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Automated Truck Driving Exploring the Benefits and Limits Presented to AASHTO Subcommittee on Highway Transport Wilmington, North Carolina John Woodrooffe.

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Presentation on theme: "Automated Truck Driving Exploring the Benefits and Limits Presented to AASHTO Subcommittee on Highway Transport Wilmington, North Carolina John Woodrooffe."— Presentation transcript:

1 Automated Truck Driving Exploring the Benefits and Limits Presented to AASHTO Subcommittee on Highway Transport Wilmington, North Carolina John Woodrooffe July 10, 2013 Slide 1

2 Automated Driving  Technologies that perform the driving task  Various degrees of automated driving (partial to full)  Requires the integration of several technical systems  Trucking has unique requirements that will likely limit the extent of automated driving Slide 2

3 Connected Transportation

4 Intersection Collision Avoidance Vehicle Safety Communications  Greater situational awareness Your vehicle can “see” nearby vehicles and knows roadway conditions you can’t see  Reduce or mitigate crashes Driver Advisories Driver Warnings Work Zone Notification

5 Model Deployment  CV Participation Summary  3 Integrated CVs – driven by participating fleets  16 - Retrofit Safety Device (RSD) on existing fleet vehicles  50 - CVs with Vehicle Awareness Devices providing basic functionality (Various trucks)

6 On Board Vehicle Technologies Roll Stability Systems and Electronic Stability Systems Lane Departure Warning Systems F-CAM: Forward Collision Warning Systems with Autonomous Braking Vehicle diagnostic and location systems

7 Road curved Dry surface Cargo: loaded 3-axle tractor pulling bottom dump. 14,000 kg cargo (dirt) 28,000 kg gross weight Est. 65 km/h Evaluating ESC

8 Schematic Trajectory of Maneuver (Transient to Constant Curve) Spiral transition rate of 1.3 m/s 3 is based on the AASHTO prescribed curve entry geometry corresponding to a steady-state lateral acceleration of 1.5 m/s 2.

9 Hardware in the loop Simulation  TruckSim offers Real-time Simulation in Combination with SIMULINK and the TruckSim Animator

10 Hardware in-the-Loop Hardware  Modeled a 5-axle tractor semitrailer  Uses all pneumatic and electronic control elements  The entire pneumatic system was include: air reservoirs, treadle valve, ABS hardware, brake actuation chambers  Appropriate fittings and proper length tubing and hose was used  The brake chambers were installed on real S-cam brakes such that they have appropriate pressure/deflection properties.

11 ESC Preventing Rollovers Slide 11

12 Vehicle speed time history for ABS, RSC and ESC technologies

13 Fitting ESC to all tractor semitrailers Estimated ESC benefits (annual) 4,659 crashes 126 fatalities 5,909 injuries Total benefit about $2 billion/yr

14 Commercial Vehicle Forward Collision Avoidance and Mitigation Systems (F-CAM) Intervention Sequence t0 Object tracked Collision warning: Visual and Audible Collision warning: Haptical (short brake pulse) Automatic braking for collision prevention or mitigation Avoidance maneuver not possible time t2t3t4 Engine Torque Limitation Brake Activation Potential rear end collision detected Hard braking required to prevent collision t1 Warning Tone and Lamp System Reactions Crash prevented or mitigated 14

15  Crash types selected as relevant to the technology  Rear-end, striking  Current generation:  Lead vehicle stopped at impact, but seen moving  Lead vehicle slower, steady speed  Lead vehicle decelerating  Lead vehicle cut-in  Next generation:  Lead vehicle stopped, never seen moving Target Crash Types 15

16 Frontal Impacts Slide 16  Rear-end, into stopped van trailer.  Cargo body floor of van rides over front bumper.  Underride to firewall.  Engine ripped from mounts and pushed down, under occupant compartment.

17 F-CAM Benefits 17

18 Technically Possible ≠ Public Acceptance 18

19 Even I can work this one Slide 19

20 Slide 20

21 Slide 21

22 Slide 22

23 Considerations for Integration  Large trucks exist to do work and to do it efficiently. Their worth and function are tied directly to work performance in exchange for money. Trucks are incentivized to be at work constantly – they are a tool of the economy.  Trucks are driven by professional drivers paid to drive and they are highly skilled.  We have everything to gain by keeping the driver engaged – humans are very good vehicle operators.

24 Considerations for Integration  On board technology is dedicated to the single vehicle and provides driver warning and vehicle state corrections.  V2V describes vehicle position, direction and speed at the traffic stream level – provides external conflict input. 24

25 Considerations for Integration  Combining V2V with crash avoidance technology integrates traffic stream data with vehicle-based monitoring and control systems – highly desirable.  Drivers are accident fee 99.99% of the time – better than most “Intelligent Systems”.  We have everything to gain by providing information and corrective actions to reduce human error. 25

26 Replacing the Driver Invites Unintended Consequences Slide 26

27 Considerations for Integration  But we lose so much safety value by replacing the human - think system reliability, cost and unintended consequences.  The goal for commercial vehicles - maximize the power of the human through the use of supporting technologies that warn and intervene at critical moments while retaining the driver as the primary vehicle controller. 27

28 Automated Driving Levels (Trucks) 28 Level 0 No automation Level 1 Adaptive cruise control, auto windshield wipers, automatic lights, anything that supports the driver (e.g. ESC, V2V) Level 2 Hands off and feet off but eyes on. Driver is responsible Level 3 Hands off feet off eyes off – shared dual control but vehicle is responsible Level 4 Complete machine control – Driver has no responsibility at all Allow some flexibility of automation for situations where the technology may help driver “full time” such as platooning, or low speed control (traffic jam assist/pilot, automatic docking, etc).

29 Thank You! 29

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