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LESSONS LEARNED IN TRANSITIONING FROM INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4 TO INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 by Joshua Domagalski United States Naval Academy 11APR08.

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Presentation on theme: "LESSONS LEARNED IN TRANSITIONING FROM INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4 TO INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 by Joshua Domagalski United States Naval Academy 11APR08."— Presentation transcript:

1 LESSONS LEARNED IN TRANSITIONING FROM INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 4 TO INTERNET PROTOCOL VERSION 6 by Joshua Domagalski United States Naval Academy 11APR08 by Joshua Domagalski United States Naval Academy 11APR08

2 Goals To test and develop techniques to allow for the coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6 networks. To discover and analyze the ramifications that the transition to IPv6 would have on legacy systems In addition to these main goals, the participation in DISA’s IPv6 Pilot Network Project was also a main effort

3 Defense Information Systems Agency Office of Management and Budget mandated that the DoD transition to IPv6 by Fiscal Year 2008 Partake in a three-phase project Connect to United States Military Academy (West Point) via a tunnel Establish IPv6 network capabilities with United States Military Academy

4 But first, what is IPv6? Internet Protocol version 6 4 noteworthy changes: –IP addresses are expanded from 4 bytes to 16 bytes –the format of the packet header is simplified to include only seven fields (from 13 in IPv4) thus making routing faster –various provisions are incorporated to enhance Quality of Service (QoS) –security is improved through authentication and privacy capabilities

5 So, why IPv6? Addressing Integrated IPSec Incorporated “QoS” Efficient routing Mobility

6 Addressing –4,294,967,296 unique addresses Short-term stop-gaps –NAT (Network Address Translation) –CIDR (Classless Inter- Domain Routing) –DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Result: –Complexity

7 IPv6 Addressing = 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,4 31,770,000,000 Hexadecimal Two rules for IPv6 notation: –leading zeroes are omitted from each group of four hexadecimal characters –consecutive zeroes can be omitted to collapse the IPv6 address; denoted with two colons

8 Addressing (cont.) This unicast address: –2001:0000:0000:00A1:0000 :0000:0000:1E2A Can be written as: –2001:0:0:A1::1E2A. Three types of addresses: –Unicast –Anycast –Multicast

9 Unicast Addresses Contain a network prefix and an interface identifier –the network prefix denotes the link while the interface identifier denotes the exact node Link-local –FE80::/10 –Node configured Site-local –FC00::/7 or FD00::/8 –Node/router configured Global –2000::/3 –Network Administrator or ISP configured

10 EUI-64 Extended Unique Identifier, 64-bits: –48-bit MAC address is taken and divided in half –These two halves are then buffered with 16-bits (FFFE inserted in between the two halves) –result is the EUI-64 (Extended Unique Identifier) representation IPv6 Identifier obtained by “flipping” the the seventh bit of the 16 high-level bits

11 Pandora’s MAC Address: d d d27439FFFE 74080FFFE90d bits 48 bitsMAC EUI-64 IPv6 ID Link-Local: fe80::208:74ff:fe39:90d2 Site-Local: fec0:1111::208:74ff:fe39:90d2 Global: 2001:1918:f101::208:74ff:fe39:90d2

12 Multicast, anyone? Multicast: –replaces broadcast (IPv4) –multicast address identifies a group of interfaces; a packet with a multicast destination address is sent to all belonging to the multicast group. –FF00::/8 Anycast: –anycast address is a unicast address assigned to multiple machines and is routed to the nearest interface configured for anycast addresses –used in the replication of important network resources such as web servers, multicast RPs, and DNSs which can allow for the sharing of traffic loads –Uses a unicast prefix

13 Overview of Setup Connected three computers together, all running Microsoft’s Windows™ XP SP2 Installed IPv6 package Added three Unix computers running on Solaris 10 via a HUB Tested FTP (File Transport Protocol) and Telnet Connected network to Cisco 3660 network Established connection with United States Military Academy

14 Compatibility Issues IIS 6.0 –Incompatibilities: FTP incompatibility –Client works NTP incompatibility DNS IPv6-only incompatibility –Dual Stack DHCP incompatibility Active Directory incompatibility SNTP incompatibility –EnableReverseDnsLookup is not IPv6 supported. This is fundamental to IIS 6.0 for name association Internet Explorer 6.0 cannot parse IPv6 addresses correctly –Mozilla’s Firefox can Linux and Unix flavors more compatible with IPv6. Service Tested IPv6-onlyIPv6 with IPv4 WIN XP SP2 SUN SOLARIS Ping YNYY Telnet YNYY FTP (server) Y (using other software) NNY DNS NYYY NTP NNNN DHCP NNNN Active Directory NNNN/A SNTP NNNN IIS 6.0 NYNN/A IExplorer v6.0 NYYN/A Mozilla Firefox YYYY

15 Results: Successfully created and implemented an IPv6 network: Completed –Some services required an IPv4/IPv6 network Test legacy systems: in progress –However, with the issues that more modern systems caused, it is reasonable to expect worse compatibility issues with older systems. Successfully connected to USMA using IPv6 via the tunnel provided

16 In Conclusion… Contrary to popular opinion, IPv6 is more than just IPv4 with more address space IPv6 has made many fundamental changes Implementation of this protocol is limited by the necessary backwards compatibility with IPv4 required in today’s IPv4 Internet environment Vital network capabilities are not yet supported for IPv6

17 Further Research… Voice over Internet Protocol –SIPv6 and IPv4 –P2P and DoD IPSec –Compatibility between IPv4 and IPv6

18 Questions? Contact Info:


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