# IENG 471 Facilities Planning

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IENG 471 Facilities Planning
IENG Lecture 05 Group Technology – Production Flow Analysis 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning (c) D.H. Jensen

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Agenda Assignment Direct Clustering Algorithm King’s Algorithm Questions & Issues 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Assignments Current Assignment: HW 4 Download spreadsheet from the Group Technology II Link on the Materials page – follow the steps for Kings’ Algorithm HW: (HW 4) See Assignment Link Individual Assignment Can work together in groups, but each person turns in their own assignment PRINT out the initial and final matrix for each problem Highlight the family cells on the final matrix Interpret the final matrix of family cells – list which items compose each family, AND discuss how that affects the operation of the facility Next Assignment: Exam I 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

Volume, Variety & Automation
IENG 471 Facilities Planning Volume, Variety & Automation Rembold, et. al. Transfer Line 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 1 Production Quantity High Medium Low Increasing Flexibility Batch Flow Line Increasing Productivity Based on quantity to produce and the variety demanded, different strategies for mfg can be employed. Left, top is typical mass production equipment. Lower, right is typical job shop equipment (if automated). Middle ranges are typical of Batch Production. Flexible Mfg Sys Mfg Cell NC Machine ,000 Low Medium High Part Variety 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning (c) D.H. Jensen

Layout Impact on Facility’s Machines
Job Shop Layout Group by individual machines Add all equipment fractions, then round up* Mass Production Layout Group by individual products Round up* all equipment fractions, then add Cellular Layout Group by similar part-process families Add family equipment fractions, then round up*, then add * Multiply number of each machine type by footprint size after rounding to find the actual space required 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Layout Patterns Product Layout High Medium Product Volume Family / GT Cell Layout Bulky, Difficult to Move Equip. (Precision fixtures) Process Layout Low Fixed Location Layout Bulky, Difficult to Move Prod. (Planes, ships, etc.) Low Medium High Product Variety Can Have Combinations (HYBRIDS)! 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Examples For the following situations, what type of General Layout would you suggest? The assembly of bodies for GM midsize SUVs Fabrication & Assembly of custom made sheet metal parts Fabrication of computer cases for a line of desktop PCs, plus custom made sheet metal parts Assembly of three distinct families of electronic cards for inkjet printers Production of high quality, custom office furniture 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Group Technology (GT) Philosophy: Use the similarity of current products to simplify the design and manufacturing of new products Some Applications: Identify and reuse similar process plans Identify and reuse similar CNC programs Identify the equipment that may be best used in a particular machine cell Identify and eliminate redundant inventory Requirement: A taxonomy of part characteristics 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Benefits of GT Facilitates formation of part families and machine cells Quick retrieval of designs, drawings, & process plans Reduces design duplication Provides reliable workpiece statistics Facilitates accurate estimation of machine tool requirements and logical machine loadings Permits rationalization of tooling setups, reduces setup time, and reduces production throughput time Allows rationalization and improvement in tool design Aids production planning and scheduling procedures Improves cost estimation and facilitates cost accounting procedures Provides for better machine tool utilization and better use of tools, fixtures, & people Facilitates NC part programming. (Ham) 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
How to Identify Groups Similar Design Attributes Size of parts Geometric shape of parts Materials Technique: Parts Classification & Coding Similar Manufacturing Attributes Common processing steps (routings) Common tools and fixtures Technique: Production Flow Analysis Similarity groupings are called Part Families 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
PFA Introduction PFA is Production Flow Analysis A subset of Group Technology (GT) Goals: Reduce material transport efforts Reduce set up efforts Reduce work in process inventory Steps: Identify OP-Codes for each Component Routing/Process Planning information for each part Incidence Matrix Blocking (Triangularization) Algorithm Cluster Identification 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
OP-Codes An OP-Code forms an index to an Operation Plan An Operation Plan is a generalized sequence of steps, perhaps common to multiple parts An OP-Code Sequence is a method of condensing the Operation Plan into a compact structure suitable for data processing 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
OP-Code Example OP Code Operation Plan 01 Saw01 Cut to size 02 Lathe02 Face end Center drill Drill Ream Bore Turn straight Turn groove Chamfer Cut off Face 03 Grind01 Grind 04 Insp06 Inspect dimension Inspect finish Rotational Part (sectional view) 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
OP-Code Example OP Code Sequence 01 Saw01 02 Lathe02 03 Grind01 04 Insp06 OP Code Operation Plan 01 Saw01 Cut to size 02 Lathe02 Face end Center drill Drill Ream Bore Turn straight Turn groove Chamfer Cut off Face 03 Grind01 Grind 04 Insp06 Inspect dimension Inspect finish 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Incidence Matrix Rows represent OP-Codes (index = i) Columns represent Components (index = j) Cell Entries are: (Mij) 1 (or mark) - if the component requires the operation 0 (or blank) - if the component does NOT require the operation A-112 A-115 Saw01 1 Lathe01 Lathe02 Drill01 Mill02 Mill05 Grind05 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 1
Calculate the total (binary) weight of each column j: Wj =  2i Mij  i After Chang, Wysk, & Wang (1998) p.500 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A0 2i i S01 1 2 L01 4 L02 8 3 D01 16 M02 32 5 M05 64 6 G05 128 7 G06 256 Wj 138 48 10 336 Rank 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 2
Sort the columns into rank order, then go to Step 3: A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A2 A6 A7 A1 A0 S01 1 L01 L02 D01 M02 M05 G05 G06 Wj 6 10 48 64 138 336 Rank 2 3 4 5 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 3
Calculate the total (binary) weight of each row i: Wi =  2j Mij  j A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A2 A6 A7 A1 A0 Wi Rank S01 1 574 4 L01 2 L02 602 5 D01 1088 7 M02 64 M05 1408 8 G05 512 3 G06 1024 6 2j 16 32 128 256 j 9 10 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 4
If all rows are in rank order STOP; otherwise, sort the rows into rank order, and then go to Step 1: A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A2 A6 A7 A1 A0 Wi Rank L01 1 2 M02 64 G05 512 3 S01 574 4 L02 602 5 G06 1024 6 D01 1088 7 M05 1408 8 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 1 (2nd time)
Calculate the total (binary) weight of each column j: Wj =  2i Mij  i A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A2 A6 A7 A1 A0 2i i L01 1 2 M02 4 G05 8 3 S01 16 L02 32 5 G06 64 6 D01 128 7 M05 256 Wj 18 48 132 56 448 Rank 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 2 (2nd time)
Sort the columns into rank order, then go to Step 3: A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A1 A2 A6 A7 A0 L01 1 M02 G05 S01 L02 G06 D01 M05 Wj 18 48 56 132 256 448 Rank 2 3 4 5 6 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 3 (2nd time)
Calculate the total (binary) weight of each row i: Wi =  2j Mij  j A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A1 A2 A6 A7 A0 Wi Rank L01 1 2 M02 128 5 G05 64 S01 126 4 L02 124 3 G06 1024 6 D01 1152 7 M05 1792 8 2j 16 32 256 512 j 9 10 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 4 (2nd time)
If all rows are in rank order STOP; otherwise, sort the rows into rank order, and then go to Step 1: A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A1 A2 A6 A7 A0 Wi Rank L01 1 2 G05 64 L02 124 3 S01 126 4 M02 128 5 G06 1024 6 D01 1152 7 M05 1792 8 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 1 (3rd time)
Calculate the total (binary) weight of each column j: Wj =  2i Mij  i A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A1 A2 A6 A7 A0 2i i L01 1 2 G05 4 L02 8 3 S01 16 M02 32 5 G06 64 6 D01 128 7 M05 256 Wj 18 24 26 160 510 Rank 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 2 (3rd time)
Sort the columns into rank order, then go to Step 3: NO CHANGE IN SORTED ORDER! A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A1 A2 A6 A7 A0 L01 1 G05 L02 S01 M02 G06 D01 M05 Wj 18 24 26 160 256 510 Rank 2 3 4 5 6 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 3 (3rd time)
Calculate the total (binary) weight of each row i: Wi =  2j Mij  j A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A1 A2 A6 A7 A0 Wi Rank L01 1 2 G05 64 L02 124 3 S01 126 4 M02 128 5 G06 1024 6 D01 1152 7 M05 1792 8 2j 16 32 256 512 j 9 10 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

King’s Algorithm – Step 4 (3rd time)
If all rows are in rank order STOP; otherwise, sort the rows into rank order, and then go to Step 1: SINCE THE ROWS WERE IN RANK ORDER, WE STOP! (yea!) A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A1 A2 A6 A7 A0 Wi Rank L01 1 2 G05 64 L02 124 3 S01 126 4 M02 128 5 G06 1024 6 D01 1152 7 M05 1792 8 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Partitioning Ideally, the cells form mutually exclusive blocks (as below). These blocks define the Families: Family A consists of Components A1, A3, A4, A5, A8, and A9; which can be machined in a cell performing Operations G05, L01, L02, and S01 Family B consists of Components A0, A2, A6, and A7; which can be machined in a cell performing Operations D01, G06, M02, and M05 A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A1 A2 A6 A7 A0 L01 1 G05 L02 S01 M02 G06 D01 M05 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Partitioning Often, the cells do NOT form mutually exclusive blocks (as below). In this case, the capability for Operation G06 must be common to both machining cells: Family A consists of Components A1, A3, A4, A5, A8, and A9; which can be machined in a cell performing Operations G05, G06, L01, L02, and S01 Family B consists of Components A0, A2, A6, and A7; which can be machined in a cell performing Operations D01, G06, M02, and M05 A4 A3 A5 A8 A9 A1 A2 A6 A7 A0 L01 1 G05 L02 S01 M02 G06 D01 M05 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

Strategies for Overlapping PFA Blocks:
Provide for transporting some components between cells requiring the overlapping operation(s) Pick the component(s) with the smallest volume(s) to transport to reduce handling costs Locate the cells with operation overlap as near to each other as possible to reduce handling costs Avoid scheduling concurrent production runs of the components that require overlapping operation(s) Assumes that the equipment providing the overlapping capability can be easily moved between cells This solution may improve capacity if the overlapping operation is a bottleneck Put equipment capable of the overlapping operation(s) into each cell requiring it Assumes the additional equipment capability is cost justifiable This solution will improve capacity if the overlapping operation is a bottleneck 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

IENG 471 Facilities Planning
Extended GT (PFA) Requirements: Need for grouping similar items together, and identifying separable items Matrix of related entities: Tooling Equipment Parts Integrated Circuits Modular Components Solution Method: Triangularization Direct Clustering Algorithm King’s Method Kusiak’s Triangularization Method Ullman’s Design Structure Matrix 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning

Relationship (Incidence) Matrix
Rows and Columns: Parts requiring operations on different machines Tools (in a CNC magazine) needed to produce part families Departments requiring technicians (shared head count) Departments requiring adjacent location ICs requiring modularization An entry in the incidence matrix means that there is a strong relationship between the row and column items 4/11/2017 IENG 471 Facilities Planning