMENTS

23 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA INSTRUMENTS

24 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA RESULTS

25 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Problems Cost Allocations: Initial costs for a large portion of the infrastructure is not easily available (private investments for wells, drip irrigation, distribution network) Estimating costs for new distribution networks has a substancial degree of uncertainty At the luck of a more accurate method, the marginal maximum cost of water (i.e. the price of desalination) was assumed while the benefits of water use assume present cost. This can skew decisions in favor of maintaining the present situation. Scenario Development: Water needs are the result of development policies, which to a large extent are unpredictable for the area. Also pressures for distribution of water outside the valley play a profound role. Desalination plants are unlikely to serve the area but can reduce demand for water diversion. Opportunities for Improvement!!!

26 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Stakeholder Participation Stake holder involvement has included the following activities: - Initial interviews with stakeholders - Periodic contact with the WDD to obtain data and responses regarding possible scenarios - Contacts with the institute of agricultural research and the Organisation for Agricultural payments to establish data regarding various costs and benefits related to agricultural activities - Periodic contact with local authorities to identify future policy changes. - The has been no interest from stakeholders to participate in a local workshop.

27 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA Future dissemination - Presentation of the project and its results to officers of the WDD - Presentation of the results to the DTP&H - Pubishing a paper on the results of the case study - Written presentation on the model and its results to the Diarizos Valley management Committee once established.

28 URBAN AND NATURAL ENVIRONMENT CONSULTANTS European Commission 6 th Framework Programme for research and Technological Development Optimisation For Sustainable Water Management : OPTIMA thank you.


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