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Soc. 100 Lecture 10.Chapter 3 1 Culture Edited 3/31/01.

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Presentation on theme: "Soc. 100 Lecture 10.Chapter 3 1 Culture Edited 3/31/01."— Presentation transcript:

1 Soc. 100 Lecture 10.Chapter 3 1 Culture Edited 3/31/01

2 Culture 1. Culture Overview: Immigration 2. Definition and Elements of Culture 3. Ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism 4. Cultural Inconsistencies and Diversities 5. Explaining Culture-Models 6. Cultural Change 2

3 1. Culture Overview: Immigration America a land of Diversity US had 9 million immigrants for total of 20 million -In past majority were European, based on quotas, 1965 act changed to relatives of citizens, needed skills, political refugees (most now are from Latin America, Caribbean and Asia -in past most were uneducated today as educated as pop, 25% Pro vs. 15% pop (result: “brain drain” from third world) -many current immigrants are illegal, 1.5 to 2.5 mil -Immigration is a world wide fact -we export culture, TV, technology, etc -we import culture, food, cars, etc. -business is multinational Immigrants cultures 3

4 2. Definition and Elements of Culture Definition: a design for living, shared understandings (about what is important, use of technology, what artifacts and actions mean etc.) people use to coordinate their activities. For humans culture is a necessary--Instincts are inadequate -no culture no human behavior -limited human instincts thus socialization is necessary -content of socialization varies place to place, human flex -enculturation, emersion to extent culture seems "natural" e.g. sex drive Dani (4-6 years post birth), Aranda (sex 3-5 X night), Thonga (Africa) find kissing discussing, Trobrand islanders men clam fear of "gang rape" 4 *

5 2b Cultural Universals examples: Group life, Organize families, incest(?), cannibalism (?), kinship, facial expressions, music/dance, dogs (95%) Possible Source: (1) Biological: universal, individual, (facial expressions) (2) History: practice derived from common cultural history. e.g.. common practices for western culture (3) social/group necessity: e.g.. communication, structure (norms, roles) Care in seeing differiences; social necessities, historical continuity and biological inheritance--few are likely biological 5 *

6 beliefs ( -shared ideas about how the world works-time, past, predictions--time) Values, ( -broad, abstract, shared notions of desirable, respectable-individualism) Norms and Sanctions, ( -Rules about should & should nots; mores, folkways,-) Symbols* ( -cultural items that express, evoke meaning-) Language* ( -shared spoken and written symbols-) Technology ( -body of practical knowledge-) US Vietnamese Chinese Next (--a design for living--) 6 2c Elements of Culture *

7 Test your beliefs and values It is time to elect a world leader, and your vote counts. Here's the scoop on the three leading candidates. Candidate A: associates with ward heelers and consults with astrologists. He's had two mistresses. He chain smokes and drinks 8 to 10 martinis a day. Candidate B: was kicked out of office twice, sleeps until noon, used opium in college and drinks a quart of brandy every evening. Candidate C: is a decorated war hero. He's a vegetarian, doesn't smoke, drinks an occasional beer and hasn't had any illicit affairs. Which of these candidates is your choice?? “ Test your Values: Candidate A is Franklin D. Roosevelt, Candidate B is Winston Churchill Candidate C is Adolph Hitler. The descriptions are accurate but incomplete—Hitler was a strong believer and user of astrology 7

8 Test your beliefs and values “Specify Belief(s), Value(s) and Norms(s) related to this cartoon 7

9 Beliefs shared ideas about how the world works-time, past, predictions e.g time—US Linear and progress determine truth (science, magic, religion) “common sense” meaning and purpose of life 8

10 Some American Values Individualism Principles Activists Materialism, Etc. (discuss other values e.g. patriotism) Values: Ideas about what is right, good, important etc 9

11 Mores: have to norms (negative is “taboo”) ex: Folkways: should norms ex: Undefined : no norms specified ex: Laws: codified norms ex: Sanctions (rewards and punishments): Formal, Informal ex: #Norms and Sanctions: Rules about what people should or should not do in a context 10 *

12 Symbols: Cultural items that express-evoke meaning Examples: Objects (bible, flags,[condensed forms of beliefs], stop sign, KKK, swastika) Ordinary: cars, homes, coffins [US vs. Vietnamese] Events: Birthdays vs. death days (Vietnamese) 11 *

13 Technology: not a universal 11 *

14 Language shared spoken and/or written symbols, their meaning (semantics) and the rules for combining these symbols in useful ways (syntax) variation in sounds (English words vs. clicks of Bushman) thinking structures e.g. French "vous" indicates respect "tu" indicates familiarity, equality, intimacy Vietnamese addressing "anh" old men respect, older brother, respect "bae' young/respect, fathers older brother "chu" no respect, younger brother -Sapir-Whorf hypothesis: does language determine, e.g. snow, camels, Eskimo & war, British and India & Corporation.US cars --- Some support in part but weak 12

15 3. Ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism -ethnocentrism; the tendency to negatively evaluate other cultures in terms of one's own and to look at the other culture as inferior (Nacirema--complete article in workbook) -culture shock; disorientation and stress experienced with the unfamiliar (Anthropologist ex p95) fear of food, people, loneliness (anomie) -relativism; a culture must be understood from its perspective, meanings, values, norms 13 *

16 -Variations in cultural integration Types of societies--small, homogeneous (hi integration) vs. large diverse (lo integration) -Ideal vs. real practice preachment pretense (see above) real ideal (used by Soc) defacto dejure (used legally) -Patterned (norms of) evasion normative ways to violate other norms Subcultures and counter cultures cultures within cultures (understandings, symbols Cultural Inconsistencies and Diversities Practices; behaviors performed by a group Preachments; behaviors seen as important (should) by a group Pretenses; behaviors group acts as if they have performed *

17 If we could shrink the Earth's population to a village of precisely 100 people. With all existing human ratios remaining the same, it would look like this: There would be 57 Asians, 21 Europeans, 14 from the Western Hemisphere (North and South) and 8 Africans. 51 would be female; 49 would be male 70 would be non-white; 30 white. 70 would be non-Christian; 30 Christian. 50% of the entire world's wealth would be in the hands of only 6 people and all 6 would be citizens of the United States. 80 would live in substandard housing. 70 would be unable to read. 50 would suffer from malnutrition. 1 would be near death, 1 would be near birth Only 1 would have a college education. No one would own a computer No one would has attended CSUB Quote author unknown 4a. Examples of Diversity 15

18 The average life expectancy in the United States was 47. Only 14% of the homes in the United States had a bathtub. Only 8% of the homes had a telephone. A three-minute call from Denver to New York City cost $11. There were only 8,000 cars in the US and only 144 miles of paved roads. The maximum speed limit in most cities was 10 mph. Alabama, Mississippi, Iowa, and Tennessee were each more heavily populated than California. With a mere 1.4 million residents, California was only the 21st most populated state in the Union. The tallest structure in the world was the Eiffel Tower. The average wage in the US was 22 cents an hour. The average US worker made between $200 and $400 per year. A competent accountant could expect to earn $2,000 per year, a dentist $2,500 per year, a veterinarian between $1,500 and $4,000 per year, and a mechanical engineer about $5,000 per year. More than 95% of all births in the United States took place at home. 90% of all US physicians had no college education. Instead, they attended medical schools, many of which were condemned in the press and by the government as "substandard." Sugar cost four cents a pound. Eggs were 14 cents a dozen. Coffee cost 15 cents a pound. Most women only washed their hair once a month and used borax or egg yolks for shampoo. 4b. In the summer of Examples of Change: What a difference a century makes 16

19 4c. In the summer of Examples of Change: What a difference a century makes The five leading causes of death in the US were: 1. Pneumonia and influenza; 2. TB; 3. Diarrhea; 4. Heart disease; 5. Stroke. The American flag had 45 stars. Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Hawaii and Alaska hadn't been admitted to the Union yet. The population of Las Vegas, Nevada was 30. The remote desert community was inhabited by only a handful of ranchers and their families. Plutonium, insulin, and antibiotics hadn't been discovered yet. Scotch tape, crossword puzzles, canned beer, and iced tea hadn't been invented. There was no Mother's Day or Father's Day. One in 10 US adults couldn't read or write. Only 6% of all Americans had graduated from high school. Some medical authorities warned that professional seamstresses were apt to become sexually aroused by the steady rhythm, hour after hour of the sewing machine's foot pedals. They recommended slipping bromide, which was thought to diminish sexual desire, into the women's drinking water. Marijuana, heroin, and morphine were all available over the counter at corner drugstores. According to one pharmacist, "Heroin clears the complexion, gives buoyancy to the mind, regulates the stomach and the bowels, and is, in fact, a perfect guardian of health.” 18% of households in the United States had at least one full-time servant or domestic. There were about 230 reported murders in the US annually. author unknown 17

20 5. Explaining Culture--models (a) Functionalists--part of integrated whole Biological-culture is based on fulfilling biological needs--monogamous family struct Social-culture is based on fulfilling social needs -SF, Durkheim (religion) Erikson (witch trials, Clinton Impeachment?) Cultural ecologists, environment role in shaping Harris (India & cows) (b) Conflict theorists--struggle for power compartmentalization of computer access enhances UC power Moore’s study of Chagga witchcraft found middle wives identified as witches to get land 18 *

21 5a. Culture and the Individual -Individuals and groups are prisoners of culture French revolution developed notions of radicals and conservatives due to accidental seating of first parliament leftist centrist rightist But now we try to force this categorization on all political parties even when it doesn't fit [fascists, libertarians..…] -Individuals and groups create culture* but also --Culture has a tremendous power over individuals perceptions, values, etc. 19

22 5b. Creation of Culture--Text? Initial occurrence of individual act(s) experiments attempt to solve unique problem (disaster, war, etc.) attempt to abide by culture difficult situation (e.g. means-ends problem) abide by values (e.g. individualism, creativity) Distinguish between creation (writing a play) and Acting in the play (range of behavior acceptable) 20 Culture has a source--it doesn't just spring forth!

23 Technology can bring about change “cultural gatekeepers” control access for new ideas--record distributors, publishers, newspaper editors, museum directors… Cultural production is always a group effort e.g. new modes of art (text page 107) medical (not all is sponsored?) research We inherit beliefs but test against our experiences --example prevention or treatment of colds, pundits political views Internet is current communication method for culture change, e.g. Matt Grudge, TWA c. Production of Culture 21

24 6. Cultural Change -changes in the natural environment -contact with other cultures (cargo cults) -discovery (new knowledge about or uses for existing knowledge) -invention (restructuring old to get new) -governmentally imposed (PRC) Cultural Lag; delay in technology appearance and development/changes in beliefs to accommodate Examples; frontier approach to environment, computers (internet) Fax, TV, reproductive technology Sources 22 *

25 Cathy-Technology changes? 23

26 Discussion Question for Groups (1) Define and give examples (not in text or this outline) of the components of culture next slide (one US example and one from another culture): ethnocentrism cultural lag subculture symbols and language real vs. ideal patterned evasions (2) How is culture explained? Give non text/workbook examples. 24

27 Group Discussion for Chapter 3 Compare and contrast US., Vietnamese and one other culture (if possible) in terms of the components of culture discussed in the text. US Vietnam Mexico or China (?) Beliefs Values Norms Technology Language [symbols] ) 25

28 Culture Compared 26 *

29 Next Time Chapter 4 discussion Should view "The Gods Must be Crazy" prior to Chapter 5 27

30 Quiz Chapter 3 1. Name two of the "basic elements of culture. 2. "European women may go to the beach topless but everyone knows that it is offensive and in bad taste”. This statement exhibits? 3. When I was a college student of 19 it was illegal to drink alcoholic beverages, but at school parties as long as we drank from paper cups and no purchased bottles were visible no one action was taken. This is called? 4. When the Bask people originally moved to Bakersfield they adopted many of the local ways but yet kept many of their traditions (food, shepherding, etc.) and most returned to the home country to find wives. This is called? 5. Using Marvin Harris' model for the people of India the cattle are the same as a Bakersfield farmers tractor what model (general push and pull and specific) does this best fit? 6. Computers were sold as commercial products for individuals in the mid 70's but did not become popular until the late 80's and early 90's. This difference in between introduction time and later popular adaptation is called? 28 Don’t Print

31 Quiz Answers Chapter 3 1. Name two of the "basic elements of culture beliefs, Values, Norms, Symbols, Language 2. "European women may go to the beach topless but everyone knows that it is offensive and in bad taste" -This statement exhibits ethnocentrism 3. When I was a college student of 19 it was illegal to drink alcoholic beverages, but at school parties as long as we drank from paper cups and no purchased bottles were visible no one action was taken. This is called patterned evasions p95 4. When the Bask people originally moved to Bakersfield they adopted many of the local ways but yet kept many of their traditions (food, shepherding, etc.) and most returned to the home country to find wives. This is called subculture 5. Using Marvin Harris' (p98) model for the people of India the cattle are the same as a Bakersfield farmers tractor what model (general push and pull and specific) does this best fit?Pull cultural ecologist 6. Computers were sold as commercial products for individuals in the mid 70's but did not become popular until the late 80's and early 90's. This difference in between introduction time and later popular adaptation is called cultural lag 29 Don’t Print


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