Presentation on theme: "Automated Truck Driving Exploring the Benefits and Limits"— Presentation transcript:
1Automated Truck Driving Exploring the Benefits and Limits Presented to AASHTO Subcommittee on Highway TransportWilmington, North CarolinaJohn WoodrooffeJuly 10, 2013
2Automated Driving Technologies that perform the driving task Various degrees of automated driving (partial to full)Requires the integration of several technical systemsTrucking has unique requirements that will likely limit the extent of automated driving
6On Board Vehicle Technologies Lane Departure Warning Systems1Roll Stability Systems and Electronic Stability Systems241F-CAM: Forward Collision Warning Systems with Autonomous Braking323Vehicle diagnostic and location systems4
7Evaluating ESC Road curved Dry surface Cargo: loaded 3-axle tractor pulling bottom dump.14,000 kg cargo (dirt)28,000 kg gross weightEst. 65 km/h
8Schematic Trajectory of Maneuver (Transient to Constant Curve) Spiral transition rate of 1.3 m/s3 is based on the AASHTO prescribed curve entry geometry corresponding to a steady-state lateral acceleration of 1.5 m/s2.
9Hardware in the loop Simulation TruckSim offers Real-time Simulation in Combination with SIMULINK and the TruckSim Animator
10Hardware in-the-Loop Hardware Modeled a 5-axle tractor semitrailer Uses all pneumatic and electronic control elementsThe entire pneumatic system was include: air reservoirs, treadle valve, ABS hardware, brake actuation chambersAppropriate fittings and proper length tubing and hose was usedThe brake chambers were installed on real S-cam brakes such that they have appropriate pressure/deflection properties.
12Vehicle speed time history for ABS, RSC and ESC technologies
13Fitting ESC to all tractor semitrailers Estimated ESC benefits (annual)4,659 crashes126 fatalities5,909 injuriesTotal benefit about $2 billion/yr
14Commercial Vehicle Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation Systems (F-CAM) Intervention Sequence Object trackedCollision warning: Visual and AudibleCollision warning: Haptical (short brake pulse)Automatic braking for collision prevention or mitigationAvoidance maneuver not possibletimet2t3t4Engine Torque LimitationBrake ActivationPotential rear end collision detectedHard braking required to prevent collisiont1Warning Tone and LampSystem ReactionsCrash prevented or mitigated
15Target Crash Types Crash types selected as relevant to the technology Rear-end, strikingCurrent generation:Lead vehicle stopped at impact, but seen movingLead vehicle slower, steady speedLead vehicle deceleratingLead vehicle cut-inNext generation:Lead vehicle stopped, never seen moving
16Frontal Impacts Rear-end, into stopped van trailer. Cargo body floor of van rides over front bumper.Underride to firewall.Engine ripped from mounts and pushed down, under occupant compartment.
23Considerations for Integration Large trucks exist to do work and to do it efficiently. Their worth and function are tied directly to work performance in exchange for money. Trucks are incentivized to be at work constantly – they are a tool of the economy.Trucks are driven by professional drivers paid to drive and they are highly skilled.We have everything to gain by keeping the driver engaged – humans are very good vehicle operators.
24Considerations for Integration On board technology is dedicated to the single vehicle and provides driver warning and vehicle state corrections.V2V describes vehicle position, direction and speed at the traffic stream level – provides external conflict input.
25Considerations for Integration Combining V2V with crash avoidance technology integrates traffic stream data with vehicle-based monitoring and control systems – highly desirable.Drivers are accident fee 99.99% of the time – better than most “Intelligent Systems”.We have everything to gain by providing information and corrective actions to reduce human error.
26Replacing the Driver Invites Unintended Consequences
27Considerations for Integration But we lose so much safety value by replacing the human - think system reliability, cost and unintended consequences.The goal for commercial vehicles - maximize the power of the human through the use of supporting technologies that warn and intervene at critical moments while retaining the driver as the primary vehicle controller.
28Automated Driving Levels (Trucks) No automationLevel 1Adaptive cruise control, auto windshield wipers, automatic lights, anything that supports the driver (e.g. ESC, V2V)Level 2Hands off and feet off but eyes on. Driver is responsibleLevel 3Hands off feet off eyes off – shared dual control but vehicle is responsibleLevel 4Complete machine control – Driver has no responsibility at allAllow some flexibility of automation for situations where the technology may help driver “full time” such as platooning, or low speed control (traffic jam assist/pilot, automatic docking, etc).