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1 Aerodynamics PDR 2 Ashley Brawner Neelam Datta Xing Huang Jesse Jones Team 2: Balsa to the Wall Matt Negilski Mike Palumbo Chris Selby Tara Trafton

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2 Overview Design Point Airfoil Selection Component Drag Buildup Drag Polar AR trade study (C L ) max Approximation (C l ) max method (C L ) max Raymer method Flap analysis

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3 The Design Point Weight 5.5 [lbs] Dihedral Angle 0° Speed 110 [ft/sec] Horizontal Tail Span 1.5 [ft] Planform area based on approximated (C L ) max and weight estimate Dihedral angle of 0° taken from Roskam Design speed decreased from 150 ft/sec Designed to high speed mission

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4 Airfoil Selection: Main Wing Wing Section NACA 1408 Gives approximate 2D C l needed for dash Relatively thin for minimizing drag Thick enough for structural strength

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6 Airfoil Selection: Tail Tail Sections Horizontal Stabilizer Symmetric with low C d over a wider range of a.o.a. compared to other similar airfoils Symmetric Jones airfoil (≈8% t/c) Vertical Stabilizer NACA 0006

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8 Drag Build-up Method (Raymer) C fc = Component skin friction coefficient FF c = Component form factor Q c = Component interference effects S wet,c = Component wetted area S ref = Wing planform

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9 Component Coefficient of friction

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10 Drag Build-up Method results Inputs:

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11 Drag Polar

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12 AR Trade study

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13 AR Trade study

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14 (C l ) max Approximation Compare XFOIL with Abbott & Doenhoff wind tunnel data Conclusion α Clmax ≈ 0.8α Clmax(XFOIL)

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19 Flap analysis Use (C L ) max approximation from Raymer Ads Use XFOIL to find (C l ) max with flaps Observation - Flapped (C l ) max follows linear trend Determine maximum achievable (C L ) max Find flap configuration that acheives optimal (C L ) max

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22 Flap analysis: (continued) Use linear fit lines to find a Δ(C l ) max and then find Δ(C L ) max with the following equation from Raymer: ads The ratio blank is based on the intial sizing of the wing area and tail span and is assumed to remain constant

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23 Flap Geometry: flap hinge location (x/c) = 0.8 maximum flap deflection = 35° constant (c f /c) flap (C L ) max (w/ flaps) = 1.06 (C l ) max (w/o flaps) = 0.85

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24 Summary Table (C L ) max (w/ flaps)1.06 (C L ) max (w/o flaps)0.84 C D AR6 b5 [ft] c root [in] c tip 7.35 [in] t root 1.3 [in] t tip 0.6 [in] Flap location (x/c)0.8 Maximum flap deflection35°

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25 Questions?

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