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February 17, Aerodynamics 2 PDR Michael Caldwell Jeff Haddin Asif Hossain James Kobyra John McKinnis Kathleen Mondino Andrew Rodenbeck Jason Tang Joe Taylor Tyler Wilhelm AAE 451: Team 2

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Overview 3-View Drawing Airfoil Selection Wing & Tail Geometry Control Surface Sizing & Effectiveness Twist Distribution Mathematical Model Launch Conditions L/D MAX & Endurance

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Aircraft 3-View Mission Requirements 15 min. endurance Take-off distance ≤ 60 ft. V stall ≤ 15 ft./s V loiter ≤ 25 ft./s 35 ft. turn radius

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Selig 1210: M.S.Selig,J.J.Guglielmo,A.P.Broeren and P.Giguere,"Summary of Low-Speed Airfoil Data, Volume 1 – Wind Tunnel Data SELIG 1210 AIRFOIL Airfoil Selection: Wing

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, WORTMANN FX Wortmann FX : M.S.Selig,J.F.Donovan and D.B.Fraser,"AIRFOIL AT LOW SPEEDS – Wind Tunnel Airfoil Selection: Wing

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, SELIG – WORTMANN COMPARISON Selig 1210: M.S.Selig,J.J.Guglielmo,A.P.Broeren and P.Giguere,"Summary of Low-Speed Airfoil Data, Volume 1 – Wind Tunnel Data Wortmann FX : M.S.Selig,J.F.Donovan and D.B.Fraser,"AIRFOIL AT LOW SPEEDS – Wind Tunnel Airfoil Selection: Wing

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Airfoil Selection: Wing Wortmann FX Wortmann FX : M.S.Selig,J.F.Donovan and D.B.Fraser,"AIRFOIL AT LOW SPEEDS – Wind Tunnel

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Airfoil Selection: Wing Wortmann FX : M.S.Selig,J.F.Donovan and D.B.Fraser,"AIRFOIL AT LOW SPEEDS – Wind Tunnel

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Airfoil Selection: Wing Wortmann FX : M.S.Selig,J.F.Donovan and D.B.Fraser,"AIRFOIL AT LOW SPEEDS – Wind Tunnel

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Airfoil Selection: Wing C Lmax vs. Re

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Airfoil Selection: Canard NACA 0012

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Airfoil Selection: Canard Abbott, I.H. & A.E. von Doenhoff, “Theory of Wing Sections”

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Airfoil Selection: Canard Abbott, I.H. & A.E. von Doenhoff, “Theory of Wing Sections”

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Airfoil Selection: Vertical Tails Flat Plate Non-Lifting Surface No Volume Needed Ease of Construction Light Weight

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Geometry Wetted Area : ft 2

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Control Surfaces: Aileron Span: 2.26 ft Chord: 0.2 ft Area: 0.45 ft 2 AILERON force (lbf)

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Control Surfaces: Rudder (Single) Span: 0.57 ft Chord: 0.35 ft Area: 0.20 ft 2 RUDDER force (lbf)

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Control Surfaces: Elevator Span: 1.8 ft Chord: 0.23 ft Area: 0.42 ft 2 ELEVATOR force (lbf)

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Wing Twist Distribution Root: 0.35 o Tip: o

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Wing Twist Distribution *Neglecting Parasite Drag *

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Mathematical Model From Prandtl’s Classical Lifting-Line Theory

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Mathematical Model Re=147,820

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Mathematical Model * Raymer, Daniel P., Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach p.493

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Mathematical Model

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Launch Conditions V take-off = 1.2V stall = 18 ft/s Climb Angle = 20 o Angle of Attack = 4.5 o α Lo = o

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, L/D MAX L/D MAX =10.75 α L/Dmax =0.60 o Re=147,820

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, L/D MAX L/D MAX Velocity Loiter Straight: V L/Dmax = ft/s Loiter Turn: V L/Dmax = ft/s Re=147,820

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Endurance Re=147,820 Assumptions Level Flight No Acceleration Loiter~Straight Time = Loiter~Turning Time

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Summary 3-View Drawing Airfoil Selection Wing & Tail Geometry Control Surface Sizing & Effectiveness Twist Distribution Mathematical Model Launch Conditions L/D MAX & Endurance Questions?

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Appendix

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Mathematical Model No Wing Twist: Re=147,820

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[ Overview | 3-View | Wing | Canard | Tails | Geometry | Control Surfaces | Wing Twist 1 2 | Mathematical Models | Launch Conditions | L/D max 1 2 | Endurance | Summary | Appendix 1 2 ]Overview3-View TailsGeometry Launch Conditions12EnduranceSummary12 February 17, Wing Twist Distribution

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