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STATIONARY SOURCE CONTROL AND ITS REPLICABILITY IN DIFFERENT ASIAN COUNTRIES J.C. OPPENEAU BETTER AIR QUALITY DECEMBER 2006 ADEME.

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Presentation on theme: "STATIONARY SOURCE CONTROL AND ITS REPLICABILITY IN DIFFERENT ASIAN COUNTRIES J.C. OPPENEAU BETTER AIR QUALITY DECEMBER 2006 ADEME."— Presentation transcript:

1 STATIONARY SOURCE CONTROL AND ITS REPLICABILITY IN DIFFERENT ASIAN COUNTRIES J.C. OPPENEAU BETTER AIR QUALITY DECEMBER 2006 ADEME

2 European directives concerning air pollution From stationary sources National emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants Integrated pollution prevention control Pollution from large combustion plants Volatile organic compounds resulting from certain industrial activities in certain installations (VOC) Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Clean Air For Europe programme (CAFE)

3 Integrated pollution prevention and control : IPPC Directive (september 24, 1996 – amending acts ) A requirement for industrial and agriculture activities with high pollution potential to have a PERMIT (energy indutries, production and processing of metals, mineral and chemical industries, waste management, livestock farming, etc…) To receive a permit, an installation must : - use all appropriate pollution-prevention means, namely the best available techniques (BAT, green technologies) which produce the least liquid and solid wastes, use less hazardous substances, enable the recovery and recycling of substances generated, … - prevent all large–scale pollution - improve efficient energy use - prevent, recycle or dispose of waste in the least polluting way possible - ensure accident prevention and damage limitation (risk assessment) - return sites to their original state when the activity is over

4 Directive : pollution from large combustion plants (november 11, 2001) This directive applies to combustion plants (technical apparates in which fuels are oxidised in order to use the heat thus generated) with a rated thermal input equal to or greater than 50 MW, irrespective of type of fuel used To reduce the annual emissions of SO 2, NOx, from existing plants and to lay down limit values for SO 2, NOx and PM in the case of new plants

5 SO 2 NOxVOCNH 3 European union (15 countries) France Germany UK Spain National emissions ceilings to reach in 2010 (in kilotonnes)

6 Air emissions from stationary sources in France (1990 – 2004)

7 A MAJOR HEALTH ISSUE EU research study showed that a reduction of PM 10 particles concentration from 60  g/m 3 to 25  g/m 3 avoid 4470 death (in 26 towns) and more with a limit value of 10  g/m 3. EU proposes a PM 2,5 annual limit value of 20  g/m 3 by year WHO PM 2,5 guide value : annual concentration 10  g/m 3 FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM 2,5 AND LESS) LIMIT VALUES IN AMBIENT AIR AN OTHER HEALTH ISSUE : OZONE PROBLEM IN LOW ATMOSPHERIC LAYER

8 APPLICATIONS: Municipal Waste Incineration Plants / Industrial Waste Incineration Plants / Hospital Waste Incineration Plants / etc. Power plants and combustion industrial processes Regulations and standards: urban and national levels Planning for protection of urban and regional air quality Continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) : –Measurement at the stack (pollution control) –Measurement at upstream (process control) Polluter’s pay principal for emission (tax according to weight of gas emitted) PROGRAM: HOW TO LIMIT EMISSIONS ?

9 Urban waste (municipal) Cement plant incinerating industrial waste - Dedicated Industrial waste - Chemical plant using its own incinerators - Hospital waste Sludge (municipal, chemical, paper or waste water treatment plants) Various types of incinerators

10 Environnemental friendly technologies Preparation of fuel materials and by-product energy sources (clean coal, RDF, wood, biofuels, etc…) Low NOx burner Pollution abatement devices (gas) : –DeNOx –DeDiox –Acid neutralization –Desulfurization Filtration of particles : –Electrostatic precipitator –Baghouse Cogeneration (heat and power) Use of renewable energy sources Promotion of low carbon power generation technologies

11 Regulations & Standard: EU Emission Regulation Incineration Plants – Emission Limit Values

12 Incineration: –Stocker furnace Low air ratio combustion Water cooled grates High temperature, high pressure boiler –Pyrolysis and melting Kiln type Fluidized bed system –Others Flue gas treatment: –Dry –Semi-dry –Wet Various types of process / flue gas treatment

13 HCl, SO2, NOx (1000 to 2000 mg/Nm3) Various types of process / flue gas treatment HCl and SO 2 reduction –Injection of reagents (such as lime) into the reactor => operating cost –Inlet (upstream the reactor) monitoring to control the efficiency of the gas treatment

14 NH 3 or Urea injection at high temperature Various types of process / flue gas treatment Reduction of NOx with a DeNOx system –SNCR : Selective Non Catalytic Reduction –SCR : Selective Catalytic Reduction NH 3 injection at low temperature

15 Various types of process / flue gas treatment Reduction of dust (bag filter) with wet process With dry or semi-dry process

16 Dry extractive with IR GFC multi-gas analyzer: SEC / MIR 9000 Measurement at the stack Dry extractive with IR GFC multi-gas analyzer: SEC / MIR 9000

17 EXEMPLE OF CEMS IN STACK

18 Real time and continuous multi-components analyzer : HCl, SO 2, NO, NO 2, N 2 O, CO, CO 2, CH 4, HC, TOC, HF, NH 3, and H 2 0 More than 12 gases simultaneously monitored O 2 measurement with heated cell Measurement bench heated at 180°C Excellent stability Pattern Fast Fourier Transform Software Matrix TM Can also be used with SEC sampling system (dry) Multi-gas FTIR analyzer: MIR-FT Measurement at the stack Multi-gas FTIR analyzer: MIR-FT

19 EUROPEAN UNION EMISSIONS TRADING SCHEMES GLOBAL WARNING STAKE EU CO2 EMISSIONS MILLIONS TONS First phase ( ) : total allocations of millions tons of CO industrial plants – 21 countries (not including Poland, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta) EU Carbon Market : 15 euros/tons (May 2006) Second phase ( ) : in preparation French total allocations : phase 1 : 156,61 Mt CO2 phase 2 : 161,17 Mt CO2 (including N2O emission) CO2 EU limit value for cars : 140g/km (2008) CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (KYOTO PROTOCOL)

20 CO2 EMISSION FACTORS ICP (GJ/tonne) Kg CO2/toe Gazoline Coal Urban waste8,84578 National gaz49,62394 LPG Kerosene443108

21 Clean Coal Challenge (a carbon – constrained world) Target : coal utilization for combustion and gasification of by-products ISSUES Carbon capture and storage geological and terrestrial sequestration of CO2 IPCC (inergovernmental panel on climate change) : geological storage capacity : 2000 gigatonnes Coal to liquid (GTL) – synthetic oil. - direct liquefaction (hydrogenation) - indirect liquefaction : gasification and Fisher-Tropsch process (converts synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons) Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) gasification of coal to syngas – pollution abatement – use of turbine (innovation programme) with high efficiency Pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology (good efficiency) NECESSITY FOR INVESTMENTS In 2003 : coal provided 40% of power generation in the world

22 REVISION OF NEC-DIRECTIVE (IN PROGRESS) all substantial european commission proposals have to be accompagned by an impact assessment émission inventory with baseline projection (future changes in abatement efficiency according to current legislation and starts from a base year) energy projection alternative solutions projections scenarii (what could happen if …) : maximum technical feasible reduction (MTFR) numerous scenarii between baseline and MTFR sensitivity cases importance to check robustness of results account of national legislation and national practices (if stricter)

23 REPLICABILITY IN DIFFERENT ASIAN COUNTRIES To prepare, implement and to enforce with dates on entry into force for environnemental protection concerning emissions of pollutants from stationary sources (limit values of emissions) To set up national emission inventories and updating To draw up programmes for the reduction of their annual national emission To have follow up and verification programmes To develop inspector’s staff for implementation and enforcement of mesures To set up taxes and penalties scales

24 To encourage technology innovation for upgrading energy use to realize Sustainable development and to provide clean production and recycling To manage CEMS for compliance with NEC legislation To strengthen efficient use of fuel resources (clean oil and clean coal – biofuels – renewable energies to limit greenhouse gas effects) To identify areas with critical loads of acid deposition to be reduced (SO 2, NOx, VOC, NH 3 ) To build eco-friendly industrial parks (industrial or circular ecology) REPLICABILITY IN DIFFERENT ASIAN COUNTRIES


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