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1 Iron Fertilization, Air Capture, and Geoengineering Woods Hole, MA 26 September 2007 David Keith Director,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Iron Fertilization, Air Capture, and Geoengineering Woods Hole, MA 26 September 2007 David Keith Director,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Iron Fertilization, Air Capture, and Geoengineering Woods Hole, MA 26 September 2007 David Keith Director, Energy and Environmental Systems Group Institute for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economy University of Calgary

2 2 New York Times May 24th 1953

3 Emissions are rising faster than expected 3 Skeptics argued that this “unrealistic” scenario was included only to make the problem look worse This is where we need to be heading

4 And, it’s melting quicker than models predict 4 Ice cover on 16 September 2007 minimum ice cover

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8 Carbon Management: Location vs Mechanism 8

9 9 Biomass Energy with Capture

10 10 Biomass with Capture

11 11 Electricity for free… … at a ~300 $/tC carbon price

12 12 Air Capture

13 13 Thermodynamics of CO 2 capture Free energy of mixing: To get 1 bar it takes: ~ 6 kJ/mol starting at 10% CO 2 in a power plant exhaust, and ~ 20 kJ/mol starting at the 380 ppm ambient atmospheric concentration It takes ~13 kJ/mol to compress from 1 to 100 bar C + 2 O 2  CO kJ/mol Power plants are ~35% efficient (~160 kJe/mol-C from coal) min loss of electric output should be ~12% ((6+13)/160). Current designs are at least twice as bad.

14 14 Direct Air Capture

15 15 A A

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19 Cost and energy use vs flow rate 19

20 20 Negative emissions change long-run climate policy Keith, D. W., Ha-Duong, M. & Stolaroff, J. K. Climate strategy with CO 2 capture from the air. Climatic Change (2005).

21 21 Air Capture Summary 1.Three uses Long run negative emissions (2100?). Acting in a rush, AC along while we do Coal CCS (2030?) Low Carbon Fuels and remote EOR (2015?) 2.NaOH contactor ETH/Rome group using commercial data on packed towers. Calgary/CMU using spray tower Less than $50/tCO 2 3.NaOH regen Nuclear heat Electrochemical Borates/Titenates No good end-to-end costing.

22 22 Other Methods

23 23 Increasing ocean alkalinity Motivation: 2×[CO 3 -2 ] + [HCO 3 - ]  [A] Mg-silicates –Olivine (Mg 2 SiO 4 ) and serpentine (Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ) are the most abundant Mg-silicates MgO CaCO 3 CaO

24 24 Comparisons

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