Presentation on theme: "Automated Truck Driving Exploring the Benefits and Limits Presented to AASHTO Subcommittee on Highway Transport Wilmington, North Carolina John Woodrooffe."— Presentation transcript:
Automated Truck Driving Exploring the Benefits and Limits Presented to AASHTO Subcommittee on Highway Transport Wilmington, North Carolina John Woodrooffe July 10, 2013 Slide 1
Automated Driving Technologies that perform the driving task Various degrees of automated driving (partial to full) Requires the integration of several technical systems Trucking has unique requirements that will likely limit the extent of automated driving Slide 2
Intersection Collision Avoidance Vehicle Safety Communications Greater situational awareness Your vehicle can “see” nearby vehicles and knows roadway conditions you can’t see Reduce or mitigate crashes Driver Advisories Driver Warnings Work Zone Notification
Model Deployment CV Participation Summary 3 Integrated CVs – driven by participating fleets 16 - Retrofit Safety Device (RSD) on existing fleet vehicles 50 - CVs with Vehicle Awareness Devices providing basic functionality (Various trucks)
On Board Vehicle Technologies Roll Stability Systems and Electronic Stability Systems Lane Departure Warning Systems F-CAM: Forward Collision Warning Systems with Autonomous Braking Vehicle diagnostic and location systems
Road curved Dry surface Cargo: loaded 3-axle tractor pulling bottom dump. 14,000 kg cargo (dirt) 28,000 kg gross weight Est. 65 km/h Evaluating ESC
Schematic Trajectory of Maneuver (Transient to Constant Curve) Spiral transition rate of 1.3 m/s 3 is based on the AASHTO prescribed curve entry geometry corresponding to a steady-state lateral acceleration of 1.5 m/s 2.
Hardware in the loop Simulation TruckSim offers Real-time Simulation in Combination with SIMULINK and the TruckSim Animator
Hardware in-the-Loop Hardware Modeled a 5-axle tractor semitrailer Uses all pneumatic and electronic control elements The entire pneumatic system was include: air reservoirs, treadle valve, ABS hardware, brake actuation chambers Appropriate fittings and proper length tubing and hose was used The brake chambers were installed on real S-cam brakes such that they have appropriate pressure/deflection properties.
ESC Preventing Rollovers Slide 11
Vehicle speed time history for ABS, RSC and ESC technologies
Fitting ESC to all tractor semitrailers Estimated ESC benefits (annual) 4,659 crashes 126 fatalities 5,909 injuries Total benefit about $2 billion/yr
Commercial Vehicle Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation Systems (F-CAM) Intervention Sequence t0 Object tracked Collision warning: Visual and Audible Collision warning: Haptical (short brake pulse) Automatic braking for collision prevention or mitigation Avoidance maneuver not possible time t2t3t4 Engine Torque Limitation Brake Activation Potential rear end collision detected Hard braking required to prevent collision t1 Warning Tone and Lamp System Reactions Crash prevented or mitigated 14
Crash types selected as relevant to the technology Rear-end, striking Current generation: Lead vehicle stopped at impact, but seen moving Lead vehicle slower, steady speed Lead vehicle decelerating Lead vehicle cut-in Next generation: Lead vehicle stopped, never seen moving Target Crash Types 15
Frontal Impacts Slide 16 Rear-end, into stopped van trailer. Cargo body floor of van rides over front bumper. Underride to firewall. Engine ripped from mounts and pushed down, under occupant compartment.
F-CAM Benefits 17
Technically Possible ≠ Public Acceptance 18
Even I can work this one Slide 19
Considerations for Integration Large trucks exist to do work and to do it efficiently. Their worth and function are tied directly to work performance in exchange for money. Trucks are incentivized to be at work constantly – they are a tool of the economy. Trucks are driven by professional drivers paid to drive and they are highly skilled. We have everything to gain by keeping the driver engaged – humans are very good vehicle operators.
Considerations for Integration On board technology is dedicated to the single vehicle and provides driver warning and vehicle state corrections. V2V describes vehicle position, direction and speed at the traffic stream level – provides external conflict input. 24
Considerations for Integration Combining V2V with crash avoidance technology integrates traffic stream data with vehicle-based monitoring and control systems – highly desirable. Drivers are accident fee 99.99% of the time – better than most “Intelligent Systems”. We have everything to gain by providing information and corrective actions to reduce human error. 25
Replacing the Driver Invites Unintended Consequences Slide 26
Considerations for Integration But we lose so much safety value by replacing the human - think system reliability, cost and unintended consequences. The goal for commercial vehicles - maximize the power of the human through the use of supporting technologies that warn and intervene at critical moments while retaining the driver as the primary vehicle controller. 27
Automated Driving Levels (Trucks) 28 Level 0 No automation Level 1 Adaptive cruise control, auto windshield wipers, automatic lights, anything that supports the driver (e.g. ESC, V2V) Level 2 Hands off and feet off but eyes on. Driver is responsible Level 3 Hands off feet off eyes off – shared dual control but vehicle is responsible Level 4 Complete machine control – Driver has no responsibility at all Allow some flexibility of automation for situations where the technology may help driver “full time” such as platooning, or low speed control (traffic jam assist/pilot, automatic docking, etc).