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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم صدق الله العظيم يونس (58)

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1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم صدق الله العظيم يونس (58)
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم صدق الله العظيم يونس (58)

2 Ibrahim Abdelghafar Elsayed Khalifa Under supervision committee
Person speakers: Ibrahim Abdelghafar Elsayed Khalifa Demonstrator at Food science department – Faculty of Agriculture – Benha University  Under supervision committee Prof. Soliman Abbas Soliman Emeritus Professor of Food technology Food science department – Faculty of Agriculture – Benha University Prof. Hamdy Abd El-Latif El-Mansy Dr. Hassan Ahmed Barakat Lecturer of Food science technology 2014

3 FOOD PROCESSING RESIDUES VALORIZATION : A NEW CONCEPT

4 Presentation items: Introduction Definition Classification
What's the meaning of valorization concept? Sources of Food processing residues Statistical and quantities How to fix this problem? Conventional applications Some examples for vegetable and fruit processing residues

5 Tomato processing residues Mango processing residues
Tomato processing residues Mango processing residues Potato processing residues Orange processing residues Guava processing residues Grape processing residues Recent and advanced applications Some applications for all food residues References

6 INTRODUCTION In food processing industries, edible portions were processed into useable products; whereas seeds, peels, pomace and waste water often will be discarded as residues since it is not currently utilized for commercial purposes. One of the most common problems in food processing "residues materials" produce ecological problems related to the proliferation of insects and rodents and an economic burden because of transportation to repositories; therefore strategies for the profitable use of these materials are needed. [1]

7 Definition Definitions of food residues are vary, among other things such as what is food consists, [2] how its produced,  and where its produced [3]. (EU) "any food substance, raw or cooked, which is discarded, or intended or required to be discarded " [4]. (UN) "uneaten food and food preparation waste from different sources" .

8 According to (FAO) food wastage were divided into: [5]
Classification According to (FAO) food wastage were divided into: [5]

9 What's the meaning of valorization concept?
Valorization is a relatively new concept in the field of industrial residues management promoting the principle of sustainable development, one of the valorization objectives regarding food processing residues is the recovery of fine chemicals and the production of precious metabolites [6]. The recovery of such added value compounds from food processing residues have been underpinned by the increasing evidence of their health-promoting benefits [7].

10 The Food processing residues was produced from three sources:-
production Machinery[8] Economic factors [9] Infestation weather processing Microorganism [10] Nutritional value Uneaten Sorting Using process technic storage Storage Handling Expired Retail Next

11 Statistical and quantities
Its residues were produced according to the type of countries [11] Developed countries Developing countries (consumer level) (production level) Next

12

13

14 How to fix this problem? All food science researcher agreed that the fixing of this problem can come in three points:

15 Conventional applications
Feeding Fertilizer

16 d Seeds Skin Tomato processing by-products represent 5-13%, In 2007, tomato wastes were estimated to at 11 million tons [12]. Caroteniods “GRAS” may be extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate as solvents, to be 37 mg/kg waste, then Lycopene is one of the most popular natural pigments and antioxidant agent, while in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that its addition to foods is inversely associated to cancers and cardiovascular diseases [14].

17 Nowadays, carotenoids (lycopene, carotene), phenolics and flavonoid (i
Nowadays, carotenoids (lycopene, carotene), phenolics and flavonoid (i.e. myricetin, quercetin, quercetin-3b-glucoside, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid) were encapsulated from tomato residues [13].

18 Utilization of mango processing residues
Seeds pomace peels Mango is cultivated in more than 100 countries in both tropical and subtropical regions [15]. Mango processing residues were reached to 35% to 60% of the fruit [16]. These residues is rich in bioactive compounds which have been studied as a safer natural alternative to synthetic food antioxidants in biscuits, vegetable oils and potato chips [17]. [18] Found that the mango peels and seeds extracts were contained about 56.2 and 28.3 mg TPC/100 gm-1DW, as GAE respectively.

19 Using HPLC identified about 30 phenolic compounds from mango seeds and peels extracts, Ellagic and gallic acid were the predominant phenolic compound in their extracts, which have antioxidant, estrogenic ,anti- inflammatory, antimicrobial and prebiotic effects properties [19]. Also, Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside was identified as major flavonoids compounds due to their high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer [20]. The mango kernel oil contain high amount of stearic acid 43% oleic acid (44%) and may be used in soap manufacturing).

20 Utilization of potato processing residues
Peels Pluncher Potatoes is one of the major world crops with world annual production of 180 million tones in [21] recorded that potato peels were about 12.0% of their fresh weight. [22] found that after four days storage at 63°C, 5 g of sunflower oil containing 200 ppm of freeze-dried potato peel extract and 200 ppm BHA reached the same peroxide value. [23] explored that the potato peel extracts possess antioxidant potentiality in retarding lipid oxidation in lamb meat preserved with radiation.

21 [24] used freeze-dried extract of potato peel at two different levels of 500 and 1000 ppm as a natural antioxidant in ground beef patties to measure the efficacy of PP extract against the commercial antioxidant. [25] produced biscuits using 5 and 10 % (w/w) of PP replaced wheat flour were smaller in terms of their stack weight and sensory score.

22 Utilization of Orange processing residues
Seeds pomace peels The annual production of citrus in Egypt is about MMT/Y [27] and 70% of citrus amounts are manufactured to citrus products. [26] remaining after juice extraction, represents around 50-55% of the fruit mass .Citrus peels are represent an interesting source of dietary fibers and pectin [28] .Nowadays, The citrus wastes are a rich source of natural phenolics ,flavonoids, carotenoid, oil and protein [29].

23 Citrus peel is also known to be rich in polyphenol compounds which have positive impacts on human health include inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) thereby reducing the risk of heart disease.

24 Utilization of guava processing residues
Guava residues (pomace and seeds) as residues from juice production, it's reach to 30% of the guava fruit weight [30]. [31] recommended adding guava seed flour to cookies until 6%. [32] found that the Guava residues was effective in retarding lipid oxidation in processed chicken meat at concentration of 60 mg TPC/kg meat. No significant difference in sensory evaluation was founded between guava juice which contain crude pectin and pectin from guava residues ( pectin extraction from guava residues reached to 20.70±%).

25 Gallic, cafeic, ferulic and Cuamric acid was the predominant phenolic compound in guava seeds extracts, and showed effective against some pathogenic bacterial strains such as E.coli 0157, Listeria. monocytogenes and others.

26 Also, its extracts may be used as Anticarcinogenic agent

27 Utilization of grape processing residues
Grape pomace is about 10% by weight of the total grape fruit, and rich source of polyphenols. [33] Catechin values are about 50% of extractable polyphenols for grape pomace. However, Grape seeds are a complex matrix containing approximately 40% fiber, 16% oil, 11 % proteins and 7% complex phenols including tannins.

28 Grape pomace constitutes a variety of polyphenols, which include phenolic acids (gallic acid, its 3- and 4-p glucopyranosides, trans­ caftaric acid, cis- and trans-coutaric acids), phenolic alcohol (2-hydroxy-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenyl-p-glucopyranoside), flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin and pro cyanidin B1) and flavonoids (quercetin 3-glucoside and 3-glucoronide, kaempferol 3-glucoside and 3galactoside,eucryphin, astilbin and engeletin) [34].

29 RECENT APPLICATION Food processing residues extracts can be used as
Antibacterial Antifungal Antioxidants Untraditional sources for fat Anti-inflammatory Anti-cancer Fruit and vegetable coating A good source for bioactive protein Fine product (carotene and flavonoids)

30 Ingredients Part of them Food processing residues insoluble dietary fiber, Albumin, globulin Rice bran Cereal Glucuronoarabinoxylans Wheat bran B-Glucan Oat waste Glucose, arabinose, galactose Malt dust Phenolic compound Potato peel Tuber Organic acids Sugar beet molasses Oil crops Phytosterol Sunflower seed Phytosterol and albumin Soybean oil waste and water Phytochemical component Olive pomace, leaf , water Hesperidin, Apocarotenoid, Limonene Orang peel Fruit and vegetable Pectin Lemon waste Apple pomace Phenols Apple skin

31 Food processing residues
Ingredients Part of them Food processing residues Pectin Peach pomace Fruit and vegetable Protein Apricot kernel Dietary fiber Grape pomace Phenols Grape skin Cyanidin-3-rutinoside Banana peel B-carotene, Phenols Carrot peel Dietary fiber Rejected kiwifruits Lycopene Tomato pomace Carotenoids Tomato skin phenols Guava seeds Chicken byproduct Meat production Bleeding byproduct Bovine blood Protein, lipids Fish leftovers Fish production Chitosan, chitin crab shells Lactose, Lactoglobulin Cheese whey Dairy products

32 References Ahmed M.S. Hussein, Mohie M. Kamil, et al. (2011). "Physicochemical and Sensorial Quality of Semolina-Defatted Guava Seeds Flour Composite Pasta." Journal of American Science 7 (6): Glossary". Eastern Metropolitan Regional Council. Retrieved Glossary, "Terms of Environment: Abbreviations and Acronyms (Glossary F)". United States Environmental Protection Agency Retrieved “ "Chapter 3.1. Compostable Materials Handling Operations and Facilities Regulatory Requirements". California Integrated Waste Management Board. Retrieved Fao “2012” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Federici, F., F. Fava, et al. (2009). "Valorisation of agro-industrial by-products, effluents and waste: concept, opportunities and the case of olive mill wastewaters." Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 84(6): Laufenberg, G., B. Kunz, et al. (2003). "Transformation of vegetable waste into value added products:: (A) the upgrading concept; (B) practical implementations." Bioresource Technology 87(2): Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Ana Iglesias, X.B. Yang, Paul R. Epstein, and Eric Chivian (2001)."Climate change and extreme weather events, Implications for food production, plant diseases, and pests". Global Change and Human Health 2. Retrieved

33 Haile, Menghestab (2005). "Weather patterns, food security and humanitarian response in sub-Saharan Africa". The Royal Society 360 (1463). Lacey, J. (1989). "Pre and post-harvest ecology of fungi causing spoilage of foods and other stored products". Journal of Applied Bacteriology Symposium Supplement. Retrieved Gustavsson, Cederberg, Sonesson, van Otterdijk, &Meybeck, (2011). The latest term accounts for the decrease Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., van Otterdijk, R., &Meybeck, A. (2011). Global food losses and food waste.Extend, causes and prevention. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. /user_upload/ag s/publications/GFL_web.pdf. Strati, I. F., & Oreopoulou, V. (2011). Effect of extraction parameters on the carotenoid recovery from tomato waste. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 46, Duarte, C., Beir~ao-da-Costa, S., Bourbon, A. I., Pinheiro, A. C.,Serra, A. T., Mold~ao- Martins, M., et al. (2011). Encapsulation and delivery of carotenoids-rich extract from tomato pomace in a prebiotic matrix. In P. S. Taoukis, N. G. Stoforos, V. T. Karathanos, & G. D. Saravacos (Eds.), Food process engineering in a changing world. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Engineering and Food, May 22e26, 2011, Athens, Greece (pp. 673e674). Athens: Cosmosware. Kong, K.-W., Khoo, H.-E., Prasad, K.,N., Ismail, A., Tan, C.-P., & Rajab, N. F. (2010). Revealing the power of the natural red pigment lycopene. Molecules, 15, 959e987. FAOSTAT (2011). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO Agriculture Statistics. URL. (accessed May 2013).

34 Ayala-Zavala, J. F. , Vega-Vega, V. , Rosas-Domínguez, C
Ayala-Zavala, J. F., Vega-Vega, V., Rosas-Domínguez, C., Palafox-Carlos, H., Villa Rodríguez,J. A., Wasim Siddiqui, M.D., et al. (2011). Agro-industrial potential of exotic fruit by-products as a source of food additives. Food Research International, 44,1866–1874 Abdalla, A. E. M., Darwish, S. M., Ayad, E. H. E., & El-Hamahmy, R. M. (2007). Egyptian mango by-product. Compositional quality of mango seed kernel. Food Chemistry, 103, Heim, E. K., Tagliaferro, A.R., & Bobilya, J.D. (2002). Flavonoid antioxidants: Chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 13,572–584. Ramos, S. (2007). Effects of dietary flavonoids on apoptotic pathways related to cancer chemoprevention. Journal of Nutrition Biochemistry, 18,427–442. Landete, J. M. (2011). Ellagitannins, ellagic acid and their derived metabolites: A review about source, metabolism, functions and health. Food Research International, 44, Heuzé V., Tran G., Bastianelli D., Hassoun P., Lebas F., 2013. Tomato pomace, tomato skins and tomato seeds. Feedipedia.org. A programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/689 Last updated on December 23, 2013, 16:15 Mahmood AU, Greenman J, et al. (1998). " Orange and potato peel extracts : Analysis and use as Bacillus substrates for the production of extracellular enzymes in continuous culture." Enzyme and Microbial Technology 22(2): Chang, K. C. (2011). "Polyphenol Antioxidants from Potato Peels: Extraction Optimization and Application to Stabilizing Lipid Oxidation in Foods " The National Conference On Undergraduate Research.

35 Kanatt SR, Chander R, et al. (2005)
Kanatt SR, Chander R, et al. (2005). "Potato peel extract: a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat." Food Chemistry 53(3): Mansour EH and K. AH. (2000). "Evaluation of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts and their application to ground beef patties." Food Chemistry 69(2): Abdel-Magied, M. M. (1991). "Effect of dietary fiber of potato peel on the rheological and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits." Egyptian Journal of Food Science 19: AOAD Khartoum (2009). Arab Agricultural Statistics Yearbook , (29). Bocco, A.; Cuvelier, Maria; Richard, H. and Berset, C. (1998). Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of citrus peel and seed extracts, J. Agric. Food Chemistry, 46: Mandalari, G.; Bennett, R. N. ; Bisignano, G.; Saija, A.; Dugo, G. ; Curto, R. B. l. ; Faulds, C. B. and Waldron, K. W. (2006). "Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.“ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54: Reda, S.Y.; Sauer, E.L.; Batista, A.E.C.; Barana, A.C.; Schnitzel, E. and Carneiro, P.I.B.(2005). Characterization of rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) and ‘‘Sicilian’’lemon (Citrus limon) seed oils, an agro-industrial waste. Cienc Technol Aliment, 25:672–676. Jiménez-Escrig, A., M. Rincón, et al. (2001). "Guava Fruit (Psidium guajava L.) as a New Source of Antioxidant Dietary Fiber." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49(11): Ahmed M.S. Hussein, Mohie M. Kamil, et al. (2011). "Physicochemical and Sensorial Quality of Semolina-Defatted Guava Seeds Flour Composite Pasta." Journal of American Science 7(6):

36 PACKER, V. G. , M. M. SELANI, et al. (2010)
PACKER, V. G., M. M. SELANI, et al. (2010). "Addition of beet and guava agro-industrial residues in cooked and refrigerated chicken meat and its effect on lipid oxidation." international conference on food innovation: 1-4. Shams El-Din.M.H.A. and Yassen.A.A.E. (1997). "Evaluation and utilization of guava seed meal (Psidium guajava L.) in cookies preparation as wheat flour substitute." Nahrung 41: Zhao J, Wang J, Chen Y, and Agarwal R. Anit-tumor-promoting activity of a polyphenolic fraction isolated from grape seeds in the mouse skin two-stage initation-promotion protocol and identification of procuanidin B5-3'-gallate as the most effective antioxidant constituent. Carcinogenesis. 1999;20:(9):

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