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The History of the Early Engineering Disciplines Engineering your Future Chapter 2.

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Presentation on theme: "The History of the Early Engineering Disciplines Engineering your Future Chapter 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The History of the Early Engineering Disciplines Engineering your Future Chapter 2

2 The History of Civil Engineering Part One

3 Boundaries and Surveys Need for boundaries and surveys precipitated civil engineering as we know Surveyors ▫Noted and marked foundations of monuments ▫Dividing land into parcels Egyptians used surveying to predict Nile River flood waters Romans learned from Egyptians and Greeks the importance of surveying ▫Aqueducts and roads designed from surveying methods

4 Arabic people & the astrolabe Astrolabe - Fixed surveying method linked to the stars Arabic people developed proficiency with the astrolabe after the fall of the Roman Empire Arabic culture also responsible for: ▫Development of Trigonometry ▫Practice of triangulation to achieve accuracy

5 Recognition Civil engineering named to distinguish between military and other engineers Europe and U.S. recognized those who completed large-scale projects as “civil engineers” (18th Century) John Smeaton of England molded himself as a Civil Engineer Society of Civil Engineers created in England ▫ Named changed to Institution of Civil Engineers

6 United States Societies of Civil Engineering Franklin Institute in Philadelphia (1824) ▫Informal society of engineers American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) ▫Formed November 5, 1852 ▫Present and active today Annual meeting, ASCE Deer Park Hotel, Deer Park, MD, engineersociety.html

7 Bridges Manhattan Bridge - New York, NY

8 Three Classes of Bridges Beam Bridge Suspension Bridge Arched Bridge Beam Bridge Arched Bridge Suspension Bridge

9 History of Bridges 2000 B.C. ▫Wooden timber beams built on stone pillars ▫Spanned over the Euphrates River ▫Commissioned by Queen Semiramis for Babylon, suggesting practice was common 300 B.C. ▫Golden Era Roman stone-arch bridges ▫250 B.C. saw Greek “invention” of wood truss 610 A.D. ▫Zhaozhou (Ali) Bridge constructed ▫World’s oldest known open-spandrel stone-arch bridge

10 Frankford Avenue Bridge Spans Pennypack Creek in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Constructed in 1697 First known stone arch bridge in U.S. Still being used today Frankford Avenue Bridge Philadelphia, PA

11 Sewall’s Bridge First known pile supported highway bridge Built over the York River in York, Maine Piles driven into river bottom by dropping oak logs while standing them in place Replaced in 1934 Sewall’s Bridge York, Maine covered-bridges/sewalls.php

12 Iron Bridge World’s first all-metal bridge built of cast iron Designed by Abraham Darby III Spans Severn River near Coalbrookdale, England Main span m Total length - 60 m Weight tons Iron Bridge Coalbrookdale, England Bridge_at_Coalbrookdale.html

13 Jacob’s Creek Bridge World’s first modern suspension bridge Located o n the road between Uniontown, Pennsylvania and Greensburg, Pennsylvania Designed and built by James Finley for $600 in 1801 Bridge demolished 1833, five years after Finley had passed away in Uniontown

14 Dams Hoover Dam

15 Factors to take into account Strong enough to resist reservoir water backed behind dam Impervious to water ▫Resists leaks and erosion Water cannot find way into dam Accommodates overflow Failure of Teton Dam Rexburg, Idaho $1 billion in damages

16 Roads Route 66 - Arizona

17 Evolution of Roads Markings used to designate paths to desired destinations Invention of wheel brought on roadways Evolved from dirt roads into paved surfaces with drainage systems to divert water off of them

18 Paved Roads History 3000 B.C. - the Herappa and Mohenjo-Daro civilizations in the Indus valley developed paved roads with drainage systems underneath pavement 2500 B.C. - Lake Moeris Quarry Road ▫World’s oldest paved road ▫Was eight miles long (only 4 miles remain)

19 Those Romans… 312 B.C. - Road from Rome to Capula ▫130 miles 144 B.C. - First high-level aqueduct ▫Hydraulic cement introduced in design Over 372 roads constructed with a combined distance of 53,000 miles Roadways suffered with retreat from Britain Roman road cut into Italian Mountain ent/transport/Adam_Pawluk/Contruction_and_Ma keup_of_.htm

20 Roads considered a value?? 600 years after Britain invasion retreat, Norman invasion showed roads are considerable value The church maintained roadways and constructed inns and places of rest Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries with his self-appointed Supreme Head of Church of England in 1534

21 El Camino Real 1500’s Spaniards and Colonials developed first inland transportation route into U.S. Original use for political and military use only Beginning of interstate highway system Marker on El Camino Real HauntsCollection.htm

22 Tunnels Channel Tunnel Boring Machine

23 History of Tunnels 600 B.C. - Samos Aqueduct Tunnel ▫Water supply routed through a hill on Greek island Persian and Armenian tunnels in Iran brought water to towns in the 8th century By 17th century, tunnels widely used to route canals through hills rather than around

24 Tunnel History cont. Marc Isambard Brunel developed a shield for boring under the Thames River in 1820 Dual tunnels run 1200 yards Completed in 1841 First time tunnel cut under a body of water Marc Isambard Brunel ( ) run.html

25 Alfred Nobel’s Dynamite Most significant advancement in tunneling Alfred Nobel born in 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden to a family of engineers Father sent him abroad to learn about chemical engineering to expand horizons Alfred returned and concentrated on nitroglycerine as explosive Brother and several others killed in an explosion

26 Alfred Nobel cont. Nitroglycerine banned from Stockholm city limits 1864 found way to handle explosive safe Nobel built labs and companies in more than 20 countries Holds more than 350 patents Immense fortune amassed Nobel Prize founder in will Alfred Nobel

27 Water Supply and Control Panama Canal under maintenance

28 Definitions Dams - barriers constructed across a waterway to control the flow or raise the level of water Aqueducts - pipes or channels designed to transport water from a remote source ▫Usually takes advantage of gravity ▫Bridge-like structures support a conduit or canal passing over a river or low ground Canals - artificial waterways or artificially improved rivers used for travel, shipping, or irrigation

29 The History of Industrial Engineers Part 2

30 Industrial Engineering International commerce increases brought about an increase of competition amongst suppliers Main role is to combine workers, machines, and materials in order to increase productivity and reduce waste Philosophy traced back to tribal cultures ▫Created more efficient tools and made best of everyone’s specific skills

31 First Mechanically-Assisted Cutting Device Rocking drill that was cord driven Assistant needed to manipulate cord in order to give alternating rotary movement Earliest illustration of lathe found in Egyptian tomb of Petosiris

32 Pole Lathe Developed in 12th century Size and complexity of work to be done increased, bringing the invention about Designed with heavier wooden construction to be more rigid and powerful than previous designs Continuous drive machine with a large wheel cranked by an assistant created to turn metal

33 Pole Lathe Examples Leonardo da Vinci’s treadle and crankshaft Spaichel’s development in 1561 using human power Alternate power supplies developed ▫Horse gins ▫Water wheels ▫Steam engines ▫Electric motors Great Wheel Lathe

34 mid 1800s Machines John Wilkinson’s cylinder boring mill of 1776 ▫Father of the industrial revolution Henry Maudslay’s workshops ▫Produced machine tools, lathes, and special purpose machines ▫Trained other great engineers

35 mid 1800s Machines Richard Roberts planing lathe and large lathe with a back gear that allowed for spindle speed changes (1817) Automatic spinning mule and differential gear from 1825

36 History of Mechanical Engineering Part 3

37 Brief Overview Coke replacing charcoal in England in early 1700s brought upon the beginning of modern mechanical engineering Industrial Revolution began due to advancements in producing wrought iron Machines developed to make use of mass produced steel Mechanical Engineering recognized as profession in England in 1847 and U.S. after 1850

38 Boats The New Orleans arriving at namesake (1812)

39 Steam Engines James Watt developed new model steam engine in 1778 ▫Engine cooled steam in a condenser separate from the main cylinder Spurred the application of steam to water, land, and air Watt’s Engine 1878/Chapter3.html

40 Steam Powered Ships Easiest to implement the steam engines Robert Fulton developed combination of Watt Steam engine to improved hull design Clermont steamboat financial success from first Hudson river run in Clermont replica ulton/chapter08.html

41 Trains

42 First to use steam on land Weight and size of boilers overcome by use of high pressure boilers and iron rails Initial designs used in mines and ironworks First steam-powered locomotive ran in South Wales in 1804 First passenger train built from Stockton to Darlington opened in 1825

43 1829 Competition Rail line between Liverpool and Manchester Each locomotive must consume own smoke, haul a load equal to 3 times its own weight and travel at an average speed of not less than 10 mph

44 “The Perseverance” Timothy Burstall design Vertical boiler with furnace beside it Fuel fed to fire by hopper on top Attained maximum speed of 6 mph The Perseverance, The Mechanics Magazine (1829)

45 “Sans Pareil” Design and built by Timothy Hackworth Two-cylinder engine Ran for 27 miles Average speed of 14 mph Maximum speed of 17 mph 14.3 tons hauled Boiler feed pump failed often Sans Pareil

46 “Rocket” George Stephenson design and built Traveled 70 miles Avg. speed - 15 mph Max. speed - 29 mph Set bar for all future locomotive designs Won $500 prize for competition 1979 Rocket replica

47 Early Road Transportation

48 Chariots Used in warfare by Middle Eastern nations Handed down to Romans and Greeks ▫Chariots had either two or four wheel Used primarily for transportation of goods 770 B.C. saw advent of chariot races Modern Day Chariot Race

49 Romans and Britain Romans invaded Britain two times before succeeding in 43 A.D. Many transportation techniques introduced and groundwork laid for roadways Collapse of Roman Empire control in Britain saw end of roadways as main source of travel Horseback way to travel after 410 A.D.

50 Carriages and Coaches British imports between 1550 and 1600 A.D. Confined as baggage travel between towns for the rich Carriage ride in Central Park ew_york_city.htm

51 Post Office Act of 1765 Mail had to be transported at a rate of at least 6 mph Mail coaches began to be regularly used starting in 1784 Mode of transportation did not change much in years to come Problem solving and re-engineering lead to overall improvement in speed, punctuality and service to customers

52 Early Automobile %20Indianapolis%20Race%20Museum/index2.html

53 Nicolas Joseph Cugnot 1769, invented a military gun-carriage tractor used to haul artillery for the French army Three wheeled steam-powered tractor traveled at 2.5 mph Frequent stops for boiler to build up pressure to power drive wheels French unimpressed from slow vehicle and frequent stops made Successful tricycle that carried four passengers developed in 1770

54 James Watt Developed reputation as high-quality engineer In 1763, he was sent a Newcome steam engine for repairs Rebuilt and made engine more efficient Sold these improved engines for 11 years James Watt’s Workshop 1878/Chapter3.html

55 William Murdock James Watt’s staff engineer Developed a three- wheeled steam-driven vehicle that was much lighter than Cugnot’s in 1785 Watt fired Murdock because of too much time spent on project Murdock’s innovation

56 The Bicycle

57 “Dandy Horse” 1817 was first prototype of bicycle Developed by Baron Karl Drais von Sauerbronn of Manheim “Father of Bicycle” Gained popularity due to novelty purposes, not practical uses Dandy Horse

58 First Pedal-Powered Bicycle Kirkpatirck MacMillian, a blacksmith invented Pedals powered back wheel and steering done on front Wheels mounted on brass bearings, saddle seats, ran on iron tyred wooden wheels MacMillan Velocipede

59 “Boneshaker” Pierre Michaux of Paris’ variance of a velocipede in 1860 Frame made of wrought iron, pedals mounted in line with front wheel and axle, and friction shoe on rear tire to slow Sold for $13 First two-wheeled bicycle actually caught on for practical use Boneshaker kler/forside.htm


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