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Technical options for placement of CO 2 in the maritime area  by Paul Freund www.ieagreen.org.uk.

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Presentation on theme: "Technical options for placement of CO 2 in the maritime area  by Paul Freund www.ieagreen.org.uk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Technical options for placement of CO 2 in the maritime area  by Paul Freund

2 Placement of CO 2 in marine area  Overview Introduction Where will the CO 2 come from? How will it be brought to site? How could it be stored? Progress Conclusions

3 Introduction  Responding to Climate Change Wide variety of mitigation options Capture and storage of CO 2 is one method of reducing emissions No single technique can solve the problem of climate change Capture and storage of CO 2 has potential to reduce the cost of meeting climate goals Purpose of this talk is to introduce the technology of CO 2 storage

4 Global sources of CO 2  Opportunities for Emission reduction Cost of capture depends on CO 2 concentration  Early opportunities in NH 3 plant, H 2 plant, etc. Emissions, Mt CO 2 /y

5 Capture & Store CO 2  Example: power generation Mainly N 2, H 2 O to atmosphere CO 2 Flue gases Compression Fossil fuel combustion Turbines CO 2 Separation Storage

6 CO 2 capture at AES Warrior Run

7 Capturing CO 2 Other methods are under development:  Pre-combustion decarbonisation  Pre-combustion removal of nitrogen

8 Transporting CO 2 - pipelines Photo: Dakota Gasification  CO 2 pipeline: 3100 km in use today Capacity > 110 Mt/y

9 Transporting CO 2 - ships  CO 2 tanker: Long distance shipping could be done by tanker Construction similar to LPG tanker  Δ cost Similar to long distance pipeline

10 Storage of CO 2  Must be Safe and secure Verifiable Of sufficient capacity to make a difference Capable of isolating the CO 2 for 1000s of years  Natural reservoirs have sufficient  capacity: Geological formations Deep ocean

11 Ocean storage of CO 2  Options Injection onto sea-floor Dispersion at mid-depth Formation of CO 2 -hydrate at depth Mineral neutralization  All just concepts Many outstanding issues  This is NOT the subject of today’s meeting

12 Geological Storage of CO 2  Storage options Deep saline aquifers Depleted oil fields Natural gas fields Unminable coal measures

13 Geological Storage Capacity  Global Storage Potential 40 Gt CO 2 <2% of Emissions to 2050 ~ 3000 Gt CO 2 ~ 150% of Emissions to Gt CO 2 45% of Emissions to 2050 Comparative potentials at storage costs of up to $20/t CO 2

14 Geological Storage of CO 2  Component parts: Site selection  Formation depth, capacity, rock properties, location  Cap-rock, faults and other penetrations  Environmental impact and Risk assessments Drilling injection wells Pressurisation and Injection of CO 2 Remediation in case of leaks Monitoring  During injection  Once CO 2 is in the reservoir

15 CO 2 Enhanced Oil Recovery CO 2 Injection Production Well CO 2 Oil Recycled CO 2

16 CO 2 Re-injection – Natural Gas If natural gas contains too much CO 2, it must be removed before the gas is sent to market  Current application of CO 2 Capture Established practice is to vent CO 2 after capture Better environmental practice = store CO 2 Examples:  Sleipner  K-12B  In Salah  Snøhvit  Gorgon

17 Sleipner project Courtesy of Statoil

18 Sleipner CO 2 Injection Courtesy of Statoil Sleipner T Utsira Formation Production and Injection Wells CO 2 CO 2 Injection Well Sleipner A Gas from Sleipner Vest

19 Gorgon Gas Field Courtesy of ChevronTexaco

20 Gorgon LNG plant with CO 2 capture Courtesy of ChevronTexaco

21 Snøhvit CO 2 Injection Courtesy of Statoil

22 Snøhvit - Pipelines Courtesy of Statoil Depth: 330 m Distance 160 km

23 Monitoring CO 2 injection & storage  Reason for monitoring include:  Establish baseline conditions  Ensure effective injection controls  Locate the CO 2 plume  Assess integrity of wells  Confirm storage efficiency and calibrate models  Detect and quantify seepage / assess impacts  For accounting purposes  In relation to legal disputes  Reassure the public about storage of CO 2

24 Monitoring of CO 2 Possible monitoring techniques:  Pressure - Wellhead and/or Formation  Injection Rate  Well Logs, Fluid and Gas Composition  Seismic Monitoring  Electrical and Electromagnetic Monitoring  Gravity Monitoring  Tilt Measurements  Airborne or Satellite Imaging  CO 2 Flux Monitoring  Atmospheric CO 2 Concentration  Micro Seismicity

25 History match courtesy of Sintef Petroleum Seismic Analysis

26 Conclusions  Geological storage of Captured CO 2 Offers significant capacity for avoiding CO 2 emissions Would make a difference to climate change Makes use of established technologies for injection and monitoring Several examples now in operation/planned These will serve as demonstrations which will influence attitudes.


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