Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF GROUND WATER RESOURCES IN CYPRUS Dr Maria Zachariou-dodou Institute Environment Sustainable Development Cyprus

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF GROUND WATER RESOURCES IN CYPRUS Dr Maria Zachariou-dodou Institute Environment Sustainable Development Cyprus"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF GROUND WATER RESOURCES IN CYPRUS Dr Maria Zachariou-dodou Institute Environment Sustainable Development Cyprus Dr Maria Zachariou-Dodou Ministry of Agriculture Natural Resources and Environment

2 2 Outline of Presentation  Status of Water Resources of Cyprus  Integrated Management Policy of the Water Resources /Ground Water  Impacts of the policy  Recommendations and  Conclusions

3 3 Cyprus at a Glance Location and Physical Description Area ………………………… 9250 Km 2 Population ………………… Average annual rainfall … mm form 2000 reduce 468mm Cyprus at a Glance Location and Physical Description Area ………………………… 9250 Km 2 Population ………………… Average annual rainfall … mm form 2000 reduce 468mm Greater urban areas: ~ 75% Rural areas: 25%

4 Mean annual precipitation in Cyprus Extreme wet (>130% normal) Below normal (81-90% normal) 4

5 Water sources used for the satisfaction of water demand in Cyprus (average for the period ) 5

6 6 Available Water Resources: ) FRESH WATER RESOURCES Reservoirs (government) (average ) MCM/year Boreholes (government) 30 MCM/year Boreholes Non Government ) 30 Boreholes ** (illegal 40MCM) estimate 40 MCM/year UNCONVENTIONAL WATER RESOURCES Desalination (capacity 90MCM) government) 52 MCM/year Reclaim water (government) 30 MCM/y TOTAL ANNUAL DEMANDS Government 140 MCM (70MCM irrigation) Non Government 110MCM(80 MCM irrigation) MAIN WATER SUPLIER - GOVERNMENT SCHEMES Supply-variable ** private 250 MCM/year

7 7

8 Water sources used for the satisfaction of water demand in Cyprus (average for the period ) 8

9 9

10 Allocation of total water consumption per sector for 2011 (258 Mm 3 ) 10

11 11 MANAGEMENT POLICY OF THE WATER RESOURCES  The policy is based on the fact that Cyprus is phasing a water stress (less than 500 m/p/y) as a result of the limited water resources Main Objectives of the Policy : Increase the Supply of Water Resources to satisfy increasing water demands To reduce and regulate demands by apply effective and efficient utilization Quantitative objectives

12 12 MANAGEMENT POLICY OF THE WATER RESOURCES NEW Objectives included qualitative and quantitative criteria (2004 and onwards):  Protection of all water resources  Reduction of pollution (agriculture, industry, livestock, wastewaters )  Implementation of measures to avoid further deterioration, and Achieve “good status of all waters by 2015 (chemical)  Implementation of measures for sustainable water management (abstractions)  Revision of legal and institutional framework to allow implementation of the objectives

13 13 MEASURES TO APPLY THE POLICY MEASURES TO APPLY THE POLICY INDIRECT DIRECT

14 14 Construction of dams Increase Supplies indirect measure

15 15 Measures to increase the Supply of Water Resources Construction of dams – dam capacity increased from 6 MCM in 1960 to of 332 Mm 3 today (No dams 108)  Installation of conveyance system to transport water to poorer water resources areas  Introduce the use of non-conventional water resources  Ground water exploration – drilling of boreholes for domestic and irrigation uses  Construction of Recharge works to enriched aquifers)

16 16 Conveyance System to transfer water to poorer areas (indirect alleviate pressure on ground waters )(efficient conveyance (leakage detection leakage detection, minimize losses, tele- monitoring, telecontrol )

17 17 Construction of Water Treatment Plants WS (indirect replace ground water use ) Water conservation measures Metering of water /saving devices Limited duration of flow to the users Establish subsidies (BH, grey water use). Increase water charges

18 18 I Demand Management –Agriculture Improved Irrigation Systems (drop irrigation,Quotas (Restriction of the amount of irrigation water) (charge over use)

19 19 Construction of Recharge Work to enrich aquifers ( key priority. from surface water /treated wastewaters)

20 MEASURES TO APPLY THE POLICY  Ground water exploration – drilling of boreholes for domestic and irrigation uses)  Introduce the use of non-conventional water resources Undertake campaigns for water conservation 20

21 IMPACT OF THE POLICY  The construction of a large number of dams,108, on all major rivers,, has led to reduced natural recharge of downstream aquifers.  ALSO  To Secure a safe yield from the storage reservoirs, storage reservoirs were over sized to provide multi-year storage (1-2 years).  As a result of this and of he consecutive years of extreme droughts dams had hardly been full, (no overflow) depriving the recharging of down stream aquifers 21

22 IMPACT OF THE POLICY  Replenish of aquifers have not been successful, since is long term process (at least 12 years) AND PROVITED that no water is being extracted from the aquifer.  Rehabilitation of a groundwater bodies, heavily affected by sea intrusion is even more difficult,since is slower process and sometimes maybe irreversible  The Measures to Reduce and Regulate Demands, to alleviation of pressure on ground water resources, did not have positive results, due to the increasing demand (most years demand exceed the supply )  22

23 IMPACT OF THE POLICY  Water cuts, quotas for water use and high water pricing, with diminishing precipitation,and consecutive years of droughts, lead to illegally abstract ions and in further deterioration of groundwater status  No Law for abstractions up to 2010 (license for drilling- Lead to the uncontrolled exploitation of aquifers. /Seawater intrusion to coastal aquifers (salinization)  New Law Integrated water Management 79 (1) 2010 introduce permitting off Abstractions (limits quantities, introduce metering 23

24 IMPACT OF THE POLICY Enforcement of all relevant European Legislation and directives have positive impacts on the  Control of the deterioration of quality GW bodies  Limiting and controlling of all polluting activities ( Agriculture / livestock/ wastewaters disposal/solid wastes/to a less extend industry,) protecting the pollution of GW resources 24

25 PRESENT STATUS OF GROUND WATER BODIES only 2 from the 19 GB are not over-pumped (non sustainable abstraction) From the monitoring, 10 GB had a downward trend and only 3 had an upward trend 11 from 19 GB are considered to be in bad condition. Over exploitation of aquifers is the main cause for the bad status of the GW in Cyprus Quality of groundwater is also affected by natural causes like geological formations which release sulphate and chloride salts of sodium and boron 25

26 26 What ELSE to be done??? RECOMMENDATIONS – What ELSE to be done??? RECOMMENDATIONS – Several additional Measures are required to be implemented in order to obtain good status of ground waters by 2015????

27 27 RECOMMENDATIONS –  Enforce Monitoring and control of all abstractions, and implement Sustainable water balance (during droughts)  Seal All illegal drillings  Price also ground water abstractions  Allocate Ground water bodies for current and future uses.(provide for reserves)

28 RECOMMENDATIONS  Extend Replenishment of over pumped aquifers  Regulate river flows and discharges from the dams, to support the aquifer recharge  Furthermore it is also essential to apply demand management to agriculture since this is the largest consumer of the ground water resources, and also incorporate recycle water in the water management cycle. 28

29 29 Conclusions Conclusions  Ground water resources in Cyprus is under stress, as a result of the limited water resources and of the climatic changes  Diminishing precipitation and consecutive years of droughts lead to the over-exploitation of aquifers, and the deterioration of their quality  The policy to increase the supplies in order to satisfy the increasing demand,without the legal instruments to enforced sustainable use of ground water resources have failed

30 Conclusions The sustainable use of the ground resources remained to be seen, since the new law for permitting abstractions, is in force since 2010 Enforcement of the NEW water Management law is a major challenge for Cyprus as a result of the large number of illegal drillings (estimated ),which should be sealed or controlled. 30

31 31 THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

32 32

33 33


Download ppt "1 INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF GROUND WATER RESOURCES IN CYPRUS Dr Maria Zachariou-dodou Institute Environment Sustainable Development Cyprus"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google