Presentation on theme: "1 Organizational Structures of Toll-Expressway Management in Europe Group 2 : GUAN Fang Hiroki Fujiwara LIU Yinghao (29.11.2004) Planning, Policy and Management."— Presentation transcript:
1 Organizational Structures of Toll-Expressway Management in Europe Group 2 : GUAN Fang Hiroki Fujiwara LIU Yinghao (29.11.2004) Planning, Policy and Management of Transport and Urban Infrastructure
2 Outline 1.Overview of expressway development and management system in Japan 2.Overview of expressway development and management system in some European countries 3.Comparison of Japan and European countries 4.Discussion points
3 1. Overview of expressway development and management system in Japan
4 Japan General The Law, “Law Concerning Special Measures for Highway Construction” in 1952, made it possible to develop toll toads by using Treasury Investments and Loans and by redeeming the loans with toll revenues. From 1956 to 1970, 4 public corporations was established to undertake national toll road development. In 1972, the Japanese Government adopted a toll revenue pooling system for the entire national expressway system.
5 Japan Pooling System The pooling system is a form of cross-subsidization, under which toll rates are uniform for all of the routes and segments within the network, regardless of the cost or traffic level. Toll Setting Principles Redemption principle Fairness and reasonability principle
6 2. Overview of expressway development and management system in some European countries
7 itemsJapanFranceItalyU.K.Germany total length of expressways (‘03) 7,187km10,322km6,487km3,477km12,037km toll expressways in the total (‘03) 7,187km7,720km5,593km(43km)- Rate of toll expressways100%74.8%86.2%(1.2%)- Name of expressways 高速自動車 国道 AutoroutesAutostradaTrunk Motorways Bundesautob ahnen Division of roles Planning Government Construction Public corporations Concessiona ires GovernmentProvinces Asset holdings Public corporations Concessiona ires GovernmentProvinces Management Public corporations Concessiona ires GovernmentProvinces Fundamental Data of major countries
8 France General Public administration about roads: DFTR (the Ministry of Facilities, Transport and Housing) From 1955, toll road policy was started. Toll(’03 JAN): 0.0686 euro/km (about 8.9 yen/km) ( ＊ 1/3 times as much as in Japan) The toll expressways are categorized into 2 types, Autoroutes and LACRA. The toll expressways are operated by 10 entities including both public corporations and companies.
9 Classification of Expressways Toll or Free Operating bodyPercentage of the total length LACRA (expressways inside a city) Freethe Ministry of Facilities, Traffic and Housing 25.2% Autoroutes (intercity expressways) Freethe Ministry of Facilities, Traffic and Housing TollSpecial public corporations (SEM) 74.8% TollPrivate companies Classification of Expressways France
11 Subsidy 30-40% Toll 70-60% Financial Structure of Expressway in France (Data Source: World Bank, 1999) Financial Structure during 1960’s France Toll Setting Principles Redemption principle Cost burden principle Reasonable traffic assignment (routes, time)
12 The cross-subsidies system was within corporations in the 1970s and among corporations in the 1980s. The strategy resulted in continuous expressway network expansion and toll harmonization. France Cross-subsidy
13 ASF SFTRF ESCOTA AREA SAPRR SANEF SAPN CONFIROUTE ATMB France 6 public corporations compose 3 pairs of corporations. SAPN-SANEF SAPRR-AREA ASF-ESCOTA. The toll revenue is pooled between the corporations of the same pair. Cross-subsidy
14 Examples 1 Reasonable traffic assignment (time) At A1, which SANEF owns, time fluctuation system about the toll is adopted. France TimeRatio to usual toll ～ 14:30 0 14:30 ～ 16:30 － 25% 16:30 ～ 20:30 ＋ 25% 20:30 ～ 23:30 － 25% 23:30 ～ 0 The tolls changed in time at A1 (Sunday) Purpose: To moderate the congestion by the traffic from Belgium or Lille to Paris on Sunday
15 Examples 2 Reasonable traffic assignment (routes) From 1995 ~ 1997, SAPRR did the toll adjustment measure to moderate congestion. France The adjusted tolls between Paris and Beaune (’95) A6A5 + A31 279km360km Usual tolls82 franc115 franc Adjusted tolls98 franc48 franc A6A5 + A31 Homeward route With84%16% Without96%4% Outward route With81%19% Without95%5% Ratio of traffic allocation (comparison between with case and without case ‘95)
16 Italy General Public administration about roads: ANAS (the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport) In 1955, toll policy for expressway development was implemented. There were 25 toll motorway concessionaires. The large public company, Autostrade S.p.A., operates 56% of the toll expressways(World Bank, 1999). Except Autostrade S.p.A., operators of toll expressways are almost all in the operation form of one-road-one- company.
17 Italy Entity Form of Expressways In north area ， 25 semi- corporations operate the expressways. In middle area, Expressways are operated by the large corporation, Autostrade S.p.A. In south area, Expressways are operated by ANAS and free to attract local users. Expressway Network
18 Italy Financial Structure in 1961 Subsidy 55% Toll 45% Financial Structure of Expressway in Italy (Data Source: World Bank, 1999) Toll Setting Principles User pay / Benefit principle Redemption principle Distance proportional
19 Cross-subsidy Tolls for motorways operated by Autostrade S.p.A are uniform. The expressways in mountain area have higher toll rate than those in flat area. A higher level cross-subsidy among different corporations and companies. A “special toll” is collected from the users of expressways by Autostrade S.p.A. and used to provide assistance to unprofitable semi-corporations. Italy
20 Toll Rate of Autostrade S.p.A (lira/vehicle-km) Italy Vehicle Type Flat AreaMountain Area Basic Toll Special Toll Additional Toll Total Basic Toll Special Toll Additional Toll Total A 63.03.012.578.675.83.015.093.7 B 64.73.012.980.577.73.015.396.0 C 74.49.015.899.289.49.018.717.1 D 122.89.025.0156.9147.79.029.8186.4 E 148.79.030.0187.7178.79.035.7223.4 1 lira ≒ 0.0555 yen ＊ about 1/5~1/4 times as much as in Japan
21 Telepass – Contactless Toll Collection Telepass system, which was innovated by Autostrade S.p.A, is the first system in the world for collection that does not require drivers to stop. The single lane teletoll system has been operated since 1990. This system are used throughout the network managed by Autostrade itself and on 50% of the Italian network managed by other concessionaires. Italy
22 United Kingdom General Public administration about roads: DFT (the Ministry of Transport), HA (Highway Agency) From 1937, general tax became the only source for road construction and operation in UK. In 1996, there was 3200km motorways in UK with only 8km are tolled. Direct tolls have been charged for very short road links, such as bridges and tunnels. In 2003, opening of the nation’s first toll expressway(M6 toll) built by a private company.
23 Expressway Network United Kingdom M6 (the road name in the West Midland)
24 M6 toll is Britain’s first toll motorway. It was built to ease traffic and congestion through the West Midlands. United Kingdom
25 Germany General Public administration about roads: BMVBW (the Ministry of Transport) From 1955, the large-scale expressway construction was started, and the fuel tax was the source for construction. All expressways were free of charge. However, with the increase of heavy trucks of other countries passing through Germany, from 1995 a special charge on these trucks has been implemented. In 2002, they decided the construction of the first toll expressway in the source of private fund.
26 Germany Expressway Network Germany’s position makes it the hub of international truck traffic. → ・ heavy investments in maintenance and expansion.
27 Germany OBU System (On Board Units) The governments decided to induce a distance-based truck toll for all heavy vehicles 12 tons above. OBU system is the satellite-supported free-flow system, and used for positioning, monitoring and billing. OBU system calculates and collects tolls based on the exact number of kilometers traveled on German motorways. OBU system does not require speed restrictions, stopping, or use of a prescribed traffic lane.
28 3. Comparison of Japan and European countries
29 JapanGermanyItaly 6,559km 7,405km (64%) 2,976km (46%) 639km (10%) 4,110km (36%) 3,502km (54%) The share of expressways built by1969 The share of expressways built from 1970 to 1999 5,920km (90%) 11,515km6,478km Comparison about the Times when Expressways Constructed Comparison of Japan and Europe
30 itemsJapanFranceItalyU.K.Germany total length of expressways (‘03) 7,187km10,322km6,487km3,477k m 12,037km toll expressways in the total (‘03) 7,187km7,720km5,593km(43km)- Rate of toll expressways100%74.8%86.2%(1.2%)- Toll (’98 standard sized car) 27.8 yen/km 10.37 yen/km 8.48 yen/km -- Public Support Italy: At the beginning about 20~30%, recently about 30% of construction cost has been subsidized by the government. France: At the beginning about 10~60% of construction cost was subsidized by the governments. Recently, there was a case of a new road construction that about 40% was supported. Japan: In 2000, about 10% of total construction cost was subsidized by the government. Comparison of Japan and Europe
31 Comparison of Japan and Europe France Toll 60-70% Subsidy 30-40% Italy Japan Toll 90% Subsidy 10% Toll 70% Subsidy 30% Recent Financial Structure of Japan, Italy and France
32 In contrast to Japan, some European countries adopted diverse expressway-toll methods. For example, damage to the road, ease of congestion, the rationality of toll, etc are taken into consideration. Maybe the reasons of different organizational structures of Toll-Expressway management among European countries and Japan are the different history, development of expressway, also different financial structures, different economical condition of different parts. Conclusion