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4/27/2015 IENG 471 Facilities Planning 1 IENG 471 - Lecture 04 Schedule Design

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 2 Agenda Assignments Schedule Design Required Data Estimating Production Volume Estimating Equipment Needs (Equip. Frac.) Facilities Project Management Tools Questions & Issues

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 3 Assignments Current Assignment: HW:(HW 2) Product BOM Product Operation Process Chart Product Precedence Diagram Next Assignment: HW:(HW 3) See Assignment Link required input for each of the workstations equipment necessary for each machine steady state cycle time for each machine ideal machine assignment for each machine compute the idle time unit cost at each workstation total cost per good unit square footage for each workstation and the total space required

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 4 Schedule Design Overview Schedule Design is undertaken to decide for a facility design: How much should the facility be designed to produce When should the facility be able to produce the product

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 5 Impacts of the Schedule Design: The Schedule Design of the facility will impact: Types of machines required Processing equipment Storage equipment Material handling equipment Number of machines required Number of employees required Space requirements For all of the above, plus support functions (services, utilities, …)

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 6 Information Req’d: Marketing What products are to be produced What volume of each product is expected to be produced (and when) How probable are the production requirements Seasonality and life cycle considerations Where are the products to be acquired Who will acquire the products What are the product development plans

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 7 Types of Manufacturing Systems: Job Shop Batch/Cellular Mass Production Approximate Annual Volume: Production Volume Type of Production No. ProducedTypical Products Prototype 1 - 10Anything Piece/Small Batch 10 - 5,000Aircraft, Machinery, Dies Batch/High Volume 5,000 - 100,000Trucks, Ag. Equip., Engines Mass Production Over 100,000Cars, Appliances, Fasteners Kalpakjian Job Shop

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 8 Type of Production System Job ShopBatch Prod.Mass Prod. General Equipment Special Production Rate Production Quantity Process Plant Layout Flow Line Labor Skill Part Variety Characteristics Kalpakjian

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 9 Example Job Shop Layout Drill V. Mill Lathe L. Paint Oven H. Mill P. Paint Drill Lathe V. Mill H. Mill Grind CMM Receiving Shipping

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 10 Example Mass Production Layout DrillV. Mill L. Paint Oven Drill Lathe H. Mill Grind CMM Receiving Shipping

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 11 Example Batch/Cell Production Layout DrillV. Mill L. Paint Oven Drill Lathe H. Mill Grind CMM Receiving Shipping Drill Grind

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 12 Volume, Variety & Automation Production Quantity Part Variety Low Medium High High Medium Low 1 10 100 1,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 1 Mfg Cell NC Machine Flexible Mfg Sys Transfer Line Batch Flow Line Increasing Productivity Increasing Flexibility Rembold, et. al.

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 13 Which Type to Use?: Pareto Chart 80% of any problem is the result of 20% of the potential causes* Histogram categories are sorted by the magnitude of the bar A line graph is overlaid, and depicts the cumulative proportion of products Quickly identifies where to focus efforts Pareto Chart for Product Volume 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Prod AProd B Prod CProd D Prod E Prod F Prod G Prod H Product Type Est. Volume Req’d 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% Cumulative %

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 14 Estimating Production Volume with Scrap The production facility must operate in the “real world” In the real world, things go wrong – defects! To size the facility, the plant capacity must include extra volume for scrap: At a single workstation ( k ) the formula is: where: I k is the input amount required for the process to achieve goals O k is the output amount required of the process, and P k is the percentage of scrap generated by the process per unit

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 15 Estimating Production Volume with Scrap Most processes are a sequence of operations We need to know the sequence and individual scrap rates of each of the operations… Good thing we got those Operation Process Charts! Assuming that each unit must go through each operation in a chain of operations, the plant capacity must include extra scrap volume: At end of a single chain of ( n ) individual operations, the formula for total input volume required is: where: O n is the output amount required at the end of the operation chain, and P k is the percentage of scrap per unit generated by the k th operation, starting with operation 1 and continuing through operation n

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Example 1: Express Input 1 as a function of the Quota 4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 16 1234 I1I1 O 1 =I 2 O 2 =I 3 O 3 =I 4 O 4 =Q P 1 = 2% P 2 = 5% P 3 = 1% P 4 = 0.5%

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Example 2: Express Input 1 as a function of the Quota 4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 17 1234 R I1I1 O 1 =I 2 O 2 + O R =I 3 O 3 =I 4 O 4 =Q P 1 = 2% P 2 = 5% P R = 1% P 3 = 1% P 4 = 0.5% IRIR OROR

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4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 18 1234 R I1I1 O 1 + O R =I 2 O 2 =I 3 O 3 =I 4 O 4 =Q P 1 = 2% P 2 = 5% P R = 1% P 3 = 1% P 4 = 0.5% IRIR OROR Example 3: Express Input 1 as a function of the Quota

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Example 4: Find Input 1 and the system Total Scrap Cost 4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 19 123 I1I1 O 1 =I 2 O 2 =I 3 Q= 1000 P 1 = 3% S 1 =$5 P 2 = 5% S 2 =$10 P 3 = 7% S 3 =$15

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Example 5: Find Input 1 and the system Total Scrap Cost (Note: Proportion scrap reversed from Example 4) 4/27/2015IENG 471 Facilities Planning 20 123 I1I1 O 1 =I 2 O 2 =I 3 Q= 1000 P 1 = 7% S 1 =$5 P 2 = 5% S 2 =$10 P 3 = 3% S 3 =$15

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