Presentation on theme: "Module 4: Configuring Network Connectivity"— Presentation transcript:
1Module 4: Configuring Network Connectivity Course 6292AModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityPresentation: 60 minutesDemonstrations: 40 minutesLab: 40 minutesModule 4Required materialsTo teach this module, you need the Microsoft Office PowerPoint® file 6292A_04.ppt.Important It is recommended that you use PowerPoint 2003 or a later version to display the slides for this course. If you use PowerPoint Viewer or an earlier version of PowerPoint, all the features of the slides might not be displayed correctly.Preparation tasksTo prepare for this module:Read all of the materials for this module.Practice performing the demonstrations and the lab exercises.Work through the Module Review and Takeaways section and determine how you will use this section to reinforce student learning and promote knowledge transfer to on-the-job performance.Configure a Windows 7 computer with IPv4 and IPv6 addresses manually.Automatically configure a Windows 7 computer with IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.Be familiar with IPv4 addressing and sub netting.Be familiar with Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation.Be able to identify the subnet to which an IPv4 host belongs by examining both its IP address and subnet mask.Be able to identify the range of hosts in an IPv4 subnet.Understand IPv6 addressing.Know how to use all the network-troubleshooting tools that Windows 7 provides.Additional Reading:The following book: CCNP 1: Advanced Routing Companion Guide (Cisco Networking Academy Program), 2nd EditionMake sure that students are aware that there are additional information and resources for the module on the Course Companion CD.Configuring Network Connectivity
2Module 4: Configuring Network Connectivity Course 6292AModule OverviewModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityConfiguring IPv4 Network ConnectivityConfiguring IPv6 Network ConnectivityImplementing Automatic IP Address AllocationTroubleshooting Network IssuesThis module’s key message is to provide an understanding of both IPv4 and IPv6. This will help students configure and troubleshoot the Windows 7 networking features.After completing this module, you will be able to:Configure IPv4 network connectivity.Configure IPv6 network connectivity.Implement automatic IP address allocation.Troubleshoot common network related issues by using the tools available in Windows 7.The Windows Server® 2008 R2 and Windows® 7 operating systems include networking enhancements that make it easier for users to get connected and stay connected regardless of their location or type of network. These enhancements also enable IT professionals to meet the needs of their business in a secure, reliable, and flexible way. Learn more about Windows 7 networking at this site:
3Lesson 1: Configuring IPv4 Network Connectivity Course 6292ALesson 1: Configuring IPv4 Network ConnectivityModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityWhat is an IPv4 Address?What is a Subnet Mask?What is a Default Gateway?What are Public and Private IPv4 Addresses?Demonstration: Configuring an IPv4 AddressTypes of Computer NamesMethods for Resolving Computer NamesThis Lesson’s key focus is to explain the IPv4 addressing scheme, and to show how to configure Windows 7 computers on an IPv4 network.After completing this lesson, you will be able to:Describe the concept of an IPv4 address.Explain the purpose of a subnet mask.Describe the purpose and functionality of a default gateway.Describe public and private IPv4 addressesExplain how to configure an IPv4 address.Identify the types of names used by IPv4 computers.Describe how name resolution works.
4Module 4: Configuring Network Connectivity An IPv4 address identifies a computer to other computers on a network.Course 6292AWhat is an IPv4 Address?Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityIP AddressIP AddressIP AddressSubnet 1Key Message: This is a build slide. First discuss the initial statement with the students before clicking through to the first subnet. Emphasize that each computer has the same first 3 octet in their IP addresses. Talk about the dotted decimal notation for IP4 binary numbers. Now bring in the second subnet and show the difference in IP numbers.The IPv4 address identifies the computer to other computers on the network. IPv4 uses 32-bit addresses, so if you view the address in its binary format, it has 32 characters, as the following example shows:IPv4 divides the address into four octets, as the following address shows:To make the IP addresses more readable, binary representation of the address typically shows it in decimal form. For example:Whiteboard: Build a network diagram similar to the slide, and add in relevant IP addresses for devices and hosts. As you progress through the topics, add elements such as subnet masks, gateway addresses, and so forth.Discussion prompt: Encourage the students to suggest valid IP addresses for your network diagram.To build this slide:Click to have the definition of an IPv4 address exit and Subnet 1 enter.Click to have the note about dotted decimal notation enter.Click to have the note exit and Subnet 2 enter.IP AddressIP AddressIP AddressSubnet 2Dotted decimal representation of the address
5Module 4: Configuring Network Connectivity This is a simple Class C type IPv4 number, see how 3 octets (255, 255, 255) are for the network ID and only 1 octet (0) is for the host IDHere is the network ID for this number. This network ID will be shared by all the hosts on the same subnetAnd here is the host ID in the fourth octet. Note that this host ID is 1 of 254 hosts on this specific subnetA subnet mask specifies which part of an IPv4 address is the network ID and which part of the IPv4 address is the host ID.Course 6292AWhat is a Subnet Mask?Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityTopic: Describe the Subnet Mask?Key Message: This is a build slide so please show how the Subnet Mask provides a map to the network ID and the remainder of the 32 bit address maps to the host ID. A subnet mask defines the part of an IPv4 address that is the network ID and the remainder of the IPv4 address that is the host ID.Whiteboard: Add a classless address to your network diagram. For example, suggest the network /19, and ask the students to participate in writing appropriate addresses on the board. Ask the students to suggest the next valid network address.Discussion prompt: Ask your students to help you configure valid IP addresses based upon a network address and a subnet mask that you suggest.Additional information: Although configuring a subnet mask is straightforward, this topic’s key focus is to explain IP addressing and, ideally, CIDR. Judge the abilities of your students before determining what additional information to provide.Network IDxwyz1921681Subnet mask255IP address200Subnet maskxwyz255Network IDxwyz1921681Subnet mask255
6What is a Default Gateway? A default gateway is a device, usually a router, on a TCP/IP internet that forwards IP packets to other subnets.Course 6292AWhat is a Default Gateway?Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityUse a default gateway when the internal routing table on the host has no information about the destination subnet.Key message: A default gateway is a device, usually a router, on a TCP/IP internetwork that forwards IP packets to other subnets.Whiteboard: Draw a Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) with IP ranges for each network and use it for the discussion.To build this slide:Click to have the definition of a default gateway exit the slide.Click to have the information about when to use a default gateway enter the slide.Click to have the graphic enter the slide.Discussion prompt: Ask your students to help you configure valid gateway addresses based upon a various subnets in a LAN, MAN and WAN network that you have drawn on the whiteboard.Additional information: Emphasize that without a gateway address, IPv4 computers cannot communicate outside their local subnet, and mention that these days, switches typically are at least routers, if not gateways as well.RouterDefault gatewaySubnet 2Windows 7 clientsSubnet 1Windows 7 clients
7What are Public and Private IPv4 Addresses? Course 6292AWhat are Public and Private IPv4 Addresses?Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityPrivateNon-routable on the InternetCan be locally assigned by organizationMust be translated to access the InternetPublicRequired by devices and hosts that connect directly to the InternetMust be uniqueRoutable on the InternetMust be assigned by IANAKey message: Devices and hosts that connect directly to the Internet require a public IPv4 address. Hosts and devices that do not connect directly to the Internet do not require a public IP address.Whiteboard: Write the private IP address ranges on the board.Discussion prompt: Ask students what IP address they use at home. Ask students to determine the IP address of their classroom host computer.Additional information: Mention that Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) was introduced to slow the growth of routing tables and routers across the internet, in IPv4. Learn more about CIDR here:
8Demonstration: Configuring an IPv4 Address Course 6292ADemonstration: Configuring an IPv4 AddressModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityYour instructor will demonstrate how to configure a Windows 7 computer with:An IPv4 addressA subnet maskA default gatewayKey PointsIn this demonstration, you will see how to configure an IPv4 address manually.Log on to the LON-CL1 virtual machine as Contso\Administrator with a password of Pa$$w0rd.Click Start, point to All Programs, click Accessories, and then click Command Prompt.At the command prompt, type ipconfig /all, and then press Enter. This displays all network connections for the computer.Close the command prompt.Click Start and then click Control Panel.Under Network and Internet, click View network status and tasks.In Network and Sharing Center, to the right of the Contoso.com domain network, click Local Area Connection X.In the Local Area Connection X Status window, click Details. This window shows the same configuration information for this adapter and the ipconfig command.In the Network Connection Details windows, click Close.In the Local Area Connection X Status window, click Properties. This window allows you to configure protocols.Click Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and then click Properties. You can configure the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway and DNS servers in this window.Click Advanced. The Advanced TCP/IP Settings window allows you to configure additional setting such as additional IP addresses, DNS settings, and WINS servers for NetBIOS name resolution.Close all open windows without modifying any settings.Question: When might you need to change the IPv4 address of a computer?Answer: You must ensure that all computers on your network have a unique IPv4 address. If two computers have the same IPv4 address then you must change the IPv4 address on one of the two computers.10 min
9Types of Computer Names Course 6292ATypes of Computer NamesModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityNameDescriptionHost nameUp to 255 characters in lengthCan contain alphabetic and numeric characters, periods, and hyphensPart of FQDNNetBIOS nameRepresent a single computer or group of computers15 characters used for the name16th character identifies serviceFlat namespaceKey message: Name resolution is an essential part of computer networking, because it is easier for users to remember names than abstract numbers, such as an IPv4 address.Discussion prompt: Ask students if they are familiar with NetBIOS naming.Demonstration: Display the host and NetBIOS names of the SEA-CL1 virtual machine.Additional information: Ensure that students understand that NetBIOS and Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) are legacy components.
10Methods for Resolving Computer Names Course 6292AMethods for Resolving Computer NamesModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityDNS is the name resolution tool of choice for Windows 7üWINS is retained for backward compatibilityThe Global Domain Names feature can remove the need for WINSDNS is a service that manages the resolution of host names to IP addressesDomain Name System (DNS)Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS)WINS is a NetBIOS name server used to resolve NetBIOSNetBIOS Name Cache4WINS ServerBroadcast6DNS Resolver Cache2Local Host Name1LMHOSTS File7DNS Server35Topic: Methods for resolving Computer NamesKey message: Windows supports a number of different methods for resolving computer names.Whiteboard: Repeat the slide graphic, and go through each method with the students.Discussion prompt: Ask students if any of them use NetBIOS applications. If they do, discuss the WINS service and the Domain Name System (DNS)/WINS integration.Demonstration: Using SEA-CL2, go through a demonstration of resolving names. To demonstrate NetBIOS name resolution, edit the LMHOSTS file with some #PRE tagged values. To demonstrate DNS, create alias records on the DNS server, and the corresponding entries in HOSTS. Remember to clear the NetBIOS name and DNS resolver caches with each test, so that you can demonstrate which method is successful.Additional information: If required, mention the Windows Server® 2008 operating system’s GlobalNames DNS zone. However, these students do not need too much detail about these server-side services.Deciding if you need to deploy a GlobalNames zoneConsider deploying a GlobalNames zone if:You are retiring WINS or you are planning to deploy only IPv6 in your environment, so that all name resolution will depend on DNS.Your need for single-label name resolution is limited to important servers or Web sites that can be statically registered in DNS. (Typically, these names are also configured statically and globally in the WINS database.) Host names cannot be registered in the GlobalNames zone by dynamic updates.You cannot rely on the suffix search lists on client computers to provide single-label name resolution; for example, because the number of target domains is too great or the domains cannot be centrally managed to guarantee that host names will be unique. For more information about using suffix search lists, see Understanding DNS Client Settings on Technet,All the DNS servers that are authoritative for your zones are servers running Windows Server 2008. To resolve names that are registered in the GlobalNames zone, all DNS servers that are authoritative for a zone and that serve client query requests must be running Windows Server 2008 and they must either be configured with a local copy of the GlobalNames zone or they must be able to contact remote DNS servers that host the GlobalNames zone.We also recommend that the GlobalNames zone be integrated with Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). This integration with AD DS ensures easier management and future scalability.
11Lesson 2: Configuring IPv6 Network Connectivity Course 6292ALesson 2: Configuring IPv6 Network ConnectivityModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityBenefits of Using IPv6Windows 7 Support for IPv6What is the IPv6 Address Space?IPv6 Address TypesDemonstration: Configuring an IPv6 AddressThis lesson’s key focus is to explain the IPv6 addressing scheme and to show how to configure Windows 7 computers on an IPv6 network.This lesson has five topics:Describe the benefits of using IPv6 over IPv4.Explain Windows 7 support for IPv6.Describe the IPv6 address space.Explain the types of IPv6 address.Explain how to configure IPv6 address
12Module 4: Configuring Network Connectivity Course 6292ABenefits of Using IPv6Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityBenefits of using IPv6 compared to IPv4Larger address spaceüMore efficient routingSimpler host configurationBuilt-in securityBetter prioritized delivery supportRedesigned headersKey message: The new IPv6 features and functionality help address many of the IPv4 limitations. Additionally, the IPv6 enhancements also enable easier and more secure communication on the Internet and over corporate networks.Discussion prompt: Ask the students if they have experience using IPv6.Additional information: IPv6 is designed to solve many of the problems of the current version of IP (known as IPv4) such as address depletion, security, autoconfiguration, and extensibility. Its use will also expand the capabilities of the Internet to enable a variety of valuable and exciting scenarios, including peer- to-peer and mobile applications. provides more information on IPv6.
13Windows 7 Support for IPv6 Course 6292AModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityWindows 7 Support for IPv6IPv6 is Enabled by DefaultWindows 7 uses IPv6 by default to support security needs and additional featuresWindows 7 Dual StackWindows 7 facilitates the dual stack to use IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneouslyDirect Access requires IPv6Windows 7 clients can use Direct Access which facilitates client computers connecting to the enterprise domainIPv6 uses Remote DesktopIPv6 supports Windows 7 File Sharing Security and Echo System features such as Remote Access and Direct AccessKey message: Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 provide features like DirectAccess, BranchCache and VPN Reconnect.Whiteboard: List the new feature in W7Discussion prompt: Ask students what feature of Windows 7 most interest them. Where could they see implementing Direct Access, BranchCache and VPN ReconnectAdditional information:
14What is the IPv6 Address Space? Course 6292AWhat is the IPv6 Address Space?Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityThe IPv6 address space:Uses 128 bits as compared to 32-bits that the IPv4 address space usesAllocates 64-bits for the network ID and 64-bits for the host IDUses a prefix to define the network IDKey message: The IPv6 address space uses 128 bits compared to the 32 bits that the IPv4 address space uses. Therefore, IPv6 provides a significantly larger number of addresses than IPv4. An IPv6 address allocates 64 bits for network ID and 64 bits for host ID. However, for hierarchical routing, IPv6 may allocate less than 64 bits to the network ID.To build this slide:Click to have the example address enter.Click to shorten the address the first time.Click to shorten the address the second time.Click to show the note about the prefix.Click to have the note about the prefix exit.Additional information: Learn more about IPv6 space here:The following are the features of the IPv6 protocol:New header formatLarge address spaceEfficient and hierarchical addressing and routing infrastructureStateless and stateful address configurationBuilt-in securityBetter support for quality of service (QoS)New protocol for neighboring node interactionExtensibilityIPv6 uses hexidecimal notation2001:0DB8:0000:0000:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5A/64ShortenEach digit represents four bits2001:DB8:0:0:2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A/64ShortenShorten the address by dropping leading zeros and using zero compression2001:DB8::2AA:FF:FE28:9C5A/64Continue shortening the address by dropping contiguous groups of zerosThe prefix is a forward slash followed by the number of bits in the network ID
15Module 4: Configuring Network Connectivity Course 6292AIPv6 Address TypesModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityIPv6 Address TypesUnicast – use for one-to-one communication between hostsMulticast – use for one-to-many communication between computers that are defined as using the same multicast addressAnycast – use for locating services or the nearest routerKey message: IPv6 address types are similar to IPv4 address types.Whiteboard: Write examples of each address type on the board while you discuss them.Discussion prompt: Ask the students to compare the IPv4 equivalents of the IPv6 address types. For example, ask the students to tell you the IPv4 equivalent of an IPv6 link-local address.Learn more about IPv6 Address Types here:IPv6 Unicast Address TypesGlobal Unicast – globally routable and reachable on the IPv6 portion of the InternetLink-Local – use when communicating with neighboring hosts on the same linkUnique Local Unicast – equivalent to IPv4 private address spaces, such as /8, and have the prefix FD00::/8
16Demonstration: Configuring an IPv6 Address Course 6292ADemonstration: Configuring an IPv6 AddressModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityYour instructor will demonstrate how to:Manually configure a Windows 7 computer with an IPv6 addressVerify the IP configurationKey PointsIn this demonstration, you will see how to configure an IPv6 address manually.Log on to the LON-CL1 virtual machine as Contso\Administrator with a password of Pa$$w0rd.Click Start, point to All Programs, click Accessories, and then click Command Prompt.At the command prompt, type “ipconfig /all”, and then press Enter. This displays all network connections for the computer. Notice that a link-local IPv6 address has been assigned.Close the command prompt.Click Start and then click Control Panel.Under Network and Internet, click View network status and tasks.In Network and Sharing Center, to the right of the Contoso.com domain network, click Local Area Connection X.In the Local Area Connection X Status window, click Details. This window shows the same configuration information for this adapter and the ipconfig command.In the Network Connection Details windows, click Close.In the Local Area Connection X Status window, click Properties. This window allows you to configure protocols.Click Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) and then click Properties. You can configure the IPv6 address, subnet mask, default gateway and DNS servers in this window.Click Use the following IPv6 address and enter the following:IPv6 address: 2001:0DB8:0000:0000:02AA:00FF:FE28:9C5ASubnet prefix length: 64Click Advanced. The Advanced TCP/IP Settings window allows you to configure additional setting such as additional IP addresses and DNS settings.In the Advanced TCP/IP Settings window, click Cancel.In the Internet protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) Properties windows, click OK.In the Local Area Connection X Properties window, click Close.In the Local Area Connection X Status window, click Details. Verify that the new IPv6 address has been added.Close all open windows.10 min
17Lesson 3: Implementing Automatic IP Address Allocation Course 6292ALesson 3: Implementing Automatic IP Address AllocationModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityAutomatic IPv4 Configuration ProcessAutomatic IPv6 Configuration ProcessDemonstration: Configuring a Computer to Obtain an IPv4 Address DynamicallyTroubleshooting Client-Side DHCP IssuesThis lesson’s key focus is to explain that Windows 7 enables both the IPv4 and IPv6 protocols to obtain their configuration automatically.This lesson has four topics:Describe auto-configuration process for IPv4 by using DHCPDescribe auto-configuration process for IPv6 by using DHCPConfigure an IPv4 client to use DHCPResolve DHCP-related issues by using IPConfig
18Automatic IPv4 Configuration Process Course 6292AAutomatic IPv4 Configuration ProcessModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityIPv4 ClientDHCP Server with IPv4 Scope and IPv6 Site Local ScopeIPv6 RouterStatic ConfigurationIPv6 ClientAutomatic private IP addressing (APIPA):Is used if a DHCP server cannot be contactedüAssigns IP addresses on the /16 networkCannot be used with:Active DirectoryInternet connectivityMultiple subnetsDNS or WINS serversKey message: Students will be able to identify when a service allocates an IP address automatically, and when the system self-configures an IP address, as in Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) and link- local addresses.Discussion prompt: Ask students if they recognize the IP addressLink-local IPv6 addresses:Are equivalent to APIPA IPv4 addressesBegin with FE80::/64This configuration requires only the installation of the IPv6 protocol on at least two nodes on the same network segment (also known as a link or subnet) with no intermediate routers.The following illustration shows the configuration of two nodes on a single subnet using link-local addresses.By default, the IPv6 protocol for the Windows Server 2003 family and Windows XP configures link-local addresses for each interface that corresponds to installed Ethernet network adapters. Link-local addresses have the prefix of FE80::/64. The last 64 bits of the IPv6 address is known as the interface identifier. It is derived from the 48-bit MAC address of the network adapter. For more information, see IPv6 interface identifiers atTo create the IPv6 interface identifier from the 48-bit (6-byte) Ethernet MAC address:The hexadecimal digits 0xFF-FE are inserted between the third and fourth bytes of the MAC address.The Universal/Local bit (the second low-order bit of the first byte of the MAC address) is complemented. If it is a 1, it is set to 0; and if it is a 0, it is set to 1.Learn more about link-local addresses her:
19Automatic IPv6 Configuration Process Course 6292AAutomatic IPv6 Configuration ProcessModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityStatic ConfigurationIPv6 ClientKey message: This is a Build Slide that begins with one computer on a network infrastructure. Add the DHCPv6 Server, explaining what it does. Then Add the IPv6 clients while explaining that they get an IPv6 Address from the DHCP v6 Server. Finally add the IPv6 Router while explaining how it provides access to other subnets and the internet. Explain why the computer with the Static Configuration does not get an address from the DHCP v6 Server.Students will be able to identify when a service allocates an IP address automatically, and when the system self-configures an IP address, as in Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) and link-local addresses.Discussion prompt: Ask students if they recognize the IP addressAdditional Information: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) and its use to automatically allocate unique IPv4 address configurations to DHCP client computers. Network administrators must understand how DHCP works so that they can correctly configure the components of a DHCP infrastructure to allocate IPv4 addresses and other configuration options for DHCP clients on one or more subnets. IPv6 hosts use address autoconfiguration and you can manage IP configuration with the Ipconfig tool.For more information:The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) was designed to take care of assigning IP addresses and other networking information to computers so they can communicate on the network automatically. With an IPv6 network, you don't actually need DHCP to configure addresses, but there can be good reasons to use it. DHCP for IPv6 (DHCPv6) can provide stateful address configuration or stateless configuration settings to IPv6 hosts. IPv6 hosts can use several methods to configure addresses:Stateless Address Autoconfiguration is used to configure both link-local addresses and additional non-link- local addresses by exchanging Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement messages with neighboring routers.Stateful Address Autoconfiguration is used to configure non-link-local addresses through the use of a configuration protocol such as DHCP.An IPv6 host performs stateless address autoconfiguration automatically and uses a configuration protocol such as DHCPv6 based on the following flags in the Router Advertisement message sent by a neighboring router:Managed Address Configuration Flag, which is also known as the M flag. When set to 1, this flag instructs the host to use a configuration protocol to obtain stateful addresses.Other Stateful Configuration Flag , which is also known as the O flag. When set to 1, this flag instructs the host to use a configuration protocol to obtain other configuration settings.DHCP v6 Server with IPv6 Scope and IPv6 Site Local ScopeIPv6 ClientIPv6 Router
20Notes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane. Course 6292ANotes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane.Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityCombining the values of the M and O flags can yield the following:Both M and O Flags are Set to 0. This combination corresponds to a network without a DHCPv6 infrastructure. Hosts use router advertisements for non-link-local addresses and other methods (such as manual configuration) to configure other settings.Both M and O Flags are Set to 1. DHCPv6 is used for both addresses and other configuration settings. This combination is known as DHCPv6 stateful, in which DHCPv6 is assigning stateful addresses to IPv6 hosts.The M Flag is Set to 0 and the O Flag is Set to 1. DHCPv6 is not used to assign addresses, only to assign other configuration settings. Neighboring routers are configured to advertise non-link-local address prefixes from which IPv6 hosts derive stateless addresses. This combination is known as DHCPv6 stateless: DHCPv6 is not assigning stateful addresses to IPv6 hosts, but stateless configuration settings.The M Flag is Set to 1 and the O Flag is Set to 0. In this combination, DHCPv6 is used for address configuration but not for other settings. Because IPv6 hosts typically need to be configured with other settings, such as the IPv6 addresses of Domain Name System (DNS) servers, this is an unlikely combination.Like DHCP for IPv4, the components of a DHCPv6 infrastructure consist of DHCPv6 clients that request configuration, DHCPv6 servers that provide configuration, and DHCPv6 relay agents that convey messages between clients and servers when clients are on subnets that do not have a DHCPv6 server.DHCPv6 MessagesAs with DHCP for IPv4, DHCPv6 uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP) messages. DHCPv6 clients listen for DHCP messages on UDP port 546. DHCPv6 servers and relay agents listen for DHCPv6 messages on UDP port 547. The structure for DHCPv6 messages is much simpler than for DHCP for IPv4, which had its origins in the BOOTP protocol to support diskless workstations.
21Module 4: Configuring Network Connectivity Course 6292ADemonstration: Configuring a Computer to Obtain an IPv4 Address DynamicallyModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityYour instructor will demonstrate how to:Automatically configure a Windows 7 computer with an IPv4 addressVerify the IP configurationKey PointsIn this demonstration, you will see how to configure a computer to obtain an IPv4 address dynamically.Log on to the LON-CL1 virtual machine as Contso\Administrator with a password of Pa$$w0rd.Click Start, point to All Programs, click Accessories, and then click Command Prompt.At the command prompt, type “ipconfig /all”, and then press ENTER. This displays all network connections for the computer. Notice that a link-local IPv6 address has been assigned.Close the command prompt.Click Start and then click Control Panel.Under Network and Internet, click View network status and tasks.In Network and Sharing Center, to the right of the Contoso.com domain network, click Local Area Connection X.In the Local Area Connection X Status window, click Properties. This window allows you to configure protocols.Click Internet Protocol Version (TCP/IPv4) and then click Properties.Click Obtain an IP address automatically. Notice that the Alternate Configuration tab becomes available when you do this.Click Obtain DNS server address automatically.Click the Alternate Configuration tab. Configuration information on this tab is used when no DHCP server is available.Click OK to save the changes.In the Local Area Connection X Properties window, click Close.In the Local Area Connection X Status window, click Details. Notice that DHCP is enabled and the IP address of the DHCP server is displayed.Close all open windows.10 min
22Troubleshooting Client-Side DHCP Issues Course 6292ATroubleshooting Client-Side DHCP IssuesModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityIPConfig is used to display IP configuration information and to release and renew addressesKey message: The IPConfig tool is the primary client-side DHCP troubleshooting tool.Demonstration: Show the students the various troubleshooting options. Use the currently running virtual machine environment.Additional information: The IPConfig tool is the primary client-side DHCP troubleshooting tool.The DHCP client does not have an IP address configured or indicates that its IP address isCause: The client was not able to contact a DHCP server and obtain an IP address lease, either because of a network hardware failure or because the DHCP server is unavailable.Solution: Verify that the client computer has a valid functioning network connection. First, check that related client hardware (cables and network adapters) are working properly at the client using basic network and hardware troubleshooting steps. If the client hardware appears to be prepared and functioning properly, check that the DHCP server is available on the network by pinging it from another computer on the same network as the affected DHCP client.The DHCP client appears to have automatically assigned itself an IP address that is incorrect for the current network.Cause: The client running Windows 98, Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows XP could not find a DHCP server and has used IP autoconfiguration to configure its IP address. In some larger networks, disabling IP autoconfiguration might be desirable for network administration.Solution: First, use the ping command to test connectivity from the client to the server. Your next step would be to either verify or manually attempt to renew the client lease. Depending on your network requirements, it might be necessary to disable IP autoconfiguration at the client. You can learn more about IP autoconfiguration and how it works prior to making this decision.See also: Test a TCP/IP configuration by using the ping command Verify, release, or renew a client address lease Configure TCP/IP for automatic addressing Disable automatic address configurationThe DHCP client appears to be missing some network configuration details or is unable to perform related tasks, such as resolving names.Cause: The client might be missing DHCP options in its leased configuration, either because the DHCP server is not configured to distribute them or the client does not support the options distributed by the server.Solution: For Microsoft DHCP clients, verify that the most commonly used and supported options have been configured at the server, scope, client, or class level of options assignment.See also: Manage Options and classes Assigning optionsOptionDescription/allDisplays all IP address configuration information/releaseReleases a dynamic IPv4 address lease/renewRenews a dynamic IPv4 address lease
23Notes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane. Course 6292ANotes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane.Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityThe DHCP client appears to have incorrect or incomplete options, such as an incorrect or missing router (default gateway) configured for the subnet on which it is located.Cause: The client has the full and correct set of DHCP options assigned but its network configuration does not appear to be working correctly. If the DHCP server is configured with an incorrect DHCP router option (option code 3) for the default gateway address of the client, clients running Windows NT, Windows 2000, or Windows XP use the correct address. However, DHCP clients running Windows 95 use the incorrect address.Solution: Change the IP address list for the router (default gateway) option at the applicable DHCP scope and server. If you are configuring the router option as a Server Option at the affected DHCP server, remove it there and set the correct value in the Scope Options node for the applicable DHCP scope that services the client. In rare instances, you might have to configure the DHCP client to use a specialized list of routers different from other scope clients. In such cases, you can add a reservation and configure the router option list specifically for the reserved client.See also: Assign a server-based option Assign a scope- based option Assign an option to a reserved client Add a client reservationhttp://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=154464; Assigning optionshttp://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=154460Many DHCP clients are unable to get IP addresses from the DHCP server.Cause: The IP address of the DHCP server was changed and now DHCP clients cannot get IP addresses.Solution: A DHCP server can only service requests for a scope that has a network ID that is the same as the network ID of its IP address. Make sure that the DHCP server IP address falls in the same network range as the scope it is servicing. For example, a server with an IP address in the network cannot assign addresses from scope unless superscopes are used.See also: DHCP Best Practices Using superscopes Configuring scopes
24Notes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane. Course 6292ANotes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane.Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityMany DHCP clients are unable to get IP addresses from the DHCP server.Cause: The DHCP clients are located across a router from the subnet where the DHCP server resides and are unable to receive an address from the server.Solution: A DHCP server can provide IP addresses to client computers on remote multiple subnets only if the router that separates them can act as a DHCP relay agent. Completing the following steps might correct this problem:Configure a BOOTP/DHCP Relay Agent on the client subnet (that is, the same physical network segment). The relay agent can be located on the router itself, on a computer running Windows NT Server and the DHCP Relay Agent component, on a computer running Windows 2000 Server with the Routing and Remote Access service enabled and configured as a DHCP Relay Agent, or on a computer running a Windows Server 2003 operating system with the Routing and Remote Access service enabled and configured as a DHCP Relay Agent.At the DHCP server, do the following:Configure a scope to match the network address on the other side of the router where the affected clients are located.In the scope, make sure that the subnet mask is correct for the remote subnet.Use a default gateway on the network connection of the DHCP server in such a way that it is not using the same IP address as the router that supports the remote subnet where the clients are located.Do not include this scope (that is, the one for the remote subnet) in superscopes configured for use on the same local subnet or segment where the DHCP server resides.Make sure there is only one logical route between the DHCP server and the remote subnet clients.See also: DHCP Best Practices DHCP/BOOTP Relay Agents BOOTP and DHCPCause: Multiple DHCP servers exist on the same local area network (LAN).Solution: Make sure that you do not configure multiple DHCP servers on the same LAN with overlapping scopes. You might want to rule out the possibility that one of the DHCP servers in question is a computer running Small Business Server. On a computer running Small Business Server, the DHCP Server service automatically stops when it detects another DHCP server on the LAN.See also: DHCP Best Practices Configuring Scopes
25Notes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane. Course 6292ANotes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane.Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityThe DHCP client appears to be affected by another problem not described above.Cause: My problem is not described above.Solution: Search the Microsoft Web site for updated technical information that might relate to the problem you have observed. If necessary, you can obtain information and instructions that pertain to your current problem or issue. See also: DHCP updated technical information DHCP Using the Windows Deployment and Resource Kits Microsoft Technet Web site
26Lesson 4: Troubleshooting Network Issues Course 6292ALesson 4: Troubleshooting Network IssuesModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityTools for Troubleshooting NetworksProcess for Troubleshooting NetworksDemonstration: Troubleshooting Common Network- Related ProblemsThis Lesson’s key focus is to explain the IPv4 addressing scheme, and to show how to configure Windows 7 computers on an IPv4 network.This Lesson has three topics:Describe the purpose and functionality of the various network troubleshooting toolsExplain the process for troubleshooting network problemsExplain how to troubleshoot common network issues by using tools available in Windows 7
27Tools for Troubleshooting Networks Course 6292ATools for Troubleshooting NetworksModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityToolPurposeEvent ViewerEnables you to view errors relating to network activityWindows Network DiagnosticsHelps to diagnose and resolve network problemsIPCONFIGDisplays IP configuration information and controls the DNS resolver cachePING and PathPINGVerifies basic IP connectivityTRACERTVerifies a routing pathNSLOOKUPEnables testing of name resolution Key message: List each tool, and describe its purpose.Discussion prompt: Ask students to recommend a network-troubleshooting tool for the situations that you suggest.Demonstration: Although you are about to perform a demonstration, you might like to show each tool in use at this point.Additional Information:
28Process for Troubleshooting Networks Course 6292AProcess for Troubleshooting NetworksModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityKey message: Discuss the troubleshooting processDiscussion prompt: Ask students to add to their last discussion topic regarding their recommendation of a network- troubleshooting process for the situations that you suggest.When troubleshooting a Microsoft application running on a network, the following steps will help simplify the troubleshooting process: Questions to ask:Does the problem occur on all workstations or to all users?If the answer is yes, and there is no record of the error message in the knowledge base, try to find some factors (hardware, software, and so on) that are common to all of the machines or all of the users.If the answer is no, and there is no record of the error message in the knowledge base, try to find common factors relative to those machines affected (similar software, hardware, and so on).Does the problem occur when logged in as Supervisor?If the answer is yes, it is probably not a rights-related issue.If the answer is no, it is probably an issue related to the rights of the individual receiving the error message.If the problem still is not solved, disable all non-network related programs from the AUTOEXEC.BAT, CONFIG.SYS, and login scripts (if applicable). If the problem still occurs, it is not related to software conflict.Specific steps to follow if the network is Novell:If the application is Microsoft Word and the network is Novell, check to see if Word was started with the /N switch and if the MSWNET, for Word versions earlier than 5.50, or MSWNET55, for Word version 5.50, variable is set correctly.If the MSWNET was not set or set correctly, set the MSWNET (MSWNET55) variable through the login script or in the manner described in the "Setting Up Network Workstations for Multiple Users" application note.Is the problem printing related?Type in CAPTURE SH at the DOS prompt. This command provides information on how Novell is capturing the data to the LPT port. If the TABS field displays NO CONVERSION, the job configuration is set to BYTESTREAM (appropriate for applications with a print driver). If the TABS field displays anything other than NO CONVERSION, it is set to TEXT (appropriate for applications without a print driver). See the PRINTCON menu and CAPTURE command line utilities in the "Introduction to Novell" section of the Novell documentation. If printing a large document or a document with numerous downloaded fonts or graphics, increase the time-out count for the job. If printing to a postscript printer, do not use a banner page.If printing problems still occur, follow the steps listed in "What to Do If a Network Printer Won't Print."Windows NetworkDiagnosticsIPConfigNSlookupTracertPing
29Demonstration: How to Troubleshoot Network-Related Problems Course 6292ADemonstration: How to Troubleshoot Network-Related ProblemsModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityYour instructor will demonstrate how to use the TCP/IP troubleshooting tools to help resolve common connectivity problems.Key PointsIn this demonstration, you will see how to resolve common network related problems.Demonstration StepsYour instructor will perform the following steps:Log on to the LON-CL1 virtual machine as Contso\Administrator with a password of Pa$$w0rd.Click Start, point to All Programs, click Accessories, and then click Command Prompt.At the command prompt, type “ipconfig /all”, and then press ENTER. This displays all network connections for the computer. This shows all network adapter configuration.At the command prompt, type “ipconfig /displaydns” and then press ENTER. This displays the contents of the DNS cache.At the command prompt, type “ipconfig /flushdns” and then press ENTER. This clears the contents of the DNS cache.At the command prompt, type “ping ” and then press ENTER. This pings the local host.At the command prompt, type “ping ” and then press ENTER. This verifies connectivity to LON-DC1 by using an IPv4 address.At the command prompt, type “ping LON-DC1” and then press ENTER. This verifies connectivity to LON-DC1 by using a host name.At the command prompt, type “nslookup –d1 LON-DC1” and then press ENTER. This provides detailed information about the host name resolution. You can use the –d2 option for even more detail.Close the command prompt.Question: How is the ping command useful for troubleshooting?Answer: The ping command can be used to verify connectivity between hosts. However, you should be aware that firewall can block ping packets but still allow the packets for other applications. If you obtain a response to a ping attempt, the host is definitely running. However, if you do not obtain a response to a ping attempt the host may still be functional.10 min
30Lab: Configuring Network Connectivity Course 6292ALab: Configuring Network ConnectivityModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityExercise 1: Configuring IPv4 AddressingExercise 2: Configuring IPv6 AddressingExercise 3: Troubleshooting Network ConnectivityIn this lab, students will explore the tools and procedures used to Configure Network Connectivity.Objectives covered in the lab:Configure an IPv4 AddressConfigure an IPv6 AddressTroubleshoot Network ConnectivityLogon informationVirtual machine6292A-NYC-DC1, A-NYC-SVR1User nameContoso\AdministratorPasswordPa$$w0rdEstimated time: 40 minutes
31Course xxxxyLab ScenarioModule x: TitleLaptop computers are being introduces for some of the managers in Contoso Corporation. You need to test how the IPv4 configuration will behave when they are out of the office and a DHCP server is unavailable.Contoso Corporation is considering the implementation of IPv6 in the internal network. However, noone in the organization has much experience with IPv6. You are performing some configuration tests with DHCPv6 to see how it behaves.A work experience student has been unsuccessful in attempting to resolve an network connectivity problem on a Windows 7 computer. The changes made to the computer have not been documented. You need to restore network connectivity for the computer.
32Course xxxxyLab ReviewModule x: TitleHow are APIPA addresses for IPv4 similar to link-local addresses in IPv6?How can you update a Windows 7 computer to use the correct information after a host record is updated in DNS, but the Windows 7 computer is still resolving the name to the previous IP address?Use the questions on the slide to guide the debriefing after students have completed the lab exercises.How are APIPA addresses for IPv4 similar to link-local addresses in IPv6?Both APIPA addresses are designed to allow computers to communicate on the local network automatically without the use of a DHCP server or any other IP address configuration. However, an APIPA address is only used when a DHCPv4 server is unavailable. An IPv6 link-local address is always generated for a host using IPv6. Additional IPv6 addresses can still be obtained for communication outside the local network.How can you update a Windows 7 computer to use the correct information after a host record is updated in DNS, but the Windows 7 computer is still resolving the name to the previous IP address?When a computer resolves a name to an IP address by using DNS, the name and IP address are cached locally. You can clear this cache at a command prompt with the command ipconfig /flushdns.
33Module Review and Takeaways Course 6292AModule Review and TakeawaysModule 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityReview QuestionsToolsReview Questions1. You are troubleshooting a network-related problem, and you suspect a name resolution issue. Before conducting tests, you want to purge the DNS resolver cache. How can you do that?Answer: Open the Command Prompt window, and run IPconfig /flushdns.2. You are troubleshooting a network-related problem. The IP address of the host you are troubleshooting is What is a possible cause of the problem?Answer: Answers will vary, but may include: The DHCP server is unavailable. A router between the host and the DHCP server is offline3. Should you typically manually assign IPv6 addresses to a computer?Answer: IPv6 is designed so that in most circumstances it should be configured dynamically. Link- local addresses allow communication on the same IPv6 network without any configuration. However, to control access to resources based on IPv6 addresses, you may need to assign a static IPv6 address.4. When a host receives a IPv4 packet, how does it determine whether to send the packet to the gateway?Answer: By referencing the subnet mask of the destination host to determine if it is on a remote network.5. When might you need to change the IPv4 address of a computer?Answer: You must ensure that all computers on your network have a unique IPv4 address. If two computers have the same IPv4 address then you must change the IPv4 address on one of the two 2computers.6. How does IPv6 provide built-in security?Answer: IPv6 includes native IPSec support. This ensures that all hosts can encrypt data in transit.7. When should you assign IPv4 addresses dynamically to a computer?Answer: Most desktop computers have an IPv4 address assigned dynamically. It is much easier to manage than static IP address assignments.8. How is the ping command useful for troubleshooting?Answer: The ping command can be used to verify connectivity between hosts. However, you should be aware that firewall can block ping packets but still allow the packets for other applications. If you obtain a response to a ping attempt, the host is definitely running. However, if you do not obtain a response to a ping attempt the host may still be functional.
34Notes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane. Course 6292ANotes Page Over-flow Slide. Do Not Print Slide. See Notes pane.Module 4: Configuring Network ConnectivityToolsYou can use the following tools to troubleshoot network connectivity issues.Tool DescriptionNetsh.exe A command that you can use to configure network properties from the command-line.DNSLint.exe A command-line tool that you can use to troubleshoot DNS.Pathping.exe A command-line tool that combines the functionality of Ping and Tracert, and that you can use to troubleshoot network latency and provide information about path data.NBTSTAT.exe A tool that you can use to view and troubleshoot NetBIOS over TCP/IP- related configuration.Netstat.exe A command-line tool that you can use to view TCP/IP statistics, including ports in use.Nslookup.exe A command-line tool that you can use to test and troubleshoot DNS and name resolution issues.IPConfig.exe A general IP configuration and troubleshooting toolPing.exe A basic command-line tool that you can use for verifying IP connectivityTracert.exe A tool similar to Pathping, which provides information about network routes