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The Need for Reformation in Modern Science Charles W. Lucas, Jr Common Sense Science 29045 Livingston Drive Mechanicsville, MD 20659-3271 bill.lucas001@gmail.com

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Modern Science is in Trouble

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Euclid’s Axiomatic Method for Science Logical procedure by which theories are deduced using logic from basic propositions (axioms) Propositions are constructed from a few primitive terms Terms may be defined arbitrarily or empirically Science consists of a collection of arbitrary and empirical propositions and all the logically derived theories from those axioms

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Problems with Axiomatic Method Identification of primitive terms Determination of fundamental axioms

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Newton’s Assumption FORCE LAWS THE AXIOMS OF SCIENCE

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Newton’s Empirical Method of Axiom Discovery Systematic observation of forces Experiments with forces Measurement of forces Mathematical formulation of force laws Determine additional phenomena implied by force law Experimental testing of force laws and additional phenomena Modification of force laws as required by experiment Identification of minimum set of force laws

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Mathematics The Primary Tool of Science Enables an analysis of forces Helps identify the primitives Helps identify the causes of forces Adds credibility to scientific theories

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Newton’s Conditions for Physical Force The force law must hold for some forces that are indisputably real If the forces acts on a macroscopic body, then it must be composed of forces acting on the microphysical parts of that body. All forces must have a known cause All forces must be local contact forces

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Newton’s Rules of Natural Philosophy No more causes of phenomena are allowed than are true and sufficient to explain them The same natural effects should always be assigned the same causes The qualities of bodies within reach of our experiments are assumed to be universal qualities of all bodies Propositions inferred by induction from experiment are to be considered as accurate or true until disproven or modified by other phenomena

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Limitations of Newton’s Empirical Forces

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Existentialism Reaction to the Empirical Method World is not “real” “Observer” is real and gives meaning Science is not logical Science is based on idealizations Science does not agree with Common Sense

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Empirical Equations of Electrodynamics for v=constant Ampere’s Law Faraday’s Law Gauss Electrostatic Law Gauss Magnetostatic Law Lenz’s Law Lorentz’s Law

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Maxwell’s Electrodynamics Ampere’s Law with point particle idealization Faraday’s Law Gauss Electrostatic Law Gauss Magnetostatic Law Linear Superposition Principle idealization Invention of Displacement Current in capacitors

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Maxwell’s Electrodynamics Supplemented By Special Relativity Theory for v/c Corrections Quantum Mechanics for Energy Quantization

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Poincare’s Logical Criterion for Scientific Theories No two fundamental theories may use the same fundamental constant such as c Electrodynamics uses c in λf=c Special Relativity uses c in E=mc 2 & x’=(x-vt)/(1-v 2 /c 2 ) 1/2 Quantum Mechanics uses c in E=hv=h(2π/λ)c General Relativity uses c in R ab –½ Rg ab =8πG/c 4 T ab Poincare suggests that electrodynamics derived properly should explain relativity, gravity, and quantum mechanics

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Quantum Mechanics and Relativity Theory Based on Key Experiments Michelson-Morley Experiment of 1886 Einstein Photoelectric Experiment of 1905 Planck Blackbody Radiation Experiments Eddington Gravitational Bending of Starlight 1919

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Michelson-Morley Experiment 1886

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Discovery of Extinction Effect C W Oseen

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Photoelectric Effect Heinrich Hertz Einstein

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Modern Photoelectric Effect

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Blackbody Radiation Balfour Stewart

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Modern Interpretation of Blackbody Radiation

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Gravitational Bending of Starlight

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Modern NASA Experiments on Gravitational Bending of Starlight

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Electrodynamic and Gravity Force Laws Have Similar Form Poincare says that force laws of the same mathematical form are due to the same fundamental force

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Structuralism Reaction to Existentialism Every system has a structure There are laws responsible for the structure of systems There are unique elements that make up system structures Meaning is derived from the structure of systems which act as signs

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Sciences Which Rejected Structuralism Physics Chemistry Biology Geology Astronomy

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Postmodernism Attempt to Maintain Existentialism Each field of study has its own truth or reality defined by experts Each field of study is supervised by a group of experts to police the borders of that field with criteria for inclusion or exclusion Falsifiability is the criterion in each field for distinguishing the truly scientific from the pseudoscientific

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Postmodern Need for Reformation Postmodernism is a backward direction for science Major scientific theories introduced under existentialism have major problems New version of electrodynamics based on structuralism appears to be forward progress

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New Version of the Electrodynamic Force Uses complete set of empirical laws No point particle idealization No supplemental theory of relativity No supplemental theory of quantum mechanics No fictitious displacement current Conserves energy and momentum always Fields can be non-linear

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New Electrodynamic Theory of Elementary Particles Consists of closed charge loops structures No 25 adjustable constants as in Standard Model Based on combinatorial geometry Predicts mass, internal structure, excited states, decay modes and reactions of all observed elementary particles Fundamental forces are not “action-at-a- distance” forces due to boson exchange

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Electrodynamic Force of Gravity – Average Force Between Vibrating Neutral Electric Dipoles

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Revised Law of Gravity Linear MotionCorkscrew Spiral Motion

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Evidence for New Theory of Gravity 1. Vibrating dipoles radiate continuously the 2.7 0 K cosmic background radiation 2. Cosmic background radiation is emitted and absorbed with some escaping causing force of gravity to decline Earth expands due to declining force of gravity Earth angular rate of rotation slows Earth’s magnetic field decays Moon recedes from earth Hubble’s Red shift Law due to gravitational red shift 3. Non-radial term causes corkscrew spiraling motion of planets about the sun causing Tilt of orbits with respect to equatorial plane of sun Quantization of Planetary Orbits - Bode’s Law for Solar System Quantization of Red shifts - Bode’s Law for Universe

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Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Predicted

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Quantization of Redshifts on Universal Scale

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STRETCH MARKS OF EARTH’S EXPANSION

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Electrodynamic Force of Inertia Average Force Between Unit Charge and Vibrating Neutral Electric Dipole

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Full Inertial Force Law ↑ Newton’s 2 nd Law ↑ New Inertial Force Corkscrew Motion

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Evidence for New Theory of Inertia Gyroscope experiments of Eric Laithwaite

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Symmetry of New Electrodynamic Force Law Galilean Transformation Force Scalar Potential Radiation F I = m i a

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Evidence for Chiral Symmetry Structure of elementary particles Structure of atoms Structure of nuclei Structure of molecules Structure of crystals Structure of plant leaves and flowers Structure of solar system orbits Structure of galaxies Structure of the universe as a whole

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The Trouble with Physics Point particle and other idealizations Unphysical action-at-a-distance forces Neglected physical structures in elementary particles, atoms, nuclei, molecules Nonstructural notions of origin of quantum effects

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Direction for Reformation 1.Science needs to be developed based on the physical internal structure of elementary particles, atoms, nuclei, and molecules. 2.Science needs to have all idealizations removed. 3.Science needs to be based on a more perfect union of the axiomatic and empirical scientific methods.

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