Personality TIPS! Make sure you learn the specific definition of personality! Have awareness of the links between personality and sports performance. It is important to understand the NATURE (trait) V NURTURE (social learning) and interactionist perspectives of behaviour. Learn the strengths and weaknesses of each perspective. Be aware of the problems associated with the use of personality profiling in sport.
Personality “The sum total of an individuals characteristics which make him unique” (Hollander). “Personality is the more or less stable and enduring organisation of a persons character, temperament, intellect and physique which determines the unique adjustment to the environment” (Eysenck).
Personality Types INTROVERT Shy, timid, reserved, aloof, self sufficient EXTROVERT Adventurous, confident, Sociable, Group dependent, enthusiastic TYPE ‘A’ Highly competitive, Strong desire to succeed, Works fast, likes to control, Prone to suffer stress TYPE ‘B’ Non-competitive, Unambitious, Works more slowly, Does not enjoy control Less prone to stress TRAITS NARROW BAND APPROACH, GIRDANO, 1990
Personality Theories Trait Theory “People are born with established personality characteristics” Inherited at birth. Stable Enduring consistent in all situations. BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY +ve = Can be easily measured through questionnaires -ve = Does not take into account environmental influences. It is not a true indicator of behaviour. CATTELL (1965) identified 16 personality traits INTROVERT & EXTROVERT Social Learning Theory (Bandura) “All behaviour is learned through interaction with the environment” BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENT -ve = Does not consider inherited behaviour (traits) NATURE V’s NURTURE Interactionist Theory “Behaviour occurs from the interaction between inherited traits and learned experiences” BEHAVIOUR = FUNCTION OF PERSONALITY × ENVIRNOMENT
Personality Theories Concentric Ring Theory (Hollander 1967) The boundary line of each layer gets wider as you get closer to the centre of the model which shows that each layer is harder to enter. As you move closer to the centre, your ‘real’ personality begins to surface Role Related Behaviour – Surface of personality Typical Response – Your usual response in most situations The Psychological Core – The ‘real you’
Personality Theories Psychodynamic Theory (Freud, 1933) ID Basic Instinct (no conscious control) EGO Conscious link with reality SUPER EGO Moral Arm (social conscience) ID, EGO & SUPER EGO interact to produce individual patterns of behaviour in sport. ****THINK OF AGGRESSION AS AN EXAMPLE!**** Personality is formed from the conflict of SEEKING, RELEASING and INHIBITING behaviour.
Personality Testing Methods of Testing 1)Observation 2)Psychometric methods: self report questionnaires (16 personality factor questionnaire designed by CATTELL) Problems 1)Questionnaires, observations and self-reports are not reliable as people can fix answers. 2)SCEPTICAL APPROACH: Evidence is too general – personality alone can not predict behaviour. 3)CREDULOUS APPROACH: Although there is a link between personality research and performance in sport, there is lack of evidence to support this.
Attitudes TIPS! Make sure you understand how attitudes are formed and influenced. You need to be able to explain how attitudes can be changed. Try to understand the links between attitude and behaviour in sport.
ATTITUDE OBJECTS The people, subject or situation towards which an attitude is directed.
What is an ATTITUDE? ATTITUDES – A learned behavioural predisposition. (linked with personality) UNSTABLE CAN BE CHANGED/ CONTROLLED ENDURING EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIOURAL RESPONSE LEARNED DIRECTED TOWARDS ATTITUDE OBJECTS
Formation of Attitudes ATTITUDES PARENTS FRIENDS/ PEERS COACHES/ TEACHERS MEDIA PAST EXPERIENCES PREDUJICE Attitudes are mainly formed through experiences. Socialisation: The process of mixing and relating to other people.
Triadic Model of Attitudes This is known as the information component This concerns how a person intends to behave towards an attitude object This is known as the emotional component
Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger) If a person hold two ideas that oppose and conflict with each other an element of discomfort arises. Emotional conflict is called DISSONANCE.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory (Festinger) To reduce this feeling of dissonance, the impact of one of the conflicting ideas could be lessened and therefore an attitude would change. Updating knowledge or providing a person with new information can change the cognitive component. Providing a person with new and positive experiences can modify the affective component. If a skill is simplified or if some form of guidance is used to make execution easier, the behavioural component of attitude can be changed. Remember METHODS OF GUIDANCE from AS SKILL
Persuasive Communication Theory You need to be aware of most effective way of persuading someone to change their attitude. Would these people persuade you or would they just cause you stress?
Persuasive Communication Theory PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION the person must - pay attention - understand - accept - retain the message being given the coach must - be expert - be trustworthy the message must - be clear - be unambiguous - be balanced between pros and cons 1.The Persuader Significant other with high status 2. The Message Positive to initiate the change 3. The recipients Easy to changed an attitude if the recipient really wishes to be changed 4. The situation The presence of other persuaders
TASK………… You are a GCSE PE pupil. How could persuasive communication change your negative attitude towards cross country?
ANSWER………… 1.A significant other, e.g. teacher/captain persuades you that cross country has excellent fitness benefits for a GCSE PE pupil. The teacher explains that they can chose cross country as one of their 4 sports. 2.The teacher tells you it will improve your practical grade if you opt for cross country. 3.You understand that this could improve your overall practical grade so you begin to realise the benefits of taking part. 4.Other pupils in your GCSE class share positive experiences of cross country with you and actively encourage you to take part.
TASK………… How could a physical education teacher change the negative attitude that a pupil may have towards swimming?
ANSWER….. Educate the pupil about the benefits of swimming Use cognitive dissonance theory Persuasive communication from a significant other, e.g. teacher Set achievable goals to ensure pupil achieves success and experiences enjoyment. Offer rewards, e.g. praise, trophies. Familiarise with role models from within the sport of swimming. Use floats to make execution of some strokes easier. Attribution retraining.
To conclude………. Attitudes are generally poor predictors of behaviour. Social and situational factors influence actual behaviour very strongly. “Behavioural intention is the strongest predictor of behaviour (Fishbein, 1974).”
Achievement Motivation TIPS! You need to understand the meaning of the term ‘achievement motivation’. Make sure you know the characteristics of the different personality types – TAS and TAF. You need to be aware of the links between personality and the motive to achieve. It is important to make links between TAS and TAF and ‘attributions’ for success and failure.
Achievement Motivation Achievement Motivation is a concept developed by sports psychologists to link PERSONALITY and COMPETITIVENESS. The major issue centres on the extent to which an INDIVIDUAL IS MOTIVATED TO ATTAIN SUCCESS. Success in sport is measured against some type of COMPETITIVE GOAL.
Types of Goals According to BIDDLE, there are several types of goal against which success can be judged: MASTERY or TASK GOALS: Associated with self- improvement, e.g. trying to achieve a PB in athletics (the same as PROCESS GOALS). EGO or ABILITY GOALS: Involve a comparison against ones rivals, e.g. beating everyone else to win the club tennis tournament (the same as OUTCOME GOALS) SOCIALLY APPROVED GOALS: Involves seeking social reinforcement as a measure of success, e.g. winning to earn approval from parents or coaches. THINK BACK TO GOALS FROM AS SKILL!
Atkinson & McClelland (1976) – Interactionist View Competitive orientation is generated through personality and situational factors In any challenging situation, everyone will have both a ‘need to achieve’ and a ‘need to avoid failure’. Whichever feeling is stronger will determine whether the task is accepted or declined.
Personality Factors A = TAS someone with a high need to achieve will probably have a low need to avoid failure and will choose difficult or demanding tasks which are more risky, e.g. the hard route up a rock face B = TAF someone with a high need to avoid failure will probably have a low need to achieve and will choose tasks which are less risky and more easily achieved, e.g. the easy route up the rock face TAS = Tendency to APPROACH success TAF = Tendency to AVOID failure
Situational Factors A = If the probability of success low (competing against the world champion) you will strive very hard to win (incentive high). You will be highly chuffed if you win. B = If the probability of success high (competing in local club match) you don’t need to try as hard to win (incentive low and expect to win easily). It is not so pleasing if you win.
What can the coach do? IMPROVE NEED AND MOTIVE TO ACHIEVE (Nach) Increase positive reinforcement hence increasing pride and satisfaction Ensure that goals are achievable Ensure that at least some situations guarantee success and subsequently gradually increase task difficulty in line with progress Ensure that tasks are challenging Ensure that the probability of success is good Ensure that the incentive value of the success is high (is the race worth winning?)
REDUCE TENDENCY AND MOTIVE TO AVOID FAILURE (NaF) Reduce punishment hence lowering the chance of performer worrying about failure Focus negative feedback on effort rather than ability. This avoids the performer tending to believe that causes of failure are internal (due to lack of ability for example) and reduces the risk of learned helplessness. Avoid situations where defeat / failure is inevitable (such as performing against a much superior opponent) if this is not possible alter the criteria for success (you will have succeeded if you only lose by 2 goals). What can the coach do?
Group Dynamics TIPS! Be able to define the terms ‘group’ and ‘team’. You need to understand Steiner’s model of group performance. Be able to explain the Ringlemann effect and social loafing and how they damage the cohesiveness of a team. Learn the factors affecting the cohesiveness of a group and how any breakdowns can be prevented. Learn the characteristics of an effective leader. Describe emergent and prescribed leaders. You need to be able to understand the different perspectives on and theories of leadership.
Groups “Groups are those social aggregates that involve mutual awareness and the potential for interaction” (McGrath) GROUPS (Carron) A collective identity A sense of shared purpose A clear structure for communication
Group Cohesion “The extent to which a group sticks together in pursuit of a common goal.” TASK COHESION The way team members work together to successfully complete a task, e.g. a football team sets Out to win by adopting attacking Tactics at home & away matches Vital in INTERACTIVE Sports, e.g. hockey SOCIAL COHESION The personal relationships within a group which relies on individuals enjoying social interaction, e.g. strong Bond developed whilst on tour. Vital in CO-ACTIVE sports, e.g. track and field
Group Dynamics “The social processes operating within the group between individual members.” SUB GROUPS Small groups contained within the whole group GROUP DYNAMIC SOCIOGRAM The best way of illustrating the group dynamics of a team. TO ACHIEVE COHESION Break down cliques and sub groups Separate pairs Integrate isolates Team sports rely on units within the team Working closely together
Steiner’s Model ACTUAL = POTENTIAL - LOSSES DUE TO PRODUCTIVITY PRODUCTIVITY FAULTY PROCESSES (AP) (PP) (FP) The team performance at any given time (due to successful interaction) The maximum capability of the group when cohesiveness is strongest Factors that go wrong in team performance which impede/ prevent group cohesion e.g. co- ordination losses & motivational losses GROUP COHESION IS THE FORCE THAT BINDS A GROUP TOGETHER, HELPING TO PREVENT FAULTY PROCESSES.
Faulty Processes Co-ordination Losses o These occur when the ‘operational effectiveness’ of the group cannot be sustained for the whole match. o Planned strategies/tactics may go wrong due to positional error or bad timing, e.g. Line out in rugby. A co-ordination loss that leads to a breakdown in team work is called the RINGLEMANN EFFECT. Problems with team co-ordination are more likely to increase as the number of team members increase. Motivation Losses o This may occur if the task is too difficult. o Also an individual might suffer loss of motivation causing them to withdraw effort and coast through that part of the game. A motivation loss that leads to a reduction in effort is called SOCIAL LOAFING. This is called when an individuals efforts go unnoticed or when someone feels like the others on their team are not trying hard enough. People with low SC tend to be loafers.
Group Locomotion “ The process that explains the reasons why the group has formed. It symbolises the activity of the team.” For locomotion to be efficient there must be a LEADER to ensure the co- ordination of the team. ****Don’t always assume that good players make good leaders! Make sure you know the characteristics of a good leader****
Leadership What makes a good Leader? Good communication skills Highly developed perception skills Good at making decisions Empathy with team members Understand the needs of others Experience Vision Ambition Determination Think of Woody from Toy Story!
Selection of a Leader EMERGENT LEADERS: Already belongs to the group & selection is made formally, e.g. by vote or interview. PRECRIBED LEADERS: Selected from outside of the group and is known as an external appointment.
Leadership Theories o TRAIT APPROACH: Leaders are born with the skills necessary to take charge……however, although certain traits may be helpful in leadership, they are not essential, so this theory is NOT A GOOD PREDICTOR OF BEHAVIOUR. o SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY: The skills of leadership can be acquired by copying others and then developed through experiences. Copying successful role models is called ‘vicarious reinforcement.’ This DOES NOT TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE TRAIT PERSPECTIVE. o INTERACTIONIST THEORY: Leaders emerge because of inherited abilities (traits) and learned skills. Interactionist theory gives a MORE REALISTIC EXPLANATION OF HUMAN BEHAVIOURS IN SPORT. IS A LEADER BORN OR MADE?
Styles of Leadership Autocratic Leaders (task orientated): Tend to make all decisions Motivated to complete a task as quickly and effectively as possible Authoritarian style – they do not take into account the groups opinions Does not share responsibility Effective when quick decisions need to be made Democratic Leaders (social/personal orientated): Shares decisions and responsibilities with group Interested in developing inter- personal relationships within the team Effective in co- active sports Laisser-faire Leaders: Leader stands aside and allows the group to make their own decisions Members of this type of group tend to be aggressive towards one another when mistakes occurred and they gave up easily.
Fiedler’s Contingency Model According to Fiedler, the correct style of leadership to adopt depends on the ‘favourableness’ of the situation. Highly favourable situationHighly unfavourable situation Leaders position is strongLeaders position is weak Task is simple with clear structureTask is complex with vague structure Warm group and leader relationsHostile group and leader relations AUTOCRATIC LEADERS are more effective in both the MOST FAVOURABLE and the LEAST FVOURABLE situations. DEMOCRATIC LEADERS are more effective in MODERATELY FAVOURABLE situations.
Multidimensional Model of Sports Leadership
CHELLANDURAI believed that the effectiveness of the group could be judged on: 1.The degree of success accomplished during a task 2.The extent to which the group experienced satisfaction while being led to the goal. SITUATIONAL, LEADER AND GROUP MEMBER CHARACTERISCS interact to determine the behaviour adopted by the leader (these are ANTECEDENTS) REQUIRED, ACTUAL AND PREFERRED BEHAVIOUR are 3 types of leader behaviour that would be guided by these antecedents. If all three of the leader behaviours are CONGRUENT (coincide exactly) then members will be highly satisfied and produce high group performance. Effective leadership has taken place if the ACTUAL BEHAVIOUR HAS SURPASSED THE SITUATIONAL DEMANDS AND THE STYLE HAS MET WITH THE APPROVAL OF THE GROUP.
Mental Preparation TIPS! You need to understand the meaning and links between commitment, self- confidence, concentration and control of emotion. Be able to explain each term in the context of mental preparation for sport performance. You must be able to identify and explain the relevant theories associated with each term.
Mental Preparation 4 C’ s
Concentration “A state of mind in which attention is directed towards a specific aim or activity.” “Mistakes in top level sport happen not because technique is suspect, but because of attentional errors” (MARTENS) LINKED WITH AROUSAL! When AROUSAL IS LOW the PERCEPTUAL FIELD WIDENS and an excessive number of environmental cues enter into the information processing system. SELECTIVE ATTENTION IS NOT in operation and CONCENTRATION ON RELEVANT INFORMATION IS DIFFICULT. **********INFORMATION OVERLOAD OCCURS ********** LOW AROUSAL PERCEPTUAL FIELD WIDENS LIMITED SELECTIVE ATTENTION = LACK OF CONCENTRATION
Cue Utilisation Theory This theory predicts ‘THE SELECTION OF THE MOST RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL DATA AT THE OPTIMAL AROUSAL LEVEL’. As arousal increases the perceptual field will adjust to the ideal width enabling the performer to focus on the most relevant cues/information. Selective attention is fully operational and the potential to concentrate is maximised. Beyond this optimal threshold (over aroused), the perceptual focus narrows excessively and the relevant cues may be missed. The athlete appears highly agitated and panics. This condition is known as HYPER-VIGILANCE or PANIC. HIGH AROUSAL PERCEPTUAL FIELD NARROWS RELEVANT CUES MISSED = HYPER-VIGILANCE & PANIC OPTIMAL AROUSAL PERCEPTUAL FIELD AT IDEAL WIDTH SELECTIVE ATTENTIONS IN OPERATION = CONCENTRATION IS MAXIMISED!
NIDEFFER’S ATTENTIONAL STYLES BROAD - a player concentrates on the whole game - all players’ positions and movements - open skills NARROW - the player concentrates on one aspect of the game - the goalkeeper - closed skills INTERNAL - the player decides to concentrate on his own technique EXTERNAL -the player focuses on the position of his opposite number EXTERNAL INTERNAL BROADNARROW All players have a preferred attentional style. To improve performance it is necessary to operate successfully in all styles. Think of the difference between a C & GA in Netball
Emotional Control AROUSAL, ANXIETY, STRESS and ACTIVATION all relate to MOTIVATION. Arousal will improve performance up to an optimal point, however this optimal threshold changes or ‘shifts’ for every individual and different situation. Personality -Extroverts perform best when arousal is high (seek stimulation of RAS) - Introverts perform best at low arousal (sensitive RAS system) Task Type - Simple/ Gross skills are performed better in high arousal, e.g. shot put - Complex/ fine skills are performed better in low arousal, e.g. spin bowling in cricket Stage of Learning -Autonomous stage perform better in high arousal - Cognitive/ associative phase perform better in low arousal Experience - Experienced performer is best in high arousal - Novice performer is best in low arousal
Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (Hanin) Athlete A (low ZOF) Athlete B (moderate ZOF) Athlete C (high ZOF) In zone (best performance) Out of zone In zone (best performance) Out of zone In zone (best performance) Increasing Arousal An athlete will enter the zone when arousal is at an optimum level and the situation matches the athlete’s strongest attentional style.
Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (Hanin) PersonalityTask TypeStage of Learning Experience Low Zone of Functioning (low arousal) INTROVERT SIMPLE/ GROSS SKILLS, E.G. SHOT PUT COGNITIVE/ ASSOCIATIVE PHASE NOVICE PERFORMERS High Zone of Functioning (high arousal) EXTROVERT COMPLEX/ FINE SKILLS, E.G. SPIN BOWLING AUTONOMOUSEXPERIENCED PERFORMER Different people perform better under different (arousal) conditions:
Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (Hanin)……… Teachers and coaches should guide the performer towards their personal ‘optimal threshold’ or ‘individual zone of optimal functioning’. IN THE ZONE! EFFORTLESS PERFORMANCE THE ATHLETE FEELS IN FULL CONTROL ATTENTION AND CONCENTRATION OF THE PERFORMER IS FOCUSED EXECUTION OF THE SKILL BRINGS ENJOYMENT AND SATISFACTION
Anxiety TRAIT ANXIETY: Genetically inherited. These people appear to be anxious at all times. This tends to be permanent and relatively stable. STATE ANXIETY: This fluctuates in response to a given situation and is associated with arousal. It is a learned behavioural response, but can be controlled and manipulated to facilitate optimal performance. (SPIELBERGER) SOMATIC (physical) RESPONSE: Follows the inverted U hypothesis and refers to physiological changes. Somatic responses include excesses muscular tension, heart and respiration rates, resulting in impaired movement. This condition will not allow the performer to enter a ‘peak flow’ state. COGNITIVE (psychological) RESPONSE: Reflects increasing worry about performance. They could become increasingly apprehensive and develop doubts and negative thoughts. Attentional changes occur which negatively impact on the information processing system. If the athlete experiences worry, he or she will not attain a ‘peak flow’ state.
Anxiety ‘Anxiety occurs when there is a substantial imbalance between the individual’s perception of their ability and their perception of the demands and importance of the situation.’ (MARTENS) Perception of the situational Demands. e.g. I must win my leg of the relay if my team is to have the chance of winning. Perception of ability to cope. e.g. I am not as good as my opponent Perception of the importance of the situation. e.g. The result of this competition hinges on this relay race. ANXIETY
PEAK FLOW PEAK FLOW: Optimal experience that facilitates best performance and is intrinsically valuable. (Csikzentmimalyi) Excitement, happiness Relaxation, Drowsiness Anxiety, anger Boredom fatigue High somatic arousal Low somatic arousal High cognitive Arousal anxiety Low cognitive Arousal anxiety Peak flow occurs when somatic anxiety has reached an appropriate threshold and cognitive anxiety is low. flow state is attained when the performer has a balanced perception of the demands of the situation and his/her ability to cope. a high incentive value is to be gained from a challenge that is both realistic and attainable. The focus of attention and concentration is maximised. there is a self-confident belief that nothing could go wrong. the situation suits the athlete’s strongest attentional style. During these rare moments in sport, the athlete assumes control over all internal and environmental variables and a time of greatest happiness and self- fulfilment is experienced.
Competitive Effects on Sport Performance TIPS! You need to be able to recognise the difference between aggression, assertion and channelled aggression. You need to understand the main theories of aggression. Be able to describe how aggressive tendencies can be limited. Understand the difference between social facilitation and social inhibition. Describe the major theories of social facilitation and be able to link them to arousal. Try to understand the homefield advantage phenomenon. Be able to suggest strategies to combat social inhibition.
Aggression “Any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means.” (BULL) “Any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another human being who is motivated to avoid such treatment.” (BARON) HOSTILE (OR REACTIVE) AGGRESSION Main aim is to harm and inflict injury. Aggressive actions are outside the rules of the game ‘Hostile destructiveness’ (PARENS) Hostile aggression involves anger. This type of aggression needs to be eliminated from sport! INSTRUMENTAL (OR CHANNELLED) AGGRESSION Actions within the rules of the game. Although PRIMEmotive is the successful execution of the skill, there is still the intention to harm. Anger is not evident. Present in many sporting situations. ASSERTIVE BEHAVIOUR No intention to harm. Strictly within the rules and spirit of the game. Robust, but functional play. Primarily focused on completing the skill successfully. ‘Non-hostile self- protective mastery behaviour’ (PARENS, 1987)
Antecedents of Aggression AGGRESSION NATURE OF THE GAME WIDE DIVISION BETWEEN SCORES PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED GRUDGES OR SCORES TO SETTLE HOSTILE CROWDS VENUE…AWAY TEAM FRUSTRATION CAUSED BY POOR PERFORMANCE, OPPOSITION OR REFS DECISIONS. HIGH AROUSAL LEVELS EXTRINSIC REWARDS
Theories of Aggression INSTINCT THEORY (TRAIT PERSPECTIVE) - Proposed by FRUED but developed but LORENZ in ‘Aggression is genetically inherited and that trait of violence lies within everyone due to a basic instinct to dominate.’ - ‘Death instinct’ (FREUD) - ‘Aggressive energy is constantly building up and needs to be released’ (LORENZ) SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY - Proposed by BANDURA, 1966 but developed by LEAKEY. - Aggression is not biologically based but is nurtured through environmental forces. - Learned by watching and copying role models and it becomes an excepted mode of behaviour if reinforced. FRUSTRATION AGGRESSION HYPOTHESIS – INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE - Proposed by DOLLARD. - ‘Frustration develops when goal-directed behaviour or NACH is blocked.’ -It is instinctive to fulfil the need to release frustration. - Instinct theory – aggression is the goal. - Aggression = successful = catharsis - Aggression = unsuccessful = more frustration AGGRESSION CUE HYPOTHESIS (BERKOWITZ, 1969) – INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE - Builds upon DOLLARD’S work. -Frustration leads to an increase in arousal which, in some situations will result in aggression. -Cues = baseball bats, violent acts being witnessed, nature of the game will trigger aggression if arousal is high. -Best players have the ability/temperament to control frustration and arousal.
Methods to eliminate aggression Punish aggressive play. Withdraw violent players from the situation. Stress performance rather than the outcome. Emphasise non-aggressive role models. Make use of cognitive strategies to prevent aggressive play. Positively reinforce non-aggressive behaviour and negatively reinforce aggressive behaviour. Change athletes perceptions of the situation. Implement stress management techniques. Lower arousal levels
Social Facilitation/Inhibition SOCIAL FACILITATION: The presence of an audience positively increases arousal levels and performance is enhanced. SOCIAL INHIBITION: A negative effect on performance is experienced due to the attendance of an audience. TRIPLETT (1898) – 1 st Sport Psych Experiment: The presence of others… -Arouses competitive drive - Releases energy - Increases the speed of performance ZAJONC - The ‘mere’ presence of others is sufficient to increase the arousal level of the performer. -This uses ‘drive theory’ to predict the effect of others on performance. - As arousal increases (as would happen when spectators are present), there is a greater likelihood of the dominant response occurring. COTTRELL’S EVALUATION APPREHENSION - In some circumstances the audience can have a calming effect. - Increases in arousal were only present when the performer perceived that the audience was assessing performance.
Social Facilitation/Inhibition Homefield Advantage: -Large supportive home crowds have a positive effect on performance. - Most evident in indoor sports such as basketball. - Crowd gets close to the action, increasing audience influence. This is called the ‘proximity effect.’ Distraction/ Conflict Theory (Barron, 1986) -Individuals can only attend to a limited amount of environmental cues. - Spectators demand the same attention as other players, resulting in more competition for attentional space. - Complex actions would therefore be impaired in front of large crowds. Strategies to Combat Social Inhibition: - Practice selective attention. - Use imagery, mental rehearsal to block out audience effects. - Ensure essential skills are over- learned and grooved. - introduce evaluative others into practice. - Raise athletes’ awareness of the zone of optimal functioning. - Incorporate stress management into training. - Appropriate use of attribution
Attribution Theory TIPS! You should be able to identify the reasons for success and failure in sport. You need to understand ‘Weiner’s Attribution Model’ and be able to relate it to specific sporting situations. Learn the definitions of ‘mastery orientation’ and ‘learned helplessness’.
Attribution Theory Attribution theory looks at the common reasons coaches and players give for their success or failure in sport. Weiner’s Attribution Model LOCUS OF CAUSALITY is the performance outcome caused by - INTERNAL factors under the control of the performer ability / effort - EXTERNAL factors beyond the control of the performer task difficulty / luck STABILITY is the performance outcome caused by - STABLE factors fixed factors which don’t change with time ability / task difficulty - UNSTABLE factors factors which can vary with time effort / luck
Attribution Theory HIGH ACHIEVERS attribute success to internal factors and attribute failure to external factors LOW ACHIEVERS attribute success to external factors and attribute failure to internal factors HIGH ACHIEVER LOW ACHIEVER motivation? high motive to achieve success low motive to achieve success low motive to avoid failure high motive to avoid failure focuses on pride on success focuses on shame and worry about failure attributionsascribes success to stable ascribes success to unstable internal and controllable factors external uncontrollable factors ascribes failure to unstableascribes failure to stable external uncontrollable factors internal controllable factors goals adoptedadopts task oriented goalsadopts outcome oriented goals task choice seeks challenging tasks and avoids challenge, seeks very difficult competitive situations or very easy tasks / competition performanceperforms well in front of performs badly in front of evaluative audiences evaluative audiences
Attribution Retraining The coach changes the usual external attributions for failure into internal, unstable controllable factors. The athlete has little control over ability, luck or task difficulty but has complete control over EFFORT. Effort is internal and unstable and can be changed by the performer. Attributing a lack of success to internal and unstable factors will help to prevent learned helplessness. LEARNED HELPLESSNESS A belief acquired over time that one has no control over events and that failure is inevitable. A feeling of ‘hopelessness.’