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4/17/2015 IENG 471 Facilities Planning 1 IENG 471 - Lecture 05 Group Technology – Production Flow Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "4/17/2015 IENG 471 Facilities Planning 1 IENG 471 - Lecture 05 Group Technology – Production Flow Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 4/17/2015 IENG 471 Facilities Planning 1 IENG 471 - Lecture 05 Group Technology – Production Flow Analysis

2 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 2 Agenda Assignment Direct Clustering Algorithm King’s Algorithm Questions & Issues

3 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 3 Assignments Current Assignment: HW 4 Download spreadsheet from the Group Technology II Link on the Materials page – follow the steps for Kings’ Algorithm HW:(HW 4) See Assignment Link Individual Assignment Can work together in groups, but each person turns in their own assignment PRINT out the initial and final matrix for each problem Highlight the family cells on the final matrix Interpret the final matrix of family cells – list which items compose each family, AND discuss how that affects the operation of the facility Next Assignment: Exam I

4 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 4 Volume, Variety & Automation Production Quantity Part Variety Low Medium High High Medium Low 1 10 100 1,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 1 Mfg Cell NC Machine Flexible Mfg Sys Transfer Line Batch Flow Line Increasing Productivity Increasing Flexibility Rembold, et. al.

5 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 5 Layout Impact on Facility’s Machines Job Shop Layout Group by individual machines Add all equipment fractions, then round up* Mass Production Layout Group by individual products Round up* all equipment fractions, then add Cellular Layout Group by similar part-process families Add family equipment fractions, then round up*, then add * Multiply number of each machine type by footprint size after rounding to find the actual space required

6 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 6 Layout Patterns Process Layout Product Layout Family / GT Cell Layout Fixed Location Layout LowMediumHigh Product Variety Low Medium High Product Volume Bulky, Difficult to Move Prod. (Planes, ships, etc.) Bulky, Difficult to Move Equip. (Precision fixtures) Can Have Combinations (HYBRIDS)!

7 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 7 Examples For the following situations, what type of General Layout would you suggest? The assembly of bodies for GM midsize SUVs Fabrication & Assembly of custom made sheet metal parts Fabrication of computer cases for a line of desktop PCs, plus custom made sheet metal parts Assembly of three distinct families of electronic cards for inkjet printers Production of high quality, custom office furniture

8 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 8 Group Technology (GT) Philosophy: Use the similarity of current products to simplify the design and manufacturing of new products Some Applications: Identify and reuse similar process plans Identify and reuse similar CNC programs Identify the equipment that may be best used in a particular machine cell Identify and eliminate redundant inventory Requirement: A taxonomy of part characteristics

9 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 9 Benefits of GT Facilitates formation of part families and machine cells Quick retrieval of designs, drawings, & process plans Reduces design duplication Provides reliable workpiece statistics Facilitates accurate estimation of machine tool requirements and logical machine loadings Permits rationalization of tooling setups, reduces setup time, and reduces production throughput time Allows rationalization and improvement in tool design Aids production planning and scheduling procedures Improves cost estimation and facilitates cost accounting procedures Provides for better machine tool utilization and better use of tools, fixtures, & people Facilitates NC part programming. (Ham)

10 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 10 How to Identify Groups Similar Design Attributes Size of parts Geometric shape of parts Materials Technique: Parts Classification & Coding Similar Manufacturing Attributes Common processing steps (routings) Common tools and fixtures Technique: Production Flow Analysis Similarity groupings are called Part Families

11 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 11 PFA Introduction PFA is Production Flow Analysis A subset of Group Technology (GT) Goals: Reduce material transport efforts Reduce set up efforts Reduce work in process inventory Steps: Identify OP-Codes for each Component Routing/Process Planning information for each part Incidence Matrix Blocking (Triangularization) Algorithm Cluster Identification

12 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 12 OP-Codes An OP-Code forms an index to an Operation Plan An Operation Plan is a generalized sequence of steps, perhaps common to multiple parts An OP-Code Sequence is a method of condensing the Operation Plan into a compact structure suitable for data processing

13 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 13 OP-Code Example OP CodeOperation Plan 01Saw01Cut to size 02Lathe02Face end Center drill Drill Ream Bore Turn straight Turn groove Chamfer Cut off Face Chamfer 03Grind01Grind 04Insp06Inspect dimension Inspect finish Rotational Part (sectional view)

14 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 14 OP-Code Example OP CodeOperation Plan 01Saw01Cut to size 02Lathe02Face end Center drill Drill Ream Bore Turn straight Turn groove Chamfer Cut off Face Chamfer 03Grind01Grind 04Insp06Inspect dimension Inspect finish OP Code Sequence 01Saw01 02Lathe02 03Grind01 04Insp06

15 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 15 Incidence Matrix Rows represent OP-Codes (index = i) Columns represent Components (index = j) Cell Entries are:(M ij ) 1 (or mark) - if the component requires the operation 0 (or blank) - if the component does NOT require the operation A-112A-115 Saw011 Lathe01 Lathe021 Drill011 Mill021 Mill05 Grind051

16 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 16 King’s Algorithm – Step 1 Calculate the total (binary) weight of each column j: W j =  2 i M ij  i A1A2A3A4A5A6A7A8A9A02i2i i S0111111121 L01142 L021111183 D0111164 M021325 M05111646 G0511287 G0612568 WjWj 138 4810 6 64 10 336 Rank 5321244226 After Chang, Wysk, & Wang (1998) p.500

17 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 17 King’s Algorithm – Step 2 Sort the columns into rank order, then go to Step 3: A4A3A5A8A9A2A6A7A1 A0 S01111111 L011 L0211111 D011 1 M021 M0511 1 G051 G06 1 WjWj 6 10 4864 138336 Rank 122223445 6

18 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 18 King’s Algorithm – Step 3 A4A3A5A8A9A2A6A7A1A0WiWi Rank S011111115744 L01121 L02111116025 D011110887 M021642 M0511114088 G0515123 G06110246 2j2j 248 163264 128256512 1024 j 12345678910 Calculate the total (binary) weight of each row i: W i =  2 j M ij  j

19 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 19 King’s Algorithm – Step 4 A4A3A5A8A9A2A6A7A1A0WiWi Rank L01121 M021642 G0515123 S011111115744 L02111116025 G06110246 D011110887 M0511114088 If all rows are in rank order STOP; otherwise, sort the rows into rank order, and then go to Step 1:

20 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 20 King’s Algorithm – Step 1 (2 nd time) A4A3A5A8A9A2A6A7A1A02i2i i L01121 M02142 G05183 S01111111164 L0211111325 G061646 D01111287 M051112568 WjWj 1848 132256 56 448 Rank 1222245536 Calculate the total (binary) weight of each column j: W j =  2 i M ij  i

21 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 21 King’s Algorithm – Step 2 (2 nd time) A4A3A5A8A9A1A2A6A7 A0 L011 M021 G051 S01111111 L0211111 G06 1 D011 1 M0511 1 WjWj 1848 56 132256 448 Rank 122223455 6 Sort the columns into rank order, then go to Step 3:

22 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 22 King’s Algorithm – Step 3 (2 nd time) A4A3A5A8A9A1A2A6A7A0WiWi Rank L01121 M0211285 G051642 S011111111264 L02111111243 G06110246 D011111527 M0511117928 2j2j 248 163264 128256512 1024 j 12345678910 Calculate the total (binary) weight of each row i: W i =  2 j M ij  j

23 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 23 King’s Algorithm – Step 4 (2 nd time) A4A3A5A8A9A1A2A6A7A0WiWi Rank L01121 G051642 L02111111243 S011111111264 M0211285 G06110246 D011111527 M0511117928 If all rows are in rank order STOP; otherwise, sort the rows into rank order, and then go to Step 1:

24 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 24 King’s Algorithm – Step 1 (3 rd time) A4A3A5A8A9A1A2A6A7A02i2i i L01121 G05142 L021111183 S01111111164 M021325 G061646 D01111287 M051112568 WjWj 1824 26 160256 510 Rank 1222234556 Calculate the total (binary) weight of each column j: W j =  2 i M ij  i

25 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 25 King’s Algorithm – Step 2 (3 rd time) A4A3A5A8A9A1A2A6A7 A0 L011 G051 L0211111 S01111111 M021 G06 1 D011 1 M0511 1 WjWj 1824 26 160256 510 Rank 122223455 6 Sort the columns into rank order, then go to Step 3: NO CHANGE IN SORTED ORDER!

26 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 26 King’s Algorithm – Step 3 (3 rd time) A4A3A5A8A9A1A2A6A7A0WiWi Rank L01121 G051642 L02111111243 S011111111264 M0211285 G06110246 D011111527 M0511117928 2j2j 248 163264 128256512 1024 j 12345678910 Calculate the total (binary) weight of each row i: W i =  2 j M ij  j

27 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 27 King’s Algorithm – Step 4 (3 rd time) A4A3A5A8A9A1A2A6A7A0WiWi Rank L01121 G051642 L02111111243 S011111111264 M0211285 G06110246 D011111527 M0511117928 If all rows are in rank order STOP; otherwise, sort the rows into rank order, and then go to Step 1: SINCE THE ROWS WERE IN RANK ORDER, WE STOP! (yea!)

28 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 28 Partitioning A4A3A5A8A9A1A2A6A7A0 L011 G051 L0211111 S01111111 M021 G061 D0111 M05111 Ideally, the cells form mutually exclusive blocks (as below). These blocks define the Families: Family A consists of Components A1, A3, A4, A5, A8, and A9; which can be machined in a cell performing Operations G05, L01, L02, and S01 Family B consists of Components A0, A2, A6, and A7; which can be machined in a cell performing Operations D01, G06, M02, and M05

29 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 29 Partitioning A4A3A5A8A9A1A2A6A7A0 L011 G051 L0211111 S01111111 M021 G0611 D0111 M05111 Often, the cells do NOT form mutually exclusive blocks (as below). In this case, the capability for Operation G06 must be common to both machining cells: Family A consists of Components A1, A3, A4, A5, A8, and A9; which can be machined in a cell performing Operations G05, G06, L01, L02, and S01 Family B consists of Components A0, A2, A6, and A7; which can be machined in a cell performing Operations D01, G06, M02, and M05

30 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 30 Strategies for Overlapping PFA Blocks: Provide for transporting some components between cells requiring the overlapping operation(s) Pick the component(s) with the smallest volume(s) to transport to reduce handling costs Locate the cells with operation overlap as near to each other as possible to reduce handling costs Avoid scheduling concurrent production runs of the components that require overlapping operation(s) Assumes that the equipment providing the overlapping capability can be easily moved between cells This solution may improve capacity if the overlapping operation is a bottleneck Put equipment capable of the overlapping operation(s) into each cell requiring it Assumes the additional equipment capability is cost justifiable This solution will improve capacity if the overlapping operation is a bottleneck

31 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 31 Extended GT (PFA) Requirements: Need for grouping similar items together, and identifying separable items Matrix of related entities: Tooling Equipment Parts Integrated Circuits Modular Components Solution Method: Triangularization Direct Clustering Algorithm King’s Method Kusiak’s Triangularization Method Ullman’s Design Structure Matrix

32 4/17/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 32 Relationship (Incidence) Matrix Rows and Columns: Parts requiring operations on different machines Tools (in a CNC magazine) needed to produce part families Departments requiring technicians (shared head count) Departments requiring adjacent location ICs requiring modularization An entry in the incidence matrix means that there is a strong relationship between the row and column items


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