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SUGAR Klaus Wallmann and Jörg Bialas Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Exploration, Exploitation and Gas Transport CO 2 CH 4.

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Presentation on theme: "SUGAR Klaus Wallmann and Jörg Bialas Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Exploration, Exploitation and Gas Transport CO 2 CH 4."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUGAR Klaus Wallmann and Jörg Bialas Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs: Exploration, Exploitation and Gas Transport CO 2 CH 4

2 Hydrate Structure Water molecules Gas molecules CH 4 5.7 H 2 O CH 4  5.7 H 2 O

3 Methane Hydrate Stability Tishchenko, Hensen, Wallmann & Wong (2005) Buffett & Archer (2004) Hydrate Gas

4 Global Methane Hydrate Distribution Observations Source: Makogan et al., 2007

5 Global Methane Hydrate Distribution Modeling Source: Klauda & Sandler (2005)

6 Global Methane Hydrate Inventory in the Seabed Kven. (1999) Mil. (2004) Buff. (2004) Klau. (2005) Best estimate 3000 ± 2000 Gt C

7 Global Methane Hydrate Inventory Coal Oil Gas Hydrate Source: Energy Outlook 2007, Buffett & Archer (2004) Coal, oil, gas: reserves economically exploitable at current market prices Gas Hydrates: total marine inventory

8 Hydrate Exploitation Methane gas may be produced from hydrate deposits via: Pressure reduction Temperature increase Addition of chemicals (incl. CO 2 )

9 Hydrate Exploitation Energy balance for Blake Ridge (Makogon et al. 2007) 2000 m water depth, two ~3 m thick hydrate layers ~40 % of the potential energy can be used for energy production ~60 % of the potential energy is lost during development, gas production, gas pressurization and transport Japanese Hydrate Exploitation Program Hydrate exploitation is economically feasible at an oil price of ~54 $/barrel

10 Gas Hydrates at the Chinese Continental Slope, South China Sea Source: N. Wu (2007, pers. comm.)

11 Gas Hydrates at the Indian Continental Slope Source: M. V. Lall (2007, pers. comm.)

12 Safety, Costs Storage of CO 2 below the Seabed SUGAR

13 Phase Diagram of CO 2 Risk of leakage decreases with water depth Self-sealing at >350 m

14 Natural Seepage at the Seafloor -Black Sea Gas Seeps- Source: Naudts et al. (2006)

15 The SUGAR Project Funded by German Federal Ministries (BMWi, BMBF) Funding period: June 2008 – May 2011 Total funding: ~13 Mio € (incl. support by industries)

16 A: Exploration A1: Hydroacoustics A2: Geophysics A3: Autoclave-Drilling A4: Basin Modeling B: Exploitation and Transport B1: Reservoir Modeling B2: Laboratory Experiments B3: Gas Transport Prospection Exploration Quantification Exploitation/ CO 2 Storage Pellet Transport The SUGAR Project

17 Project Academia Industries A1IFM-GEOMAR, University of Bremen L3 Communications ELAC Nautik GmbH A2IFM-GEOMAR, BGR HannoverK.U.M. Umwelt- und Meerestechnik GmbH, Magson GmbH, SEND Offshore GmbH A3University of Bremen, TU Clausthal PRAKLA Bohrtechnik GmbH A4IFM-GEOMARIES, TEEC B1Fraunhofer UMSICHT, GFZ Potsdam, IFM-GEOMAR Wintershall, Wirth GmbH B2FH Kiel, GFZ Potsdam, Fraunhofer UMSICHT, IOW, IFM- GEOMAR BASF, CONTROS GmbH, R&D Center at FH Kiel, 24sieben Stadtwerke Kiel AG, RWE Dea, Wintershall, E.ON Ruhrgas AG B3IOW, FH KielLinde AG, Aker Yards, Lindenau Schiffswerft, Germanischer Lloyd, BASF SUGAR Partners

18 - Hydrate deposits are usually formed by gas bubble ascent - Multi-beam echo-sounders will be further developed and used for flare imaging and hydrate location A1: Hydro-acoustic detection of hydrate deposits Hydrate Ridge off Oregon

19 A2: Geo-acoustic imaging of hydrate deposits

20 A2: Electro-magnetic imaging of hydrate deposits Joint inversion of seismic and electro-magnetic data

21 A3: Autoclave-drilling technology - develop autoclave technology for MeBo - develop tool for formation independent drilling

22 A4: Basin Modeling PetroMod3D (IES) IFM-GEOMAR

23 B1, B2: Exploitation Reservoir modeling and lab experiments

24 Hydrate Stability in Seawater (CO 2 and CH 4 ) Duan & Sun (2006) CO 2 hydrates are thermodynamically more stable than CH 4 hydrates

25 CH 4 (g)-Recovery from Hydrates Exposed to CO 2 after 200 h in sandstone CO 2 (l) Kvamme et al. (2007) CO 2 (l) Hiromata et al. (1996) after 400 h CO 2 (g)/N 2 (g) Park et al. (2006) CO 2 (g) Lee et al. (2003) after 5 h after 15 h

26 B1, B2: Exploitation Options Addition of CO 2 (l), only Addition of CO 2 (l) and heat from - deep and warm formation waters (Schlumberger) - surface water (UMSICHT, mega pump) - in-situ methane burning (GFZ) Addition of CO 2 (l) and polymers (BASF) Addition of CO 2 (l) and other gases (IOW) Exploitation may also be done in two steps 1.Step: Hydrate dissociation 2.Step: Injection of CO 2 (l) to refill the pore space previously occupied by methane hydrates

27 B1, B2: Exploitation Critical issues that need to be addressed: Sluggish kinetics of gas swapping Slope stability (avoid steep terrain) Integrity of the unconsolidated cap sediments (overpressure < 10 bar) Permeability of reservoir sediments (use sands) Clogging by CO 2 hydrate formation at the injection point (add polymers or heat) CO 2 content of the produced methane gas (avoid very high temperatures)

28 B3: Gas Transport Source: Gudmundsson (NTNU Trondheim), Aker Kvaerner, Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co.

29 B3: Gas Transport Source: Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co.

30 SUGAR Technologies

31 with India, Brasilia, China, Norway, South Korea, US to apply the SUGAR exploration techniques to perform a field production test during the second SUGAR phase starting in summer 2011 International cooperation

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