Presentation on theme: "Misuse of the student route Chris Attwood Home Office Science: Migration and Border Analysis."— Presentation transcript:
Misuse of the student route Chris Attwood Home Office Science: Migration and Border Analysis
By misuse, we mean.... ●Sponsors: ●‘Bogus’ colleges ●Students: ●Application documents ●English language ●Course non-attendance ●Working in breach of terms and conditions ●Overstaying visa 2
Evidence discussion 1) Why do some students comply whilst others don’t? 2) Why do some sponsors comply whilst others don’t? 3) How do sponsors monitor compliance among students? 3
One in five non-EEA students remain in the system five years after first being granted a student visa...... 4 Source: Home Office Migrant Journey Second Report The 2004 cohort – immigration status in 2009, five years after their initial visa, by route
.....with India, in particular, standing out. 5 Source: Home Office Migrant Journey Second Report 185,600 students in 2004 cohort were granted student visas 79% had left the immigration system within 5 years; -15% had transferred to other routes, mainly work - 3% had obtained settlement - 6% were still students Student visas granted in 2004 and their immigration status at end of 2009 – high volume countries
Of those 6% who were still students in 2009 after 5 years in the UK, over half were postgraduates...... 6 Long term students: Study route sample by level of study Source: Home Office Migrant Journey Second report
......with long-term Chinese students generally studying at Universities and Pakistani students at FE/HE colleges 7 Long-term students: Study route sample by type of institution Source: Home Office Migrant Journey Second report
Compliance appears to be an issue in privately funded HEI’s.... Privately funded HE/FE institutions Publicly funded HE/FE institutions English Language schools Enrolled on course and continuing to study 39%47%65% Regularised their stay or left the country 12%15% Did not enter having been issued with a visa letter or a CAS 23%30%6% Have no record of leaving the country and do not have a valid reason to remain (potentially ‘non-compliant’) 26%8%14% Total 100% (1.191 respondents) 100% (2,397 respondents) 100% (2,060 respondents) 8 Students’ compliance by type of sponsoring institution Source: Home Office Occasional Paper 90: Overseas students in the immigration system
.... but is less of an issue in universities 9 Universities Enrolled on course and continuing to study 84% Regularised their stay or left the country 4% Did not enter UK having been issued with a visa letter or a CAS 9% Have no record of leaving the country and do not have a valid reason to remain (potentially ‘non-compliant’) 2% Total 100% (12,656 respondents) Source: Home Office Occasional Paper 90: Overseas students in the immigration system
Non-attendance an issue at privately funded colleges... ‘Points-based system Tier 4: Attendance at privately funded colleges’. (2011) London: Home Office.
... notably for Indian and Pakistani students ‘Points-based system Tier 4: Attendance at privately funded colleges’. (2011) London: Home Office.
Enforcement arrests for Tier 4 visa holders increased in 2010... 12 Number of Tier 4 visa arrests by enforcement; Sept 2009 – Nov 2010 Source: Home Office: Points-based system Tier 4 attendance at privately funded colleges; Annex: Background Information
...and Tier 4 visa applicants were responsible for 13.5% of asylum claims matched to previous applications in 2010 13 Asylum applications matched to PBS T4 (General) Student Visas Source: Home Office: Points-based system Tier 4 attendance at privately funded colleges; Annex: Background Information
Students from India and Pakistan are most likely to seek employment in the UK after graduation Future plans OverallChinaIndiaUSAMalaysiaNigeriaCanadaPakistanHong Kong 2010 Seek short term employment in UK 37% (2,262)33%46%36%37%45%33%46%29% Seek long term employment in UK 45% (2,305)32%55%42%51%54%33%63%41% Undertake further study in UK 49% (2,296)43%39%29%55%69%32%56%42% Apply for perm. residence in UK 29% (2,287)25%27%24%30%39%14%47%31% 14 Likelihood of 2010 graduates to undertake various activities in next 5 years, by nationality Source: Tracking International Graduate Outcomes 2011, i-graduate
Document fraud an issue for student visas.... Tier 4 applications were responsible for 41% of all forgery detections in applications for visas made in 2010, compared to 27% for visit visas, 3% for Tier 1. Vast majority of forgeries related to supporting documents, mainly bank statements submitted as evidence of funds. Top three posts where Tier 4 applications were refused on the basis of forged documents in 2010: New Delhi (India), Islamabad (Pakistan) Dhaka (Bangladesh) (UKBA, 2010a: 21). UK Border Agency (2011) Points-based system Tier 4: attendance at privately funded colleges (including Annex). London: Home Office
.... as is speaking English Anecdotal evidence suggests many Tier 4 visa holders refused entry at port are refused because Border Force Operators determined they could not speak English to the standard required. UK Border Agency (2011) Points-based system Tier 4: attendance at privately funded colleges (including Annex). London: Home Office
And, interviews to test credibility suggest false intentions to study HO pilot study into role of using interviewing powers for entry clearance officers (ECOs) to the T4 route – 2,316 interviews in 13 overseas posts. ECOs could have potentially refused around one third of those granted visas. Largest potential grounds for refusal on credibility grounds referred to: applicants’ intentions to study – indicators included poor academic knowledge, lack of knowledge about the course; + applicants’ intentions to leave the UK at end of course. Credibility refers to intentions to study proposed course, intentions to leave the UK at the end of the course, ability to maintain themselves and dependants.
Notes UKBA Sponsorship Management Unit analysis (September 2010) of 18,304 international students studying at universities, English language schools, publicly funded + privately funded educational establishments. Suggested attendance levels at private institutions relatively low: 39% of non-EEA students were ‘enrolled on a course and continuing to study’ in private institutions, 47% for public institutions, 65% for language schools. Roll-call analysis of the same data, 26% of non-EEA students in private institutions were found to be non-compliant (‘have not left the UK and do not have a valid reason to remain’), 8% for public institutions, 14 per cent for language schools and 6 per cent overall. (Tier 4, evidence base). Note these findings are based on a sample of data and should be taken as indicative only.