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Loading and Hauling.

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Presentation on theme: "Loading and Hauling."— Presentation transcript:

1 Loading and Hauling

2 Cycle Time = Fixed Time + Variable Time
Fixed Time = spot time, load time, maneuver time, Dump time Variable Time = travel time Resistance Total Resistance = Rolling Resistance + Grade Resistance Rolling Resistance due to tire flexure and surface penetration Grade Resistance due to grade of incline

3 Rolling Resistance 40#/ton on hard surface rubber tired
30#/ton if radials T4-1 Rolling Resistance increases 30#/ton/1” penetration Rolling Resistance Factor = 40# + (30# * inches penetration) Rolling Resistance = Rolling Resistance Factor * tons

4 Grade Resistance % of vehicle weight acting parallel to incline surface Negative going downhill Positive going uphill 20#/ton Grade Resistance Factor = (20# * % grade) Grade Resistance = Grade Resistance Factor * tons Effective Grade (%) = % Grade + Rolling Resistance/20

5 Altitude 3% power loss per 1000 ft
Using turbocharger allows power to stay constant up to 10,000 ft

6 Traction Power available to move vehicle
Rimpull – used for wheeled vehicles Pull available at rim of driving wheel Drawbar pull – used for tracked vehicles Power available at hitch Maximum usable pull = coefficient of traction * wt on driven wheels (for tracked vehicles and all wheel drive vehicles this is total wt) T 4-2

7 Performance Curve Retarder curves
Maximum speed for a given load F 4-1, 4-2 Retarder curves Maximum speed going downhill in gear

8 Travel Time Cannot use max speed Need to account for start up and stop
Average speed factors T 4-3 Max spd * Ave spd factor = speed for haul

9 Dozers Tractor w/ front mounted earthmoving blade Crawler Rubber tired
Low ground pressure (6 – 9psi) Excellent traction Rubber tired Hi spd Can compact soils Can operate on paved surfaces

10 Dozers Attachments Rakes, scarifiers, rippers
tow compactors, scrapers, wagons Blades F4-7, F4-8 Performance based on power vs blade size Hp/ ft of cutting edge -> blades ability to penetrate hard soils Hp/loose cy -> blades ability to push soil

11 Production 5 bullets pg 96 show how to determine blade volume
Blade load (LCY) = HWL Fixed cycle time – maneuver, change gears, start loading, dump Variable time – time to doze and return Can decrease by using reverse to return T4-4, 4-5

12 Job Management Downhill dozing Slot Dozing Blade to Blade
Increases blade load Cycle time reduction Slot Dozing Increases blade capacity up to 50% Blade to Blade 2 dozers together Combined capacity > 2x 1 dozer

13 Care for tracks and undercarriage
Must keep tracks clean Must keep undercarriage clean and in good repair Don’t run at hi spd over rough terrain Minimize turns Try to balance left and right turns and up & down slope operation

14 Loaders Tractor with a front end bucket Wheeled or tracked
Excavate soft – medium hard material Load hoppers and haul units Stockpile material, backfill ditches Moving material

15 Loaders Wheel Loaders Tracked Loaders Backhoe loader F 4-11
High mobility Not all terrain but low ground pressure Modern are articulated F 4-9 Tracked Loaders Can operate in most soils and on steeper slopes Slower over longer haul distances=> less productivity F 4-10 Backhoe loader F 4-11 Attachments – augers, snow blades, forklifts, dozer blade, crane booms

16 Skid Steers Small wheeled loader w/ rigid axles
Steers by braking wheels on one side <10,000# weight Lift capacities of 600 – 6300 # Can also be tracked List of attachments pg 100 Also mini excavators

17 Material Handlers Rough terrain forklifts Common Lull Max lift 9000#
Max height > 60 ft Move materials around site Eliminates hand carrying or use of other equipment for carrying

18 Loader Production Average Bucket load x cycles per hour
Cycle time = loading, dumping, making 4 reversals in direction, traveling minimum distance T 4-6, F 4-14 Bucket Capacity is heaped T3-1 and use fill factor T3-2 Ex 4-7

19 Job Management Cutting tires major problem
L-5 tires – rock extra deep tread should be used when dealing with shot rock Keep water out – lubricates rock /rubber cutting Need to know tipping load – may limit amount of material in bucket Loader size & productivity based on site limitations

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