Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byJamie Ming Modified over 2 years ago

1
Lecture Three

2
Michelson-Morley Experiment

3
Principle of Relativity Laws of mechanics are the same in all inertial frames of reference. namely Laws of mechanics are invariant under a certain transformation.

4
same means: invariant under a certain transformation

5
Newtonian Relativity Laws of mechanics are the same in all inertial frames of reference. namely Laws of mechanics are invariant under the Galilean transformation.

6
Eisteinian Relativity Laws of mechanics are the same in all inertial frames of reference. namely Laws of mechanics are invariant under the Lorentz transformation.

7
Consequences of Relativity No mechanical experiments carried out entirely in one inertial frame can tell the observer what the motion of that frame is with respect to any other inertial frame. There is no way at all of determining the absolute velocity of an inertial frame. No inertial frame is preferred over any other. whether Newtonian or Einsteinian

8
Example 3 Invariance of Momentum Conservation In S: P = m 1 u 1 + m 2 u 2 = m 1 U 1 + m 2 U 2 In S': P ' = m 1 u 1 ' + m 2 u 2 ' = m 1 U 1 ' + m 2 U 2 '

9
Example 4 Invariance of Equation of Motion

10
Electromagnetism and Newtonian Relativity

11
Maxwell’s Equations are not invariant under Galilean transformation.

12
Maxwell’s Electrodynamical Laws are not the same in all inertial frames of reference.

13
“Ether” frame the inertial frame of reference in which the measured speed of light is exactly c = ( 0 0 ) -½ = 299792458 m/sec

14
In a frame of reference moving at a constant speed v with respect to the “ether” frame, the measured speed of light would range from c － v to c ＋ v.

15
Newtonian relativity holds for Newtonian mechanics but not for Maxwell’s laws of electromagnetism.

16
Three possibilities or alternatives

17
Arguments following Panofsky and Phillips Insisting the existence of Relativity Principle Fact: Incompatibility of Maxwell electrodynamics and Newtonian relativity Two choices of Relativity: Newtonian or a new one Then there are only three alternatives:

18
Diagrammatic N: Newtonian mechanics N' : new mechanics M: Maxwell electrodynamics M' : new electrodynamics G: relativity under Galilean transformation G' : new relativity principle : compatible : incompatible, preferred frame

19
G N M G N M ' G ' N ' M preferred ether frame No other alternatives

20
First alternative: without any modification and sacrifice the relativity of electrodynamics. Second alternative: maintain Newtonian mechanics and insist Newtonian relativity of electrodynamics but give up Maxwell theory. Third alternative: maintain Maxwell electrodynamics and relativity but give up Newtonian mechanics and relativity.

21
Alternative 1 Both Newtonian mechanics and Maxwell’s electrodynamics are correct.

22
Alternative 1 Then since Newtonian relativity holds for Newtonian mechanics but not for Maxwell’s electromagnetism,

23
Alternative 1 there must be a preferred absolute “ether” frame for electrodynamics.

24
Alternative 2 Newtonian relativity holds for both mechanics and electrodynamics.

25
Alternative 2 But then electromagnetism is not correct in the Maxwell formulation.

26
Alternative 3 Relativity Principle holds for both mechanics and Maxwell’s electrodynamics.

27
Alternative 3 But then the Relativity Principle is not Newtonian, the transformation is not Galilean,

28
Alternative 3 and the mechanics in the Newtonian form needs modification.

29
Alternatives 1 and 2 was ruled out by experiments of Michelson and Morley.

30
Alternative 3 was realized by Einstein’s Special Relativity. (Next lecture)

31
Michelson-Morley Experiment

32
Premises Both Newtonian mechanics and Maxwell electrodynamics are correct. Newtonian relativity under Galilean transformation holds for Newtonian mechanics but not for Maxwell electrodynamics.

33
Implication A preferred absolute inertial “ether” frame exists in electrodynamics.

34
The most famous attempt to locate the ether frame was the experiment performed by Michelson in 1881 and by Michelson and Morley in 1887.

35
A. A. Michelson

36
E. W. Morley

37
Ether The medium of propagation of light was assumed to fill all space. An observer moving through the ether with velocity v would measure a velocity c' for a light beam, where c' = c + v.

38
Assume ether exists Spinning and rotating earth should be moving through it. An observer on earth would sense an “ether wind” with velocity v. Take v to be the earth’s orbital speed about the sum. v/c 10 - 4

39
First-order Experiments accurate to first order in v/c unable to detect the absolute ether frame can be interpreted in terms of an ether theory (Fresnel, Lorentz)

40
Second-order Experiments accurate to second order (v/c) 2 10 -8 Michelson (1881) Nobel Prize in 1907

41
Michelson-Morley Experiment in apparatus frame

42
Michelson-Morley Experiment in ether frame

43
Michelson-Morley Experiment

44
optical path difference fringe system nothing to do with relativity rotation shift in the fringe pattern test of relativity

45
Michelson-Morley Experiment

51
Null experiment

Similar presentations

Presentation is loading. Please wait....

OK

1/22/2001Physics 222 Special Relativity Lecture 3.

1/22/2001Physics 222 Special Relativity Lecture 3.

© 2018 SlidePlayer.com Inc.

All rights reserved.

Ads by Google

Ppt on coalition government australia Ppt on ip address classes and special ip Ppt on job satisfaction among employees Ppt on company profile of hdfc bank Ppt on world trade organisation Ppt on plant layout design Seminar ppt on brain machine interface Ppt on fast food industry in india Ppt on earth hour 2017 Ppt on sound navigation and ranging system sensor