Presentation on theme: "IClean - Loitering attack UAV CDR June 27 th, 2012 Aerospace Faculty, Technion, Haifa Moshe Etlis Daniel Levy Mor Ram-On Matan Zazon Ya’ara Karniel Meiran."— Presentation transcript:
iClean - Loitering attack UAV CDR June 27 th, 2012 Aerospace Faculty, Technion, Haifa Moshe Etlis Daniel Levy Mor Ram-On Matan Zazon Ya’ara Karniel Meiran Hagbi Oshri Rozenheck Yanina Dashevski Nathaniel Lellouche Menahem Weinberger Supervised by Dror Artzi
PDR Overview Remarks from PDR Airfoil and Propeller Selection Geometry Improvements Performance Calculations Wing Detailed Design Wings’ Folding Mechanism System Installation Layout Weight and Balance Wind Tunnel Model Design Wind Tunnel Test Conclusions and Recommendations Table of Contents
Operational capabilities: Suicide UAV. Endurance: 5 hr. Range: 400 NM (approx. 750 Km) Man in the loop. Launching System: Mobile Ground Launcher with as many as possible UAV's ready to be launched. Target definition and acquisition: Target type: Static and mobile. Truck Target: detection range of 30 Km, recognition of 12 Km. Target acquisition: Day and Night Capabilities. Attack capabilities: Warhead: Approx. 20 Kg. Attack capabilities: Any angle - vertical or horizontal. Low Cost UAV unit. PDR Overview - Customer Specifications
Diving at 150 kt BOOM!! Launch Climb to 5000 ft Cruise at 5000 ft at approx. 80 kt Loiter at 5000 ft at approx. 60 kt Mission Profile
Airfoil Selection NACA 0012Eppler 560 NACA 0012Eppler 560Improvement (%) Max C L Max L/D Stall angle
NACA 0012Eppler 560NACA 4412Improvement (%) Max C L Max L/D Stall angle Airfoil Selection NACA 4412
Consulting the engine data and information. The chosen engine 3W:275 XiB2 TS (from the PDR). Engine rotation speed : RPM power : 26 horsepower =~ watts. Weight: 15.5 lbs=~ 7 Kg. two blade propeller : 26x16 or 26x14 (“) 3 blade propeller : of 22x14 or 24x14 (“). Propeller Selection
(From our engine data): engine max RPM is 7000 RPM = round per second. Max speed at Propeller Selection - Calculations – Needed Pitch
Our propeller is a 2 bladed-back- folding propeller at the size of 25X18. Propeller Selection - Calculations – Needed Diameter Direction of flight
Stability Solution: Changing the Configuration
40%-60% Configuration’s Stability
Geometry as shown at PDR: Geometry Improvements The final geometry for CDR:
Old: The fuselage becomes thinner in the middle of it and then expends New: The guideline of the fuselage as much as monotonic as possible New: Wings’ hinges are covered New: canard Old: canard Old: Wings’ hinges were exposed Geometry Improvements
ValueProperty Airfoil (EPPLER 560) Aspect ratio Spans Reference lift area Weight Aerodynamic center’s position UAV’s Properties Fuselage Vertical tail
Assumptions: The body as a lift generator componemt: Lift Coefficient’s Properties
ValueProperty Lift coefficient slope Lift coefficient as a function of angle of attack Minimal lift coefficient at height of 0ft and 5000ft Maximal lift coefficient Stall angle Zero lift angle Lift Coefficient’s Properties
ValueProperty Velocity ValueProperty Maximum thrust Minimum thrust Thrust for cruise flight Minimum velocity (stall) - height of 0ft and 5000ft. Assumption: Cruise flight: Assumptions: Cruise flight Maximal velocity: Engine Thrust
Assumption & data: Constant: Range & Endurance ResultProperty Range for climb Endurance for climb Minimum range for cruise Maximum endurance for cruise Final results:
r L F R Booster Rocket Angle
Time of opening the wings: Velocity: Density: The mass : :The lift coefficient The acceleration of the booster: Area of wing that creates the lift: The force that booster applies: The lift: The total moment: 27 Assumptions and data: Booster Rocket Angle
Wing Detailed Design
The lift load distribution on a trapeze wing: Wing Detailed Design - Load Distribution
Assuming this lift load distribution the resultant force is:
The selected method is the vertical pin for the Advantages below: Structural simplicity Load paths determined with Confidence Minimum volume of hinge Simple actuator mechanism Very few moving parts Minimum weight Wing Detailed Design - Joint Selection
A vertical pin through the pivot axis transfer the force-couple from the movable outer wing to the fixed center section Wing Detailed Design - Joint Selection Carbon fiber ± 45 ° Unidirectional Wing's root
Wing Detailed Design - Final Formation
Wing Detailed Design - Strength Analysis
Force and Moment Calculations: Conclusion from Allowable and Actual Stresses Calculations: Wing Detailed Design - Strength Analysis
Pre Calculations: the average velocity of the UAV during launch time is: Reference areas : Wings’ Folding Mechanism
The wing‘s lift during launch time The wing‘s drag during launch time: Tension Drag Wings’ Folding Mechanism
Tension Drag Direction of flight Drag Wings’ Folding Mechanism The wing‘s drag during launch time:
Movement limiters Main spring Connecting rods Bearing Wings’ Folding Mechanism - Other Related Parts Design
Booster for launch Motor & Propeller Integral fuel tank Warhead EO Sensor Wing & Canard Opening mechanism Avionics Internal Layout
S/N Part nameMass[gr] X[cm]My[N*cm] 1StructureFuselage Wings Mechanics –wing Reinforcements- wing Canard wings Mechanics-canard Reinforcements- canard Tail Fuel injection system Engine Fuel Fuel tank Oil Warhead PayloadSensor Battery AvionicsComputer+Control system Total Mass : CGx[cm]: Weight and Balance
Cg=107.5 cm Cp=111.2 cm Weight and Balance - C.G Location 10% chord stability margin
General instructions: Max. length: 100 cm. Max. section area: 2-4% of cell’s section area. Wing tips should be away from the cell’s walls. Model shouldn’t be too small in order to get accurate results. The model’s scale will be 1:7. Wind Tunnel Model Design
Steel reinforcement Hinge Morse cone CanardWing Drawn nose Steel holder
Wind Tunnel Model Design Although in order to keep similarityrules, we had to use an air speed that is greater than 80 m/sec for the experiment, we wanted to avoid the situation in which model’s wings can’t handle the lift loads so we lowered the air speed to 45 m/sec.
Wind Tunnel Model Design Experiment purpose: Find the 2D lift coefficient slope, stall angle, pitch and yaw moments coefficients. Learn about UAV’s stability status. Learn about situations where a flow separation may occur. Air Speed [m/sec] AOA Range [Degrees] PlaneConfiguration Experiment Code No LongitudinalOpen LateralOpen LongitudinalClosed LateralClosed LongitudinalOpen LongitudinalOpen wing only - With tufts LongitudinalFuselage only73857
The different configurations: Open Closed Open with tuftsOpen, wings only with tufts Fuselage only Wind Tunnel Model Design
Wind Tunnel Model
Wing Tunnel Test Results Lift Coefficient for Open Configuration The graph above demonstrates the tunnel results of the total lift coefficient as function of angle of attack in comparison to the calculated theoretical lift coefficient.
Wing Tunnel Test Results Lift Coefficient for Open Configuration The graph above demonstrates the Lift coefficient as function of angle of attack of each lift-generator part of the UAV.
Wing Tunnel Test Results Moment Coefficient for Open Configuration The graph above demonstrates the tunnel results of the total lift coefficient as function of lift coefficient in comparison to the calculated theoretical lift coefficient.
Wing Tunnel Test Results Moment Coefficient for Open Configuration The graph above demonstrates the Moment coefficient as function of angle of attack of each lift-generator part of the UAV.
Wing Tunnel Test Results Drag Coefficient for Open Configuration The graph above demonstrates the tunnel results of the drag coefficient as function of angle of attack in comparison to the calculated theoretical drag coefficient.
Wing Tunnel Test Results Lift Coefficient for Closed Configuration The graph above demonstrates the tunnel results of the total lift coefficient as function of angle of attack in comparison to the calculated theoretical lift coefficient.
Wing Tunnel Test Results Moment Coefficient for Closed Configuration The graph above demonstrates the tunnel results of the total lift coefficient as function of angle of attack in comparison to the calculated theoretical lift coefficient.
1. Improving geometry. 2. Performances estimation. 3. Wing design. 4. Wing & canard opening system. 5. Structural analysis. 6. Building a wind tunnel model or airplane model. And more Work Plan for Current Semester – as Seen on PDR
1.Strengthening the wind tunnel model. 2. Perform additional wind tunnel test on the wings and canards in order to evaluate their mutual affect on each other. Conclusions and Recommendations