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TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAM THAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM KOL 147 PHONE NO: 9903152315 LMIIT ‘S (AFFILIATED WITH WEST BENGAL STATE.

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Presentation on theme: "TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAM THAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM KOL 147 PHONE NO: 9903152315 LMIIT ‘S (AFFILIATED WITH WEST BENGAL STATE."— Presentation transcript:

1 TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAM THAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM KOL 147 PHONE NO: LMIIT ‘S (AFFILIATED WITH WEST BENGAL STATE COUNCIL OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION) GOVT. OF WEST BENGAL MICROSOFT ACCESS 2003/2007 FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER MICROSOFT EXCEL 2003/2007 MICROSOFT POWER POINT 2003/2007 HTML INTERNET DOS MICROSOFT WORD 2003/2007 FUNDAMENTALS OF WINDOWS INFORMATION : CONTACT US

2 LMIIT TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAMTHAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM. KOL 147 PHONE NO : B E W I T H U S A N D F E E L T H E M A G I C ( STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA )

3 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History History Microsoft originally marketed a spreadsheet program called Multiplan in 1982, which became very popular on CP/M systems, but on MS-DOS systems it lost popularity to Lotus Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Mac in 1985, and the first Windows version (numbered 2.05 to line up with the Mac and bundled with a run-time Windows environment) in November Lotus was slow to bring to Windows and by 1988 Excel had started to outsell and helped Microsoft achieve the position of leading PC software developer. This accomplishment, dethroning the king of the software world, solidified Microsoft as a valid competitor and showed its future of developing GUI software. Microsoft pushed its advantage with regular new releases, every two years or so. The current version for the Windows platform is Excel 12, also called Microsoft Office Excel The current version for the Mac OS X platform is Microsoft Excel 2008.

4 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History History Early in 1993, Excel became the target of a trademark lawsuit by another company already selling a software package named "Excel" in the finance industry. As the result of the dispute Microsoft was required to refer to the program as "Microsoft Excel" in all of its formal press releases and legal documents. However, over time this practice has been ignored, and Microsoft cleared up the issue permanently when they purchased the trademark of the other program.[citation needed] Microsoft also encouraged the use of the letters XL as shorthand for the program; while this is no longer common, the program's icon on Windows still consists of a stylized combination of the two letters, and the file extension of the default Excel format is.xls. Excel offers many user interface tweaks over the earliest electronic spreadsheets; however, the essence remains the same as in the original spreadsheet, VisiCalc: the program displays cells organized in rows and columns, and each cell contains data or a formula, with relative or absolute references to other cells. Excel was the first spreadsheet that allowed the user to define the appearance of spreadsheets (fonts, character attributes and cell appearance). It also introduced intelligent cell recomputation, where only cells dependent on the cell being modified are updated (previous spreadsheet programs recomputed everything all the time or waited for a specific user command). Excel has extensive graphing capabilities, and enables users to perform mail merge. When Microsoft first bundled Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint into Microsoft Office in 1993, those applications had their GUIs redesigned for consistency with Excel,[citation needed] the killer app on the PC at the time.

5 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History History Since 1993, Excel has included Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), a programming language based on Visual Basic which adds the ability to automate tasks in Excel and to provide user defined functions (UDF) for use in worksheets. VBA is a powerful addition to the application which, in later versions, includes a fully featured integrated development environment (IDE). Macro recording can produce VBA code replicating user actions, thus allowing simple automation of regular tasks. VBA allows the creation of forms and in-worksheet controls to communicate with the user. The language supports use (but not creation) of ActiveX (COM) DLL's; later versions add support for class modules allowing the use of basic object-oriented programming techniques. The automation functionality provided by VBA has caused Excel to become a target for macro viruses. This was a serious problem in the corporate world until antivirus products began to detect these viruses. Microsoft belatedly took steps to prevent the misuse by adding the ability to disable macros completely, to enable macros when opening a workbook or to trust all macros signed using a trusted certificate. Versions 5.0 to 9.0 of Excel contain various Easter eggs, although since version 10 Microsoft has taken measures to eliminate such undocumented features from their products.[1]

6 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Programming Programming Excel offers users the useful ability to write code using the programming language Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Programmers write this code using an editor viewed separately from the spreadsheet. Manipulation of the spreadsheet entries is controlled using objects.[8] With this code any function or subroutine that can be set up in a Basic- or Fortran-like language can be run using input taken from the spreadsheet proper, and the results of the code are instantaneously written to the spreadsheet or displayed on charts (graphs). The spreadsheet becomes an interface or window to the code, enabling easy interaction with the code and what it calculates. The most common and easiest way to generate VBA code is by use of the macro recorder function that writes the code for the actions that the user carries out with mouse/keyboard. There is a relative/absolute toggle button that allows the user to switch between the two whilst recording a macro. Relative/absolute in this context means the relative to the start cell location or an absolute cell reference for example cell A1 (column A, row 1). Certain features such as loop functions and screen prompts by their own properties cannot be recorded, but must be entered into the VBA module directly by the programmer. The macros can easily be activated using a button using the form menu, and advanced users can use user prompts to create an interactive program. Although conceptually simple to understand (especially using a macro recorder), the combination of multiple steps under many different constraints/conditions requires a robust testing/quality control processes to gain regular/reliable/predictable results for the product to realise its benefits.

7 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Versions Versions for Microsoft Windows include: 1987 Excel 2.0 for Windows 1990 Excel Excel Excel 5.0 (Office 4.2 & 4.3, also a 32-bit version for Windows NT only on the PowerPC, DEC Alpha, and MIPS) 1995 Excel for Windows 95 (version 7.0) - included in Office Excel 97 - included in Office 97 (x86 and also a DEC Alpha version) 1999 Excel 2000 (version 9.0) included in Office Excel 2002 (version 10) included in Office XP 2003 Excel 2003 (version 11) included in Office Excel 2007 (version 12) included in Office 2007 Notice: There is no Excel 1.0 for Windows, because the Windows version was introduced at the time the Mac version was up to 2.0. Notice: There is no Excel 6.0, because the Windows 95 version was launched with Word 7. All the Office 95 & Office 4.X products have OLE 2 capacity - moving data automatically from various programs - and Excel 7 should show that it was contemporary with Word 7..

8 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA FILE: NEW: TO CREATE A NEW WORKBOOK/ FILE IN EXCEL. STEPS: FILE→NEW. OPEN: TO OPEN AN EXISTING EXCEL FILE STEPS: FILE – OPEN – SELECT THE FILE – OPEN. CLOSE: TO CLOSE THE CURRENT FILE (WITH SHIFT KEY YOU CAN HAVE ‘CLOSE ALL’. STEPS: FILE – CLOSE / CLOSE ALL. SAVE: TO SAVE OR MODIFY A FILE. STEPS: FILE – SAVE – FILE NAME – SAVE. SAVE AS: TO SAVE ANOTHER COPY OF THE FILE. STEPS: STEPS: FILE – SAVE AS – NEW FILE NAME – SAVE.

9 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SAVE AS WEBPAGE: TO SAVE THE FILE AS HTML PAGE FOR PUBLISHING INTO THE INTERNET STEPS: FILE – SAVE AS WEBPAGE – ADD INTER ACTIVITY – ANY FILE NAME – SAVE. SAVE WORKSPACE: TO SAVE MULTIPLE FILES WITHIN ONE FILE. STEPS: FILE – OPEN – SELECT SOME EXCEL FILES – OPEN – FILE – SAVE WORKSPACE – ANY NAME – SAVE. FILE – CLOSE ALL. FILE – OPEN - SELECT THE WORKSPACE FILE – OPEN. WINDOW – ARRANGE – TILED – OK. PAGE SETUP: TO SET THE PAGE TO MAKE SOME PRINT OUT. STEPS: FILE – PAGE SETUP – PAGE – PORTRAIT/LANDSCAPE – MARGIN – TOP = BOTTOM = LEFT = RIGHT = 1” – OK. PRINT AREA: TO SET / DISCARD THE SELECTED PRINTING AREA. STEPS : SELECT THE CELLS – FILE – PRINT AREA – SET PRINT AREA. FILE – PRINT PREVIEW – CLOSE. TO CLEAR THE PRINT AREA : FILE – PRINT AREA – CLEAR PRINT AREA. PRINT PREVIEW: TO VIW THE PAGE BEFORE THE PRINT OUT STEPS: FILE - PRINT PREVIEW.

10 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SEND TO: TO SEND THE DATA TO ANOTHER MICROSOFT/INTERNET APPLICATION. STEPS: FILE – SEND TO – MICROSOFT POWERPOINT. PROPERTIES: TO GET THE GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FILES. STEPS: FILE – PROPERTIES – GENERAL/SUMMERY/STATISTICS/CONTENT – OK. PRINT : TO MAKE SOME PRINTOUTS ON THE PAGE. STEPS: FILE - PRINT - NUMER OF COPIES = 1 – OK. EXIT: TO CLOSE THE MICROSOFT EXCEL. STEPS: FILE – EXIT.

11 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA EDIT UNDO: ONE STEP BACKWARD. STEPS: EDIT – UNDO. REPEAT/ REDO : ONE STEP FORWARD. STEPS: EDIT – REPEAT/ REDO. CUT: TO CUT AND PASTE THE TEXT / OBJECT TO THE DESIRED POSITION. ONCE YOU CUT AN OBJECT YOU CAN PASTE IT MANY TIMES IF IT IS AVAILABLE ON CLIPBOARD. STEPS: SELECT THE CELLS – EDIT – CUT – SELECT THE POSITION – EDIT – PASTE. COPY: TO CREATE ANOTHER COPY OF THE SAME TEXT. ONCE YOU CUT AN OBJECT YOU CAN PASTE IT MANY TIMES IF IT IS AVAILABLE ON CLIPBOARD. STEPS: SELECT THE CELLS – EDIT – COPY – SELECT THE POSITION – EDIT – PASTE. PASTE: AFTER CUT OR COPY YOU CAN GET THE RESULT WITH THE PASTE. STEPS: EDIT – PASTE OFFICE CLIPBOARD: TO COPY MULTIPLE OBJECTS WITHIN A CLIP BOARD. STEPS: EDIT – OFFICE CLIPBOARD – EDIT – COPY.

12 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PASTE SPECIAL: TO CREATE A LINK BETWEEN TO COPY & PASTED AREA. IF ANY CHAGES OCCURRED IN MOTHER SHHET (COPIED) THEN ALL CHANGES ARE AVAILABLE IN CHILD SHEET (PASTED) ALSO. STEPS: SELECT THE CELLS – EDIT – COPY – SHEET 2 – EDIT – PASTE SPECIAL – PASTE LINK. FILL: TO FILL SOME CELLS WITH SAME NUMBER (1,1,1,1) OR VALUE OR SERIES AS (1,2,3….) STEPS: WRITE ANY NUMBER IN ANY CELL – SELECT SOME MORE CELL DOWNWARDS – EDIT – FILL – DOWN. STEPS: WRITE ANY NUMBER IN ANY CELL – SELECT SOME MORE CELL DOWNWARDS – EDIT – FILL – SERIES – STEP VALUE =1 – OK. CLEAR: TO CLEAR OUT THE COLORS, VALUES OR ANY MODIFICATION. STEPS: SELECT THE AREA - EDIT – CLEAR – ALL. (EVERYTHING WILL BE WIPED OUT) SELECT THE AREA - EDIT – CLEAR – FORMATS. (FORMATTINGS WILL BE WIPED OUT) SELECT THE AREA - EDIT – CLEAR – CONTENTS. (VALUES WILL BE WIPED OUT) SELECT THE AREA - EDIT – CLEAR – COMMENTS. (COMMENTS WILL BE WIPED OUT) DELETE: TO EARSE A SELECTED ROW OR COLUMN OR CELL. STEPS: SELECT THE ROW/COLUMN/CELL – EDIT – DELETE.

13 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA DELETE SHEET: TO ERASE A SHEEET. STEPS: EDIT – DELETE SHEET. MOVE OR COPY SHEETS: TO CREATE ANOTHER COPY OF THE SHEET OR TO MOVE TO ANOTHER WORKBOOK. STEPS: EDIT – MOVE OR COPY SHEETS – CHOOSE THE WORK BOOK – CHECK THE CREATE COPY – OK FIND : TO SEARCH SOME VALUES. EDIT – FIND – WRITE THE WORD TO BE FOUND – FIND NEXT. REPALCE: TO CHANGE A VALUE WITH ANOTHER VALUE. STEPS: EDIT – REPLACE – IN FIND WHAT ( THE WORD TO BE REPLACED) – IN REPLACE WITH ( THE WORD WITH WHICH IT WILL BE REPLACED) – REPALCE. SELECT ALL: TO SELECT WHOLE WORKSHEET. STEPS: EDIT – SELECT ALL. GOTO: TO SELECT SOME CELLS. STEPS: EDIT - GOTO – GIVE THE RANGE – OK.

14 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA VIEW NORMAL: AFTER WATCHING PAGE BREAK PREVIEW YOU AN NORMALIZE THE VIEW. STEPS: VIEW – NORMAL. PAGE BREAK PREVIEW: TO GET THE PRINT AREA PAGEWISE. STEPS : VIEW – PAGE BREAK PREVIEW – OK. TASK PANE: TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE TASK PANE WINDOW. STEPS: VIEW – TASK PANE. TOOLBARS: TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE TOOL BARS. STEP: VIEW – TOOLBARS. FORMULA BAR:TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE FORMULA BAR. STEP: VIEW – FORMULABAR. STATUS BAR:TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE STATUS BAR. STEP: VIEW – STATUSBAR.

15 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HEADER & FOOTER: TO WRITE THE INFORMATION AT THE TOP OR BOOTOM OF THE PAGE. STEPS: VIEW – HEADER & FOOTER – CUSTOM HEADER/FOOTER – WRITE THE TEXTS – OK. COMMENT: TO PASS/VIEW SOME TEXTS FOR THE REFERNCE. SELECT THE TEXT – VIEW – COMMENTS – NEW COMMENT – WIRITE THE COMMENT. CUSTOM VIEW: TO NAME SOME SELECTED AREA WITH NAME. SELECT THE AREA – VIEW – CUSTOM VIEW – ADD – WRITE ANY NAME - OK. ZOOM: TO ENLARGE THE VIEW UPTO 200% STEPS: VIEW – ZOOM – SELCET THE VIEW = 200% - OK. FULL SCREEN: TO VIEW THE PAGE WITH FULL SCREEN PREVIEW. STEPS: VIEW – FULL SCREEN PREVIEW – CLOSE FULL SCREEN VIEW.

16 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA INSERT CELL: TO INSERT A NEW CELL ON DESIRED POSITION. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – INSERT – CELL – SHIFT CELL DOWN/RIGHT – OK ROW: TO INSERT A NEW ROW ON DESIRED POSITION. STEPS: SELECT THE ROW – INSERT – ROW. COLUMN: TO INSERT A NEW CLOUMN ON DESIRED POSITION. STEPS: SELECT THE COLUMN – INSERT – COLUMN. WORKSHEET: TO INSERT A NEW WORKSHEET ON DESIRED POSITION. STEPS: SELECT THE WORKSHET – INSERT – WORKSHEET. CHART: VISUAL REPESENTATION OF THE VALUE / DATA. STEPS: SELECT THE DATA – INSERT – CHART – SELECT THE TYPE – NEXT – ADD THE NAME - AS A NEW SHEET – FINISH. FUNCTION: TO CALCULATE EASELY WITH THE SET OF COMMANDS STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – INSERT – FUNCTION – SELECT THE CATEGOREY – SELECT FUNCTION - OK.

17 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA NAME: TO NAME THE CELLS INSTEAD OF CELL ADDRESSES. STEPS: SELECT THE AREA – NAME – CREATE – OK – INSERT – NAME – APPLY – OK. STEPS: SELECT THE AREA – NAME – DEFINE – ANY NAME – ADD – SHHET 2 – INSERT – NAME- PASTE – OK. COMMENT: TO PASS A COMMENT ON ANY CELL. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – INSERT – COMMENT – WRITE SOME TEXT. PICTURE: TO INSERT ANY PICTURE FROM ANY DRIVE. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – SELECT THE DRIVE – SELECT THE FOLDER – SELECT THE FILE – INSERT. DIAGRAM: TO INSERT ANY DIAGRAM AS CHART TO REPREST THE DATA VISUALLY. SETPS: INSERT – DIAGRAM – SELECT ANY ONE - OK OBJECTS: TO INSERT ANY OBJECT FROM ANY OTHER APPLICATION. STEPS: INSERT – OBJECTS – SELECT THE APPLICATION E.G BITMAP IMAGE – OK. HYPERLINK: TO CREATE A LINK BETWEEN TWO THER FILES. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – INSERT – HYPERLINK – SELECT THE FILE – OK.

18 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA FORMAT CELL: TO CHANGE THE COLOR, DIRECTION, CURRENCY SYMBOL, PATTERN ETC. SELECT THE CELLS – FORMAT – CELLS – SELECT THE OPTIONS – OK. ROW: TO MODFY THE WITH ITS HEIGHT, HIDE OR UNHIDE. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – FORMAT – ROW – HEIGHT ( INCREASE THE HIEIGHT) / AUTOFIT (AUTOMATICALLY ADJUSTMENT) / HIDE ( CONCEALING ROW) / UNHIDE (UNVEIL). COLUMN: TO MODFY THE WITH ITS HEIGHT, HIDE OR UNHIDE. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – FORMAT – COLUMN– HEIGHT ( INCREASE THE HIEIGHT) / AUTOFIT (AUTOMATICALLY ADJUSTMENT) / HIDE ( CONCEALING ROW) / UNHIDE (UNVEIL). SHEET: TO MODIFY/RENAME THE WORKSHEET BACKGROUND / HIDE / UNHIDE. STEPS: FORMAT – WORKSHEET – BACKGROUND – CHOOSE THE PICTURE FILE - OK

19 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA AUTOFORMAT: TO APPLY SELECTED PREDEFINE STYLE. STEPS: SELECT THE CELLS – FORMAT – AUTOFORMAT – SELECT THE STYLE – OK. CONDITIONAL FORMATTING: TO MAKE MODIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE MAXIMUM 3 CONDITIONS. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – CONDITIONAL FORMATTING – SELECT THE CONDITIONS ADD – NEXT CONDITION – ADD – NEXT CONDITION –OK.

20 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TOOLS SPELLING : TO CHECK THE SPELLING OF THE CORROSPONDING CELL. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – TOOLS – SPELLING – CHANGE – OK. TRACK CHANGE: TO PROTECT YOUR SHEET WITHOUT HAVING ANY DATA LOSE. STEPS: TOOLS – TRACK CHANGE – HIGHLIGHT THE CHANGES - SELECT THE RANGE – OK. PROTECTION: YOU VAN PROTECT YOUR SHEET WITH PASSWORD. STEPS: TOOLS – PROTECT SHEET – ENTER THE PASSWORD – REENTER THE PASSWORD – OK. GOAL SEEK: TO AMAKE ANY ADJUSTMENT ENTRY IN THE CURRENT SHEET. STEPS: SELECT THE WHICH CONTAINS A FORMULA – INPUT THE TO VALUE – SELECT A CELL WHICH DOESNOT CANTAIN ANY FORMULA – OK.

21 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SCENARIOS: TO MAKE MULTIPLE SHEET WITHIN ONE SHEET. STEPS: SELECT LESS THAN 32 CELLS – TOOLS – SCENARIO – ADD – CHANGE THE CELL VALUES – OK. FORMULA AUDITING: TO VIEW THE DENEDENCY OF CELL ON EACH OTHER. STEPS : SELECT THE CELL – TOOLS – FORMULA AUDITING – TRACE PRESIDENT / TRACE DEPENDENCE. MACRO: TO RECORD SOME STEPS. STEPS: TOOLS – MACRO – RECORD NEW MACRO – OK – DO SOME STEPS MORE – STOP RECORDING. NOW YOU CAN RUN IT FROM : TOOLS – MACRO – RUN MACRO – SELECT THE MACRO NO. –RUN CUSTOMIZE: TO ADD OR REMOVE EXCEL FEATURES OPTIONS. STEPS: TOOLS - CUSTOMIZE – TOOLBARS – SELECT THE TOOL BAR – RESET – OK. OPTION : TO SET THE EXCEL OPTION ACCORDIN TO YOUR NEED.

22 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA DATA SORT: TO ARRANGE THE DATA IN ACCESENDIG OR DESCENDING ORDER. STEPS: SELECT THE DATA – SORT – SELECT THE COLUMN – OK FILTER: TO FILTER THE VALUE ACCORDING TO YOUR NEED. STEPS: SELECT THE DATA – DATA – FILTER –AUTOFILTER - SELECT THE COLUMN – CUSTOM – SET THE CONDITION – OK. FORM: TO MAKE AUTOMATIC ENTRY TO THE CORROSPONDING CELLS. STEPS: SELECT THE DATA – TOOLS – FORM – NEW – ENTER THE DATA – OK. SUBTOTAL: TO ADD AND ARRANGE THE DATA WTHIN GROUPS. STEPS: SELECT THE DATA – TOOLS – SORT ON A FIELD – TOOLS – SUBTOTAL – SELECT THE SAME FIELD – SELECT THE FIELD TO BE ADDED – OK.

23 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA VALIDATION: TO SET THE ACCEPTENCE CRITERIA FOR THE CELLS. SELECT THE CELLS – DATA – VALIDATION – SELECT WHOLE NUMBER – SET THE MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM NUMBER – INPUT MESSAGE – TITILE – WRITE THE MASSEGE – ERROR ALERT – WRITE THE TITLE – WRITE ERROR ALERT – OK. TABLE: TO MAKE A TABLE FOR ANY NUMBER. STEPS: MAKE A SERIES – DATA - TABLE – SET ROW INPUT CELL – SET COLUMN INPUT CELL – OK. TEXT TO COLUMN: TO ARRANGE OR SHIFT THE CRITERIA TO THE CORROSPONDING COLUMN STEPS: WRITE SOME VALUES WITH USING COMMA – DATA – TEXT TO COLUMN- NOW SELECT COMMA – NEXT – FINISH. GROUP AND OUT LINE: TO CREATE THE GROUP OF ROWS OR COLUMN STEPS: SELECT THE CLOUMN – DATA – GROUP – SELECT THE ROW OR COLUMN –OK.

24 MICROSOFT EXCEL STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA WINDOW ARRANGE : TO ARRANGE THE FILES IN ANY ORDER. STEPS: WINDOW – ARRANGE – TILED – OK. HIDE: TO HIDE OR UNHIDE THE WINDOW. STEPS: WINDOW – HIDE/UNHIDE – OK. SPLIT: TO DIVIDE THE WINDOW. STEPS: WINDOW – SPLIT. FREEZE PANE: TO MAKE A FIXED CLOUMN OR ROW. STEPS: SELECT THE ROW/COLUMN – WINDOW – FREEZE PANE.

25 LMIIT TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAMTHAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM. KOL 147 PHONE NO : B E W I T H U S A N D F E E L T H E M A G I C ( STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA )

26 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Microsoft Word MICROSOFT WORD is Microsoft's word processing software. It was first released in 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems. Versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983), the Apple Macintosh (1984), SCO UNIX, OS/2 and Microsoft Windows (1989). It is a component of the Microsoft Office system; however, it is also sold as a standalone product and included in Microsoft Works Suite. Beginning with the 2003 version, the branding was revised to emphasize Word's identity as a component within the Office suite; Microsoft began calling it Microsoft Office Word instead of merely Microsoft Word. The latest releases are Word 2007 for Windows and Word 2008 for Mac OS X.

27 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History [edit] Word 1981 to 1989 Concepts and ideas of Word were brought from Bravo, the original GUI word processor developed at Xerox PARC. On February 1, 1983, development on what was originally named Multi-Tool Word began. Richard Brodie renamed it Microsoft Word, and Microsoft released the program October 25, 1983, for the IBM PC. Free demonstration copies of the application were bundled with the November 1983 issue of PC World, making it the first program to be distributed on-disk with a magazine. However, it was not well received, and sales lagged behind those of rival products such as WordPerfect.[citation needed] Although MS-DOS was a character-based system, Microsoft Word was the first word processor for the IBM PC that showed actual line breaks and typeface markups such as bold and italics directly on the screen while editing, although this was not a true WYSIWYG system because available displays did not have the resolution to show actual typefaces. Other DOS word processors, such as WordStar and WordPerfect, used simple text only display with markup codes on the screen or sometimes, at the most, alternative colors.

28 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA As with most DOS software, each program had its own, often complicated, set of commands and nomenclature for performing functions that had to be learned. For example, in Word for MS-DOS, a file would be saved with the sequence Escape-T-S: pressing Escape called up the menu box, T accessed the set of options for Transfer and S was for Save (the only similar interface belonged to Microsoft's own Multiplan spreadsheet). As most secretaries had learned how to use WordPerfect, companies were reluctant to switch to a rival product that offered few advantages. Desired features in Word such as indentation before typing (emulating the F4 feature in WordPerfect), the ability to block text to copy it before typing, instead of picking up mouse or blocking after typing, and a reliable way to have macros and other functions always replicate the same function time after time, were just some of Word's problems for production typing. Word for Macintosh, despite the major differences in look and feel from the DOS version, was ported by Ken Shapiro with only minor changes from the DOS source code,[citation needed] which had been written with high-resolution displays and laser printers in mind although none were yet available to the general public. Following the precedents of LisaWrite and MacWrite, Word for Macintosh attempted to add closer WYSIWYG features into its package. After Word for Mac was released in 1985, it gained wide acceptance.

29 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA There was no Word 2.0 for Macintosh. Instead, the second release of Word for Macintosh, shipped in 1987, was named Word 3.0; this was Microsoft's first attempt to synchronize version numbers across platforms. Word 3.0 included numerous internal enhancements and new features including the first implementation of the Rich Text Format (RTF) specification, but was plagued with bugs. Within a few months Word 3.0 was superseded by Word 3.01, which was much more stable. All registered users of 3.0 were mailed free copies of 3.01, making this one of Microsoft's most expensive mistakes up to that time.[citation needed]

30 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Microsoft Word 5.1a (Macintosh) The first version of Word for Windows was released in 1989 at a price of 500 US dollars.[citation needed] With the release of Windows 3.0 the following year, sales began to pick up (Word for Windows 1.0 was designed for use with Windows 3.0, and its performance was poorer with the versions of Windows available when it was first released). The failure of WordPerfect to produce a Windows version proved a fatal mistake. It was version 2.0 of Word, however, that firmly established Microsoft Word as the market leader.[citation needed] After MacWrite, Word for Macintosh never had any serious rivals, although programs such as Nisus Writer provided features such as non-contiguous selection which were not added until Word 2002 in Office XP. In addition, many users complained that major updates reliably came more than two years apart, too long for most business users at that time. Word 5.1 for the Macintosh, released in 1992, was a very popular word processor due to its elegance, relative ease of use, and feature set. However, version 6.0 for the Macintosh, released in 1994, was widely derided, unlike the Windows version. It was the first version of Word based on a common codebase between the Windows and Mac versions; many accused it of being slow, clumsy and memory intensive. In response to user requests, Microsoft offered a free "downgrade" to Word 5.1 for dissatisfied Word 6.0 purchasers.

31 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA With the release of Word 6.0 in 1993 Microsoft again attempted to synchronize the version numbers and coordinate product naming across platforms; this time across the three versions for DOS, Macintosh, and Windows (where the previous version was Word for Windows 2.0). There may have also been thought to matching the current version 6.0 of WordPerfect for DOS and Windows, Word's major competitor. However, this wound up being the last version of Word for DOS. As well, subsequent versions of Word were no longer referred to by version number, and were instead named after the year of their release (e.g. Word 95 for Windows, synchronizing its name with Windows 95, and Word 98 for Macintosh), once again breaking the synchronization. When Microsoft became aware of the Year 2000 problem, it released the entire version of DOS port of Microsoft Word 5.5 instead of getting people to pay for the update. As of February 2009, it is still available for download from Microsoft's web site.MicrosoftYear 2000 problem Word 6.0 was actually the second attempt to develop a common codebase version of Word. The first, code-named Pyramid, had been an attempt to completely rewrite the existing Word product. It was abandoned when it was determined that it would take the development team too long to rewrite and then catch up with all the new capabilities that could have been added in the same time without a rewrite. Proponents of Pyramid claimed it would have been faster, smaller, and more stable than the product that was eventually released for Macintosh, which was compiled using a beta version of Visual

32 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA C that targets the Macintosh, so many optimizations have to be turned off (the version of Office is compiled using the final version), and sometimes use the Windows API simulation library included.Pyramid would have been truly cross-platform, with machine-independent application code and a small mediation layer between the application and the operating system.operating system More recent versions of Word for Macintosh are no longer ported versions of Word for Windows although some code is often appropriated from the Windows version for the Macintosh version.[citation needed]versionscitation needed Later versions of Word have more capabilities than just word processing. The Drawing tool allows simple desktop publishing operations such as adding graphics to documents. Collaboration, document comparison, multilingual support, translation and many other capabilities have been added over the years.[citation needed]desktop publishing Collaborationmultilingualtranslationcitation needed Word 95 & 97 icon Word 97 had the same general operating performance as later versions such as Word This was the first copy of Word featuring the Office Assistant, "Clippy," which was an animated helper used in all Office programs. This was a take over from the earlier launched concept in Microsoft Bob.Office AssistantMicrosoft Bob

33 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Word 98 Word 98 for the Macintosh gained many features of Word 97, and was bundled with the Macintosh Office 98 package. Document compatibility reached parity with Office 97 and Word on the Mac became a viable business alternative to its Windows counterpart. Unfortunately, Word on the Mac in this and later releases also became vulnerable to future Macro viruses that could compromise Word (and Excel) documents, leading to the only situation where viruses could be cross-platform. A Windows version of this was only bundled with the Korean/Japanese Microsoft Office 97 Powered By Word 98 and could not be purchased separately. Word 2000 For most users, one of the most obvious changes introduced with Word 2000 (and the rest of the Office 2000 suite) was a clipboard that could hold multiple objects at once. Another noticeable change was that the Office Assistant, whose frequent unsolicited appearance in Word 97 had annoyed many users, was changed to be less intrusive. Word 2001/Word X Word 2001 was bundled with the Macintosh Office for that platform, acquiring most, if not all, of the feature set of Word Released in October Word 2001 was also sold individually apart from the Office suite. The Macintosh version, Word X, released in 2001, was the first version to run natively on (and require) Mac OS X.Mac OS X

34 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Word 2002/XP Word 2002 was bundled with Office XP and was released in It had many of the same features as Word 2000 but had a major new feature called the 'Task Panes', which gave quicker information and control to a lot of features that were only available in modal dialog boxes before. One of the key advertising strategies for the software was the removal of the Office Assistant in favor of a new help system, although it was simply disabled by default.Office Assistant Office Word 2003 For the 2003 version, the Office programs, including Word, were rebranded to emphasize the unity of the Office suite, so that Microsoft Word officially became Microsoft Office Word. Word 2004 A new Macintosh version of Office was released in May Substantial cleanup of the various applications (Word, Excel, PowerPoint) and feature parity with Office 2003 (for Microsoft Windows) created a very usable release. Microsoft released patches through the years to eliminate most known Macro vulnerabilities from this version. While Apple released Pages and the open source community created NeoOffice, Word remains the most widely used word processor on the Macintosh. Microsoft Windows

35 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Word 2007 See also: Microsoft Office 2007Microsoft Office 2007 The release includes numerous changes, including a new XML-based file format, a redesigned interface, an integrated equation editor and bibliographic management. Additionally, an XML data bag was introduced, accessible via the object model and file format, called Custom XML - this can be used in conjunction with a new feature called Content Controls implement structured documents. It also has contextual tabs, which are functionality specific only to the object with focus, and many other features like Live Preview (which enables you to view the document without making any permanent changes), Mini Toolbar, Super-tooltips, Quick Access toolbar, SmartArt, etc.bibliographic Word 2007 uses a new file format called docx. Word users on Windows systems can install a free add-on called the "Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack" to be able to open, edit, and save the new Word 2007 files. Alternatively, Word 2007 can save to the old doc format of Word Word 2008 See also: Microsoft Office 2008 for MacMicrosoft Office 2008 for Mac Word 2008 is the most recent version of Microsoft Word for the Mac, released on January 15, It includes some new features from Word 2007, such as a ribbon-like feature that can be used to select page layouts and insert custom diagrams and images. Word 2008 also features native support for the new Office Open XML format, although the old.doc format can be set as a default.January

36 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Word 2007 See also: Microsoft Office 2007Microsoft Office 2007 The release includes numerous changes, including a new XML-based file format, a redesigned interface, an integrated equation editor and bibliographic management. Additionally, an XML data bag was introduced, accessible via the object model and file format, called Custom XML - this can be used in conjunction with a new feature called Content Controls implement structured documents. It also has contextual tabs, which are functionality specific only to the object with focus, and many other features like Live Preview (which enables you to view the document without making any permanent changes), Mini Toolbar, Super-tooltips, Quick Access toolbar, SmartArt, etc.bibliographic Word 2007 uses a new file format called docx. Word users on Windows systems can install a free add-on called the "Microsoft Office Compatibility Pack" to be able to open, edit, and save the new Word 2007 files.Alternatively, Word 2007 can save to the old doc format of Word Word 2008 See also: Microsoft Office 2008 for MacMicrosoft Office 2008 for Mac Word 2008 is the most recent version of Microsoft Word for the Mac, released on January 15, It includes some new features from Word 2007, such as a ribbon-like feature that can be used to select page layouts and insert custom diagrams and images. Word 2008 also features native support for the new Office Open XML format, although the old.doc format can be set as a default.January

37 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Microsoft Word 5.5 for DOS Versions for MS-DOS include the following:MS-DOS 1983 November — Word — Word — Word — Word 4 aka Microsoft Word 4.0 for the PCPC 1989 — Word — Word — Word — Word 6.0 Versions for the Macintosh (Mac OS and Mac OS X) include the following:Macintosh 1985 January — Word 1 for the Macintosh 1987 — Word — Word — Word — Word — Word — Word 2001, the last version compatible with Mac OS 9Mac OS — Word v.X, the first version for Mac OS X onlyMac OS X 2004 — Word 2004, part of Office 2004 for MacOffice 2004 for Mac 2008 — Word 2008, part of Office 2008 for MacOffice 2008 for Mac

38 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA FILE NEW: TO CREATE A NEW DOCUMENT. STEPS: FILE – NEW – BLANK PAGE. OPEN: TO OPEN AN EXISTING FILE STEPS: FILE – OPEN – SELECT ANY FILE – OPEN. CLOSE/CLOSE ALL: TO CLOSE OR CLOSE ALL (SHIFT) FILES. STEPS: FILE – CLOSE / CLOSE ALL. SAVE: TO SAVE OR MODIFY A FILE. STEPS: FILE – SAVE – FILE NAME – SAVE. SAVE AS: TO CREATE ANOTHER COPY OF THE FILE. STEPS: FILE – SAVE AS - ANY NAME – SAVE.

39 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SAVE AS WEBPAGE: TO SAVE AND PUBLISH IN INTERNET AS A WEBPAGE. STEPS: FILE – SAVE AS WEBPAGE – ANY NAME – SAVE. VERSIONS: TO ADD A VERSION NAME TO THE FILE. STEPS: FILE – VERSIONS– SAVE NOW – WRITE THE VERSION INFORMATION – OK TO CHECK THE VERSION NAME : FILE – VERSIONS. WEBPAGE PREVIEW: TO VIEW THE APGE AS AN INTERNET PAGE. STEPS: FILE – WEB PAGE PREVIEW. PAGE SETUP: TO SET THE PAGE TO MAKE SOME PRINT OUT. STEPS: FILE – PAGE SETUP – PAGE – PORTRAIT/LANDSCAPE – MARGIN – TOP = BOTTOM = LEFT = RIGHT = 1” – OK. PRINT PREVIEW: TO VIW THE PAGE BEFORE THE PRINT OUT STEPS: FILE - PRINT PREVIEW. PRINT: TO MAKE PRINTOUTS ON THE PAGE. STEPS: FILE – PRINT – NUMBER OF COPIES – PRINT.

40 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SEND TO: TO SEND THE DATA TO ANOTHER MICROSOFT/INTERNET APPLICATION. STEPS: FILE – SEND TO – MICROSOFT POWERPOINT. PROPERTIES: TO GET THE GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FILES. STEPS: FILE – PROPERTIES – GENERAL/SUMMERY/STATISTICS/CONTENT – OK. EXIT : TO CLOSE MICROSOFT WORD. STEPS: FILE – EXIT.

41 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA EDIT UNDO: ONE STEP BACKWARD. STEPS: EDIT – UNDO. REPEAT/ REDO : ONE STEP FORWARD. STEPS: EDIT – REPEAT/ REDO. CUT: TO CUT AND PASTE THE CELL VALUE TO THE DESIRED CELL. ONCE YOU CUT AN OBJECT YOU CAN PASTE IT MANY TIMES IF IT IS AVAILABLE ON CLIPBOARD. STEPS: SELECT THE CELLS – EDIT – CUT – SELECT THE POSITION – EDIT – PASTE. COPY: TO CREATE ANOTHER COPY OF THE SAME TEXT. ONCE YOU CUT AN OBJECT YOU CAN PASTE IT MANY TIMES IF IT IS AVAILABLE ON CLIPBOARD. STEPS: SELECT THE CELLS – EDIT – COPY – SELECT THE POSITION – EDIT – PASTE. PASTE: AFTER CUT OR COPY YOU CAN GET THE RESULT WITH THE PASTE. STEPS: EDIT – PASTE.

42 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA OFFICE CLIPBOARD: TO COPY MULTIPLE OBJECTS WITHIN A CLIP BOARD. STEPS: EDIT – OFFICE CLIPBOARD – EDIT – COPY. PASTE SPECIAL: TO CONVERT ANY TEXT TO PICTURE. STEPS: EDIT – COPY – EDIT – PASTE SPECIAL – SELECT PICTURE – OK. TEXT WRAPPING – THROUGH – NOW YOU CAN ROTATE THE TEXT(PICTURE) CLEAR: TO ERASE THE FORMATS OR CONTENT (TEXT). STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – EDIT – CLEAR – FORMAT/CONTENT. FIND : TO SEARCH SOME VALUES. EDIT – FIND – WRITE THE WORD TO BE FOUND – FIND NEXT. REPALCE: TO CHANGE A VALUE WITH ANOTHER VALUE. STEPS: EDIT – REPLACE – IN FIND WHAT ( THE WORD TO BE REPLACED) – IN REPLACE WITH ( THE WORD WITH WHICH IT WILL BE REPLACED) – REPALCE. SELECT ALL: TO SELECT THE WHOLE DOCUMENT. STEPS: EDIT – SELECT ALL. GOTO: TO MOVE TO DESIRED POSITION. STEPS: EDIT - GOTO – SELECT LINE- GIVE THE LINE NO – OK.

43 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA VIEW NORMAL/WEB LAYOUT/PRINT LAYOUT/OUT LINE/ READING LAYOUT: TO VIEW THE PAGE AS IN DIFFERENT LAYOUTS. STEPS: VIEW - NORMAL/WEB LAYOUT/PRINT LAYOUT/OUT LINE/ READING LAYOUT. TASK PANE: TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE TASK PANE WINDOW. STEPS: VIEW – TASK PANE. TOOLBARS: TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE TOOL BARS. STEP: VIEW – TOOLBARS. RULAR : TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE RULARS. STEPS: VIEW – RULAR. DOCUMENT MAP: TO VIEW THE CHAPTERS IN LEFTSIDE WINDOW PANE. STEPS: WRITE THREE PARAGRAPHS – NAME AS CHAPTER1, CHAPTER2, CHAPTER3 – CHANGE THEM TO HEADING 1 – VIEW – DOCUMENT MAP. HEADER AND FOOTER: TO WRITE SOME TEXT IN THE MARGIN AREA. ONCE YOU WRITE THE TEXT,THE TEXT WILL BE COPIED TO THE NEXT PAGE AUTOMATICALLY. STEPS: VIEW – HEADER & FOOTER – WRITE THE TEXT – CLOSE.

44 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA THUMBNAIL: TO VIEW THE PAGES AS THUMBNAILS. STEPS: VIEW – THUMBNAIL. MARKUP: TO VIEW THE HIDDEN COMMENTS. STEPS: VIEW – MARKUP. ZOOM: TO ENLARGE OR SHRINK THE VIEW ACCORDING TO YOUR NEED, STEPS: VIEW – ZOOM – SET ZOOM PERCENTAGE - OK FULL SCREEN: TO VIEW THE FULL SCREEN PREVIEW. STEPS: VIEW – FULL SCREEN – CLOSE.

45 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA INSERT BREAK: TO GET ANOTHER PAGE. STEPS: INSERT – BREAK – PAGE BREAK – OK. PAGE NUMBERS: TO INSERT THE PAGE NUMBERS ON THE PAGES. STEPS: INSERT – PAGE NUMBERS – SELCT THE POSITION AS CENTER AND HEADER – FORMAT – SELECT THE STYLE – OK – OK. DATE AND TIME : TO INSERT THE CURRENT DATE AND TIME. STEPS: INSERT – DATE AND TIME – SELECT ANY FORMAT – OK AUTOTEXT: TO INSERT A PRE DEFINED TEXT ON THE DESIRED POSITION. STEPS: INSERT – AUTO TEXT – SELECT THE CATEGORY SELECT THE TEXT. TO CREATE NEW TEXT: INSERT – AUTOTEXT – AUTOTEXT – WRITE THE TEXT – ADD – OK SYMBOL: TO INSERT SPECIAL SIGNS INTO THE PAGES. STEPS: INSERT – SYMBOL – SELECT THE SYMBOL – INSERT. COMMENT: TO PASS A REMARK ON ANY SELECTED TEXT. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – INSERT – COMMENT – WRITE SOME TEXT – CLICK ON PAGE.

46 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA REFERENCE FOOTNOTE: TO INSERT SOME IMPORTANT LINE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE DOCUMENT. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – INSERT - REFERENCE– FOOTNOTE – APPLY. CAPTION: TO DENOTE A PICTURE WITH ITS REFERENCE NAME AS FIGURE. STEPS: INSERT – REFERENCE – CAPTION – OK. CROSS REFERENCE : TO ACTIVATE THE CAPTIONS. STEPS: INSERT – REFERENCE – CROSS REFERENCE – SELECT THE FIGURE – SELECT - INSERT – CLOSE. INDEX & TABLE: TO MAKE THE TABLE OF CONTENT OR WORD REFERENCE IN PAGE. STEPS: CREATE THREE CHAPTERS IN DIFFERENT PAGES – CONVER ITS HEADING AS HEADING1 – INSERT – REFERENCE – INDEX & TABLE – TABLE OF CONTENT – STYLE AS FANCY – OK. INSERT – REFERENCE – INDEX & TABLE – MARK ENTRY – SELECT THE WORD – MARK. INSERT – REFERENCE – INDEX & TABLE - SELECT THE STYLE – OK.

47 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PICTURE CLIP ART: TO INSERT A SAVED PICTURES FROM MICROSOFT OFFICE PACKAGE. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – CLIP ART – WRITE THE CATEGORY – SEARCH – CLICK ON THE PICTURES. FROM FILE: TO INSERT THE PICTURES FROM ANY DRIVE. STEPS: INSERT - PICTURES – FROM FILE SELECT THE DRIVE – SELECT THE FOLDER – SELECT THE FILE – INSERT. WORDART: TO INSERT SOME STYLIST TEXT. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – WORDART – SELECT ANY STYLE – TYPE YOUR TEXT – OK. SCANER OR CAMERA: TO GET PICTURE FROM SCANER OR CAMERA. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – SCANER OR CAMERA – SELECT THE SOURCE – GET PICTURE. ORAGNISATION CHART: TO REPRESENT THE DATA IN A SPECIAL WAY. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – ORGANIZATIN CHART – OK. AUTOSHAPES: TO INSERT SOME SPECIAL SHAPES STEPS: INSERT – PICTURES – AUTO SHAPES. CHART: VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE DATA. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – CHART – NOW ENTER THE DATA – CLICK ON OUTSIDE.

48 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA DIAGRAM: TO INSERT ANY DIAGRAM AS CHART TO REPREST THE DATA VISUALLY. SETPS: INSERT – DIAGRAM – SELECT ANY ONE - OK OBJECTS: TO INSERT ANY OBJECT FROM ANY OTHER APPLICATION. STEPS: INSERT – OBJECTS – SELECT THE APPLICATION E.G BITMAP IMAGE – OK. BOOKMARK: TO NAME THE PARAGRAPHS. STEPS: SELECT THE PARAGRAPH – INSERT – BOOKMARK – NAME – ADD. HYPERLINK: TO CREATE A LINK BETWEEN TWO THER FILES. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – INSERT – HYPERLINK – SELECT THE FILE – OK.

49 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA FORMAT FONT: TO CHANGE THE LETTER STYLE, SIZE, SPACE & EFFECT. STEPS: SELECT THE LINE – FORMAT – FONT – SELECT THE STYLE – OK. PARAGRAPHS: TO ARRANGE THE PARAGRAPHS ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENT. STEPS: FONT – PARAGRAPHS – ALIGNMENT=“JUSTIFY” – FIRST LINE =“0.5” – SPACING 18/18 – LINE SPACING =“DOUBLE” – OK. BULLET & NUMBERINGS: TO MAKE SOME POINT OUTS STEPS: FORMAT – BULLET & NUMBERINGS – SELCET THE STYLE – OK. BORDERS & SHADING: TO ENFRAME THE PARAGRAPH OR THE WHOLE PAGE. STEP: SELECT THE PARAGRAPH –FORMAT – BORDERS & SHADING - SELECT BORDER/ PAGEBORDER -SELECT THE STYLE – OK. COLUMNS: TO DIVEDE THE PAGE WITH COLUMNS. STEPS: FORMAT – COLUMN – SELECT THE NUMBERS OF COLUMNS – OK TABS: TO SET THE TAB KEY AS YOUR REQUIREMENT. STEPS: FORMAT – TABS- WRITE THE TAB STOP AS “1 INCH” - SET - “3 INCH” - SET - “3.5 INCH” – SET – OK.

50 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA DROP CAP: TO CAPITALISE THE FIRST LETTER OF THE PARAGRAPH. STEPS: FORMAT- DROP CAP- SELECT THE LINE TO BE DROPED = 3 =OK. TEXT DIRECTION: TO CHANGE THE DIRECTION AS VERTICAL OR HORIZONYTAL STEPS: TAKE A TEXT BOX – FORMAT – TEXT DIRECTION - SELECT THE DIRECTION - OK CHANGE CASE : TO CHANGE THE CASE OF THE LETTERS. SENTENCE CASE : FIRST LETTER OF THE SENTENCE IS CAPITAL. LOWER CASE : ALL LETTERS IN SMALL LETTERS. UPPER CASE : ALL LETTERS IN CAPITALS. TITLE CASE : ALL FIRST LETTER OF THE ALL WORD. TOGGLE CASE : TO CHANGE THE LETTERS IN REVERSE CASE. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – FORMAT – CHANGE CASE – SELECT THE CASE – OK BACKGROUND: TO CHANGE THE BACKGROUND COLOR OF THE DOCUMENT. STEPS: FORMAT – BACKGROUND – CHOOSE A COLOR – OK. THEME: TO CHANGE THE COLOR THEMES OF THE PAGE. STEPS: FORMAT – SELECT – THE THEME – OK STYLE AND FORMATTING: TO CHANGE THE STYLE OF THE TEXT. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – FORMAT – STYLE AND FORMATTING – SELECT THE STYLE – OK.

51 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TOOLS SPELLING AND GRAMMAR : TO CHECK THE GRAMMAR AND SPELLING OF THE SENTENCE. STEPS: TOOLS – SPELLING AND GRAMMAR – SELECT THE CORRECT ONE – CHANGE/IGNORE. RESEARCH: TO CHECK THE MEANING OF THE SELECTED WORD. STEPS: SELECT THE WORD – TOOLS – RESEARCH. LANGUAGE: TO CHANGE THE DEFAULT LANGUAGE OF THE MS WORD. STEPS: TOOLS –LANGUAGE –SET LANGUAGE - SELECT THE LANGUAGE – OK TO FIND THE MEANING: TOOLS – LANGUAGE – THESAURUS. WORD COUNT: TO COUNT THE WORDS, CHATRACTERS, LINES ETC. STEPS: TOOLS – WORD COUNT – OK AUTO SUMMERIZE: TO MAKE SUMMERY OF ANY TEXT. STEPS: TOOLS – AUTO SUMMERIZE – SELCETHE NEW DOCUMENT – OK. TRACK CHANGES: TO ADD PROTECTION TO THE DOCUMENT. STEPS: TOOLS – TARCK CHANGE. IF YOU WANT TO REJECT THE CHAGES : REJECT CHANGE IN TOOLBAR.

52 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PROTECT DOCUMENT: TO PROTECT THE DOCUMENT/TRACK CHANGE WITH PASSWORD. STEPS: TOOLS – PROTECT DOCUMENT – SELECT TRACK CHANGE / FILL IN THE FORMS – WRITE THE PASSWORD – REENTER THE PASSWORD AGAIN OK. FOR FILE PASSWORD: FILE – SAVE AS – TOOLS – SEQURITY OPTION – PASSWORD TO OPEN – WRITE THE PASSORD – RE ENTER THE PASSWORD AGAIN – SAVE. LETTER AND MAILINGS: MAILMERGE WIZARD: TO MERGE TWO DIFFERENT DOCUMENT AND CREATE MULTIPLE PAGES. STEPS: WRITE A LETTER – TOOLS – LETTER & MAILINGS - MAIL MERGE WIZARD –NEXT – NEXT - TYPE A NEW LIST – CREATE – ENTER THE FORM FOR 3 -4 ENTRIES – CLOSE - ANY NAME – SAVE – OK – NEXT – MORE ITEMS – INSERT THE FIELD – CLOSE – NEXT - NEXT – EDIT INDIVIDUAL LETTER – ALL – OK. ENVELOPS AND LEBELS: TO MAKE AND PRINT ENVELOPS. STEPS: TOOLS – LETTER AND MAILINGS – ENVELOPS AND LABELS – ENETER THE DELIVERY ADDRESS – ENTER THE SENDERS ADDRESS. ADD TO COUMENT. LETTER WIZARD: TO CRAETE A LETTER WITH PREDIFINE STYLE AND FORMAT. STEPS: TOOLS – LETTER AND MAILINGS – LETTER WIZARD – DATE LINE – CONTEMPORARY LETTER – SEMI BLOCK – RECIPENT INFO – RECIPENTS’S NAME – DELIVERY ADDRESS – OTHER ELEMENT – SUBJECT – WRITE THE SUBJECT – SENDER INFO – SENDER’S NAME – SENDERS’S ADDRESS – SEKLECT THE CLOSING – OK.

53 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA MACRO: TO RECORD SOME STEPS ACCORDING TO YOUR NEED. STEPS: TOOLS – MACRO – RECORD NEW MACRO – TOOL BAR – DRAG THE MACRO TO THE TOOL BAR – MODIFY SELECTION – NAME – GIVE ANY NAME – CHANGE BUTTON IMAGE – ADD ANY BUTTON IMAGE – CLOSE – WIRTE SOME LINES – STOP RECORDING. NOW YOU CAN CLICK ON THE MACRO CREATED ON THE TOOL BAR. STEPS: TOOLS – MACRO RECOR NEW MACRO – KEBOARD – SELECT ANY KEY WITH ‘ALT’ KEY – ASSIGN – DO SOME STEPS – STOP RECORDING. NOW YOU CAN PRESS THE KEY WITH ALT KEY TO GET THE RESULT. AUTO CORRECT : TO MAKE SOME AUTOMATIC COIRRECTION THE TEXT. STEPS: TOOLS – AUTOCOREECT – WRITE SOME WRONFG SPELLING – PRESS TAB- WRITE THE CORRECT SPELLING – ADD –OK. CUSTOMIZE: TO ADD OR REMOVE OPTIONS FROM TOOL BARS OR MENUBARS. STEPS: TOOLS – CUSTOMIZE – SELECT THE TOOLBAR – RESET –OK OPTIONS: TO SET THE MSWORD OPTIONS. STEPS: TOOLS – OPTIONS – SELECT OR SET THE VALID OPTIONS - OK

54 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TABLE DRAW TABEL: TO DRAW A TABLE MANUALLY WITH ROW AND COLUMNS. STEPS: TABLE – DRAW TABLE – DRAW THE TABLE WITH PENCIL. INSERT : TO INSERT THE TABLE / ROW /COLUMN ETC STEPS: SELECT THE POSITION – TABLE – INSERT – WRITE THE COLUMN NOS AND ROW NOS – OK. DELETE: TO DELETE THE TABLE / ROW / COLUMN ETC. STEPS: SELECT THE TABLE/ROW/COLUMN – TABLE – DELETE – TABLE/COLUMN/ROW. SELECT: TO DELETE THE TABLE / ROW / COLUMN ETC. STEPS: SELECT THE TABLE/ROW/COLUMN – TABLE – SELECT – TABLE/COLUMN/ROW. MERGE CELL: TO MERGE TWO DIFFERENT CELLS INTO ONE. STEPS: SELECT TWO CELLS – TABLE – MERGE CELL. SPLIT CELLS: TO DEVIDE THE CELLS. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – TABLE – SPLIT CELLS – WRITE ROW NOS AND COLUMN NOS – OK.

55 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SPLIT TABLE: TO DEVIDE THE TABLE INTO TWO PARTS. STEPS: SELECT THE POSITION – TABLE – SPLIT TABLE. AUTO FORMAT: TO APPLY SOME STYLE. STEPS: SELECT THE TABLE – TABLE – AUTOFORMAT – SELECT THE STYLE - OK. AUTOFIT: TO ADJUST CELLS AND TABLES AS ON THE WRITING SPACE. STEPS: SELECT THE TABLE – TABLE – AUTO FIT – AUTOFIT TO CONTENT / WINDOW. TO EUQLIZE ALL ROWS AND COLUMNS: SELECT THE TABLE – TABLE AUTOFIT – DISTRIBUTE ROW EVENLY/COLUMN EVENLY. CONVERT : EITHER YOU CAN CONVERT A TABLE FROM TEXT OR TEXT TO TABLE. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT/TABLE – TABLE – CONVERT – TABLE / TEXT. SORT: TO ARRANGE THE DATA IN ACCESENDING OR DESCENDING ORDER. STEPS: SELECT THE CLOUMN – TABLE – SORT – SELECT THE FIELD – OK. FORMULA: TO ADD SOME VALUES IN MSWORD. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – TABLE – FORMULA – WRITE ‘SUM(LEFT)’ – OK. CELL PROPERTIES: TO CENTRALIZE THE CELL VALUES. STEPS: SELECT TH CELL – TABLE – CELL PROPERTIES – CELLS - CENTER – OK.

56 MICROSOFT WORD STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA WINDOW NEW WINDOW : TO CREATE A NEW WINDOW. STEPS: WINDOW – NEW WINDOW. ARRANGE: TO ARRANGE ALL OPEN DOCUMENT IN A ORDER. STEPS: WINDOW – ARRANGE – OK. SPLIT/REMOVE SPLIT WINDOW : TO DEVIDE WINDOW INTO TWO PARTS. STEPS: WINDOW – SPLIT WINDOW/ REMOVE SPLIT WINDOW.

57 LMIIT TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAMTHAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM. KOL 147 PHONE NO : B E W I T H U S A N D F E E L T H E M A G I C ( STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA )

58 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program developed by Microsoft. It is part of the Microsoft Office suite, and runs on Microsoft Windows and the Mac OS X computer operating systems. The Windows version can run on the Linux operating system, under the Wine compatibility layer.presentation programMicrosoft Microsoft OfficeMicrosoft WindowsMac OS XLinuxWine PowerPoint is widely used by business people, educators, students, and trainers and is among the most prevalent forms of persuasive technology. Beginning with Microsoft Office 2003, Microsoft revised the branding to emphasize PowerPoint's place within the office suite, calling it Microsoft Office PowerPoint instead of just Microsoft PowerPoint. The current versions are Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2007 for Windows and 2008 for Mac.persuasive technology

59 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History PowerPoint was initially developed in 1984 by Forethought, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, for the Macintosh computer. In 1987, Forethought was bought by Microsoft and became Microsoft's Graphics Business Unit, which continued to further develop the software.

60 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Operation PowerPoint presentations consist of a number of individual pages or "slides". The "slide" analogy is a reference to the slide projector, a device that has become obsolete due to the use of PowerPoint and other presentation software. Slides may contain text, graphics, movies, and other objects, which may be arranged freely on the slide. PowerPoint, however, facilitates the use of a consistent style in a presentation using a template or "Slide Master".slide projector The presentation can be printed or displayed live on a computer and navigated through at the command of the presenter. For larger audiences the computer display is often projected using a video projector. Slides can also form the basis of webcasts.video projectorwebcasts PowerPoint provides three types of movements: Entrance, emphasis, and exit of elements on a slide itself are controlled by what PowerPoint calls Custom AnimationsCustom Animations Transitions, on the other hand are movements between slides. These can be animated in a variety of ways Custom animation can be used to create small story boards by animating pictures to enter, exit or move

61 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA With callouts, speech bubbles with edited text can be sent on and off to create speech. The overall design of a presentation can be controlled with a master slide; and the overall structure, extending to the text on each slide, can be edited using a primitive outliner.speech bubbles outliner Presentations can be saved and run in any of the file formats: the 2003 default.ppt (presentation),.pps (PowerPoint Show) or.pot (template). In PowerPoint 2007 and Mac OS X 2008 versions, the XML-based file formats.pptx,.ppsx and.potx have been introduced, along with the macro-enabled file formats.pptm,.potm,.ppsm.file formatsXML-based file formats [edit] Cultural effectsedit Supporters and critics generally agree[2][3][4] that the ease of use of presentation software can save a lot of time for people who otherwise would have used other types of visual aid—hand-drawn or mechanically typeset slides, blackboards or whiteboards, or overhead projections. Ease of use also encourages those who otherwise would not have used visual aids, or would not have given a presentation at all, to make presentations. As PowerPoint's style, animation, and multimedia abilities have become more sophisticated, and as the application has generally made it easier to produce presentations (even to the point of having an "AutoContent Wizard" suggesting a structure for a presentation), the difference in needs and desires of presenters and audiences has become more noticeable.[2][3][4]animationmultimedia

62 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Versions Versions for Microsoft Windows include:Microsoft Windows 1990 PowerPoint 2.0 for Windows PowerPoint 3.0 for Windows PowerPoint 4.0 (Office 4.x) 1995 PowerPoint for Windows 95 (version 7.0) — (Office 95)Office PowerPoint 97 — (Office 97) 1999 PowerPoint 2000 (version 9.0) — (Office 2000) 2001 PowerPoint 2002 (version 10) — (Office XP)Office XP 2003 PowerPoint 2003 (version 11) — (Office 2003)Office PowerPoint 2007 (version 12) — (Office 2007)Office 2007

63 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA FILE NEW: TO CREATE A NEW SLIDE SHOW. STEPS: FILE – NEW – BLANK SLIDE. OPEN: TO OPEN AN EXISTING FILE STEPS: FILE – OPEN – SELECT ANY FILE – OPEN. CLOSE/CLOSE ALL: TO CLOSE FILES. STEPS: FILE – CLOSE. SAVE: TO SAVE OR MODIFY A FILE. STEPS: FILE – SAVE – FILE NAME – SAVE. SAVE AS: TO CREATE ANOTHER COPY OF THE FILE. STEPS: FILE – SAVE AS - ANY NAME – SAVE.

64 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SAVE AS WEBPAGE: TO SAVE AND PUBLISH IN INTERNET AS A WEBPAGE. STEPS: FILE – SAVE AS WEBPAGE – ANY NAME – SAVE. WEBPAGE PREVIEW: TO VIEW THE APGE AS AN INTERNET PAGE. STEPS: FILE – WEB PAGE PREVIEW. PACKAGE FOR CD: TO WRITE TO THE CD. STEPS: FILE – PACKAGE FOR THE CD – COPY TO FLODER – SELECT THE LOCATION - OK. PAGE SETUP: TO SET THE PAGE TO MAKE SOME PRINT OUT. STEPS: FILE – PAGE SETUP – PAGE – PORTRAIT/LANDSCAPE – MARGIN – TOP = BOTTOM = LEFT = RIGHT = 1” – OK. PRINT PREVIEW: TO VIW THE PAGE BEFORE THE PRINT OUT STEPS: FILE - PRINT PREVIEW. PRINT: TO MAKE PRINTOUTS ON THE PAGE. STEPS: FILE – PRINT – NUMBER OF COPIES – PRINT.

65 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SEND TO: TO SEND THE DATA TO ANOTHER MICROSOFT/INTERNET APPLICATION. STEPS: FILE – SEND TO – MICROSOFT WORD. U TO GET THE GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE FILES. STEPS: FILE – PROPERTIES – GENERAL/SUMMERY/STATISTICS/CONTENT – OK. EXIT : TO CLOSE MICROSOFT POWERPOINT. STEPS: FILE – EXIT.

66 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA EDIT UNDO: ONE STEP BACKWARD. STEPS: EDIT – UNDO. REPEAT/ REDO : ONE STEP FORWARD. STEPS: EDIT – REPEAT/ REDO. CUT: TO CUT AND PASTE THE CELL VALUE TO THE DESIRED POSITION. ONCE YOU CUT AN OBJECT YOU CAN PASTE IT MANY TIMES IF IT IS AVAILABLE ON CLIPBOARD. STEPS: SELECT THE CELLS – EDIT – CUT – SELECT THE POSITION – EDIT – PASTE. COPY: TO CREATE ANOTHER COPY OF THE SAME TEXT/OBJECT. ONCE YOU CUT AN OBJECT YOU CAN PASTE IT MANY TIMES IF IT IS AVAILABLE ON CLIPBOARD. STEPS: SELECT THE CELLS – EDIT – COPY – SELECT THE POSITION – EDIT – PASTE. PASTE: AFTER CUT OR COPY YOU CAN GET THE RESULT WITH THE PASTE. STEPS: EDIT – PASTE.

67 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA OFFICE CLIPBOARD: TO COPY MULTIPLE OBJECTS WITHIN A CLIP BOARD. STEPS: EDIT – OFFICE CLIPBOARD – EDIT – COPY. PASTE SPECIAL: TO CONVERT ANY TEXT TO PICTURE. STEPS: EDIT – COPY – EDIT – PASTE SPECIAL – SELECT PICTURE – OK. TEXT WRAPPING – THROUGH – NOW YOU CAN ROTATE THE TEXT(PICTURE) CLEAR: TO ERASE THE CONTENT (TEXT). STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – EDIT – CLEAR. FIND : TO SEARCH SOME TEXT. EDIT – FIND – WRITE THE WORD TO BE FOUND – FIND NEXT. REPALCE: TO CHANGE A VALUE WITH ANOTHER VALUE. STEPS: EDIT – REPLACE – IN FIND WHAT ( THE WORD TO BE REPLACED) – IN REPLACE WITH ( THE WORD WITH WHICH IT WILL BE REPLACED) – REPALCE. SELECT ALL: TO SELECT THE WHOLE DOCUMENT. STEPS: EDIT – SELECT ALL. DELETE SLIDE: TO ERASE THE SLIDE. STEPS: SELECT THE SLIDE - EDIT – DELETE SLIDE.

68 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA VIEW NORMAL: TO GET THE NORMAL VIEW THE SLIDE STEPS: VIEW – NORMAL. SLIDE SORTER: TO VIEW MULTIPLE SLIDES WITHIN ONE FRAME. STEPS: VIEW – SLIDE SORTER VIEW. SLIDE SHOW: TO VIEW THE SLIDE SHOW IN FULL SCREEN PREVIEW. STEPS: VIEW – SLIDE SHOW. NOTES PAGE: TO WRITE SOME NOTES FOR THE PRESENTATION. STEPS: VIEW – NOTES PAGE. MASTER: TO CREATE MASTER INFORMATION VIEW OF THE PAGE, STEPS: VIEW – MASTER – SLIDE MASTER. COLOR: TO CHANGE THE COLOR OR GRAYSCALE. STEPS: VIEW – COLOR – COLOR/ GRAYSCALE.

69 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TASK PANE: TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE TASK PANE WINDOW. STEPS: VIEW – TASK PANE. TOOLBARS: TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE TOOL BARS. STEP: VIEW – TOOLBARS. RULER : TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE RULARS. STEPS: VIEW – RULER. GRID AND GUIDES: TO ADD GRID OR GUIDELINES. STEPS: VIEW - GRID AND GUIDES - DISPLAY GRID ON SCREEN – OK STEPS: VIEW - GRID AND GUIDES - DISPLAY GUIDES ON SCREEN - OK HEADER AND FOOTER: TO WRITE SOME TEXT IN THE MARGIN AREA. ONCE YOU WRITE THE TEXT, THE TEXT WILL BE COPIED TO THE NEXT SLIDE AUTOMATICALLY. STEPS: VIEW – HEADER & FOOTER – WRITE THE TEXT – CLOSE. ZOOM: TO ENLARGE/DECREASE THE VIEW OF THE SLIDE. STEPS: VIEW - ZOOM -SELECT THE PERCENTAGE - OK.

70 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA INSERT NEW SLIDE: TO INSERT A NEW SLIDE ON CURRENT PRESENTATION. STEPS: INSERT - NEW SLIDE. DUPLICATE: TO INSERT A DUPLICATE SLIDE OF CURRENT SLIDE. STEPS: INSERT - DUPLICATE. DATE AND TIME : TO INSERT THE CURRENT DATE AND TIME. STEPS: INSERT – DATE AND TIME – SELECT ANY FORMAT – OK SYMBOL: TO INSERT SPECIAL SIGNS INTO THE PAGES. STEPS: INSERT – SYMBOL – SELECT THE SYMBOL – INSERT. COMMENT: TO PASS A REMARK ON ANY SELECTED TEXT. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – INSERT – COMMENT – WRITE SOME TEXT – CLICK ON PAGE. SLIDES FROM FILES: TO INSERT SLIDES FROM ANOTHER PRESENTATION. STEPS: INSERT - SLIDES FROM FILES - BROWSE SELECT THE PRESENTATION - OPEN. SLIDES FROM OUTLINE: TO INSERT SLIDES FROM ANOTHER APPLICATIONS. STEPS: INSERT - SLIDES FROM OUTLINE - SELECT THE FILE - OPEN.

71 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PICTURE CLIP ART: TO INSERT A SAVED PICTURES FROM MICROSOFT OFFICE PACKAGE. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – CLIP ART – WRITE THE CATEGORY – SEARCH – CLICK ON THE PICTURES. FROM FILE: TO INSERT THE PICTURES FROM ANY DRIVE. STEPS: INSERT - PICTURES – FROM FILE SELECT THE DRIVE – SELECT THE FOLDER – SELECT THE FILE – INSERT. WORDART: TO INSERT SOME STYLIST TEXT. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – WORDART – SELECT ANY STYLE – TYPE YOUR TEXT – OK. SCANER OR CAMERA: TO GET PICTURE FROM SCANER OR CAMERA. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – SCANER OR CAMERA – SELECT THE SOURCE – GET PICTURE. ORAGNISATION CHART: TO REPRESENT THE DATA IN A SPECIAL WAY. STEPS: INSERT – PICTURE – ORGANIZATION CHART – OK. AUTOSHAPES: TO INSERT SOME SPECIAL SHAPES STEPS: INSERT – PICTURES – AUTO SHAPES.

72 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA DIAGRAM: TO INSERT THE VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE DATA. STEPS: INSERT – DIAGRAM – SELECT ANY ONE SHAPE – OK. TEXT BOX: TO INSERT A TEXT BOX MOVIE AND SOUNDS: TO INSERT MOVIES AND SOUNDS IN SLIDE SHOW. STEPS:INSERT – MOVIES AND SOUND FROM FILE – SELECT THE DRIVE SELECT THE FILE – OK CHART: VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF DATA. TABLE: TO INSERT TABLES AS ROW AND COLUMN STEPS: INSERT – TABLE - GIVE ROWS AND COLUMN – OK. OBJECTS: TO INSERT ANY OBJECT FROM ANY OTHER APPLICATION. STEPS: INSERT – OBJECTS – SELECT THE APPLICATION E.G BITMAP IMAGE – OK. HYPERLINK: TO CREATE A LINK BETWEEN TWO THER FILES. STEPS: SELECT THE CELL – INSERT – HYPERLINK – SELECT THE FILE – OK.

73 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA FORMAT FONT: TO CHANGE THE LETTER STYLE COLOR ETC STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – FORMAT – FONT – CHANGE THE STYLE - OK. BULLET AND NUMBERINGS: TO MAKE POINT OUTS IN A SLIDE. STEPS: FORMAT – BULLET AND NUMBERINGS – SELECT THE STYLE – OK. ALIGNMENT: TO KEEP TEXT AS CENTER RIGHT OR LEFT. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – FORMAT – ALIGNMENT – LEFT/RIGHT/CENTER. LINE SPACEING: TO GIVE EXTRA SPACES TO THE PARAGRAPH/LINES. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – FORMAT – LINE SPACING – GIVE SPACES – OK. CHANGE CASE : TO CHANGE THE CASE OF THE LETTERS. SENTENCE CASE : FIRST LETTER OF THE SENTENCE IS CAPITAL. LOWER CASE : ALL LETTERS IN SMALL LETTERS. UPPER CASE : ALL LETTERS IN CAPITALS. TITLE CASE : ALL FIRST LETTER OF THE ALL WORD. TOGGLE CASE : TO CHANGE THE LETTERS IN REVERSE CASE. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – FORMAT – CHANGE CASE – SELECT THE CASE – OK REPLACE FONTS: TO CHANGE A FONT WITH ANOTHER. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – FORMAT – REPLACE FONT – SELECT THE RELACE FONT – SELECT THE WITH FONT – REPALCE.

74 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SLIDE DESIGN: TO INSERT SOME STYLE SLIDES IN SIDE SHOW. STEPS: FORMAT – SLIDE DESIGN – SELECT THE STYLE – APPLY TO ALL. SLIDE LAYOUT : TO INSERT A SLIDE WITH PREDEFINE FEATURES. STEPS: FORMAT – SLIDE DESIGN - SELECT THE STYLE. BACKGROUND: TO CHANGE THE SLIDE BACKGROUND. STEPS: FORMAT – BACKGROUND – SELECT THE COLOR – APPLY TO ALL – OK. TEXT BOX: TO MODIFY TEXT BOX ON SLIDE. STEPS: FORMAT – TEXT BOX.

75 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TOOLS SPELLING : TO CHECK THE SAPELLING OF THE SELECTED TEXT. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – TOOLS – SPELLING – CHANGE. RESEARCH: TO FIND THE MEANING OF WORD. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – RESEARCH – OK. MACRO: TO RECORD SOME STEPS ACCORDING TO YOUR NEED. STEPS: TOOLS – MACRO – RECORD NEW MACRO - OK – DO SOME STEPS – STOP – TOOLS – MACRO – MACROS – RUN.

76 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA SLIDE SHOW VIEW SHOW: TO VIEW THE SLIDE SHOW AS ON FULL SCREEN. SETUP SHOW : TO RUN SLIDE CONTINOUSLY. STEPS: SLIDE SHOW – SETUP SHOW – LOOP CONTINOUSLY UNTIL ESC - OK REHEARSE TIMING : TO SET THE TIME FOR EACH SLIDE. STEPS: SLIDE SHOW – REHEARSE TIMING – SET THE TIME – OK. ACTION BUTTON: TO INSERT BUTTON TO SET THE OPERATION. STEPS: SLIDE SHOW – ACTION BUTTON – DRAG IT TO SLIDE – HYPERLINK TO – SLIDE – SELECT THE SLIDE NO – OK. ANIMATION SCHEMES: TO APPLY DIFFERENT PREDEFINED SCHEMES ON TEXT/ OBJECT. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – SLIDE SHOW – ANIMATION SCHEMES – SELECT THE SCHEME. CUSTOM ANIMATION : TO SELECT AND APPLY ANIMATION ON TEXT /OBJECT. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – SLIDE SHOW – CUSTOM ANIMATION – ADD EFFECT – ENETRANCE – SELECT THE STYLE – EFFECT OPTION – BY LETTER – OK – PLAY. SLIDE TRANSITION : TO SET THE SLIDE SHOW ON MOUSE CLICK OR AUTOMATICALLY. STEPS: SLIDE SHOW – SLIDE TRANSITION – UNCHECK ON MOUSE CLICK – CHECK ON AUTOMATICALLY – OK.

77 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HIDE SLIDE: TO HIDE ANY SELECTED SLIDE. STEPS: SELECT THE SLIDE – SLIDE SHOW – HIDE SLIDE – OK. CUSTOM SHOW : TO SET THE SLIDE VIEW ORDER. STEPS: SLIDE SHOW – CUSTOM SHOW – NEW – SELECT THE SLIDE – OK – CLOSE. WINDOW CASCADE : TO VIEW MULTIPLE PRESENTAION WITHIN ONE WINDOW. STEPS: WINDOW – CASCADE.

78 LMIIT TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAMTHAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM. KOL 147 PHONE NO : B E W I T H U S A N D F E E L T H E M A G I C ( STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA )

79 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY MS-DOS (short for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system commercialized by Microsoft. It was the most commonly used member of the DOS family of operating systems and was the main operating system for personal computers during the 1980s. It was preceded by M-DOS(also call MIDAS), designed and copyrighted by Microsoft in MSDOS was based on the Intel 8086 family of microprocessors, particularly the IBM PC and compatibles. It was gradually replaced on consumer desktop computers by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in particular by various generations of the Microsoft Windows operating system and Linux. MS-DOS was known before as QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) and 86-DOS.operating systemMicrosoftDOS M-DOSIntel 8086IBM PCcompatiblesgraphical user interfaceMicrosoft WindowsLinuxQDOS86-DOS MS-DOS development originally started in 1981,[2] and was first released in 1982 as MS-DOS 1.0. Several versions were released under different names for different hardware.[2]Several versions MS-DOS had eight major versions released before Microsoft stopped development in It was the key product in Microsoft's growth from a programming languages company to a diverse software development firm, providing the company with essential revenue and marketing resources. It was also the underlying basic operating system on which early versions of Windows ran as a GUIprogramming languages

80 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY Main article: DOSDOS MS-DOS was a renamed form of 86-DOS (informally known as the Quick-and-Dirty Operating System or Q-DOS) owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson.[2] Microsoft needed an operating system for the then-new Intel 8086 but it had none available, so it licensed 86-DOS and released a version of it as MS-DOS 1.0. Development started in 1981, and MS- DOS 1.0 was released with the IBM PC in Tim Paterson is considered the original author of DOS and he is called "The Father of DOS".86-DOSQuick-and-DirtySeattle Computer ProductsTim Paterson[2]Intel 8086 Worried by possible legal problems, in June 1981 Microsoft made an offer to Rod Brock, the owner of Seattle Computer, to buy the rights for 86-DOS. An agreement to release all rights to the software was signed in June The total cost was $75,000. Originally MS-DOS was designed to be an operating system that could run on any 8086-family computer. Each computer would have its own distinct hardware and its own version of MS-DOS. The greater speed attainable by direct control of hardware was of particular importance when running computer games. IBM-compatible architecture then became the goal. Soon all family computers closely emulated IBM's hardware, and a single version of MS-DOS was all that was needed for the market.computer games While MS-DOS appeared on PC clones, true IBM computers used PC DOS, a rebranded form of MS-DOS.PC clonesPC DOS

81 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY Incidentally, the dependence on IBM-compatible hardware caused major problems for the computer industry when the original design had to be changed. For example, the original design could support no more than 640 kilobytes of memory. Manufacturers had to develop complicated schemes to access additional memory. This would not have been a limitation if the original idea of interfacing with hardware through MS-DOS had endured. Versions Main article: Comparison of x86 DOS operating systemsComparison of x86 DOS operating systems Microsoft licensed or released versions of MS-DOS under different names like SB-DOS or Z- DOS. Competitors released unlicensed clones such as DR-DOS and PTS-DOS.SB-DOSZ- DOSDR-DOSPTS-DOS

82 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA The original MS-DOS advertisement in On microcomputers based on the Intel 8086 and 8088 processors, including the IBM PC and clones, the initial competition to the PC DOS/MS-DOS line came from Digital Research, whose CP/M operating system had inspired MS-DOS. Digital Research released CP/M-86 a few months after MS-DOS, and it was offered as an alternative to MS-DOS and Microsoft's licensing requirements, but at a higher price. Executable programs for CP/M-86 and MS-DOS were not interchangeable with each other; much applications software was sold in both MS-DOS and CP/M-86 versions until MS-DOS became preponderant (later Digital Research operating systems could run both MS-DOS and CP/M-86 software). MS-DOS supported the simple.COM and the more advanced relocatable.EXE executable file formats; CP/M-86 a relocatable format using the file extension.CMD Digital Research CP/MCP/M-86Executable programsapplications software.COM.EXE file extension.CMD In the later days of MS-DOS, once the IBM-compatible platform was chosen, one could buy any PC clone, and install any copy of MS-DOS (or IBM-branded MS-DOS, i.e., PC DOS). Many people do not realize that in the early days one chose an IBM PC, a Sirius, a Kaypro, or an Apricot, or other make; these machines all had different architecture and did not even accept the same expansion cards; many of them were not limited to a maximum of 640 kilobytes of system memory, unlike the PC and clones. Then the decision whether to use MS-DOS or CP/M-86 had to be taken, and the appropriate one had to be acquired from the computer manufacturer; it was not possible to use versions of MS-DOS, or PC DOS, interchangeably. One was then tied to using software for the operating system chosen (or, funds permitting, having floppy disks for both, and booting the appropriate one).Kaypro Apricot

83 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA In the business world the 808x-based machines that MS-DOS was tied to faced competition from the Unix operating system which ran on many different hardware architectures. Microsoft itself sold a version of Unix for the PC called Xenix.UnixXenix In the emerging world of home users, a variety of other computers based on various other processors were in serious competition with the IBM PC: the Apple II, early Apple Macintosh, the Commodore 64 and others did not use the 808x processor; many 808x machines of different architectures used custom versions of MS-DOS. At first all these machines were in competition. In time the IBM PC hardware configuration became dominant in the 808x market as software written to communicate directly with the PC hardware without using standard operating system calls ran much faster, but on true PC-compatibles only. Non-PC-compatible 808x machines were too small a market to have fast software written for them alone, and the market remained open only for IBM PCs and machines that closely imitated their architecture, all running either a single version of MS-DOS compatible only with PCs, or the equivalent IBM PC DOS. Most clones cost much less than IBM-branded machines of similar performance, and became widely used by home users, while IBM PCs had a large share of the business computer market.Apple IIApple MacintoshCommodore 64 Microsoft and IBM together began what was intended as the follow-on to MS/PC DOS, called OS/2. When OS/2 was released in 1987, Microsoft began an advertising campaign announcing that "DOS is Dead" and stating that version 4 was the last full release. OS/2

84 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA MS-DOS had grown in spurts, with many significant features being taken (or duplicated) from other products and operating systems, as well as incorporating the functionality of tools and utilities developed by independent companies to improve the functionality of MS-DOS, including Norton Utilities, PC Tools (Microsoft Anti-Virus), QEMM expanded memory manager, DOS/4GW (a 32-bit DOS extender), Stacker disk compression, and others. OS/2 was designed for efficient multitasking—an IBM speciality derived from deep experience with mainframe operating systems—and offered a number of advanced features that had been designed together with similar look and feel; it was seen as the legitimate heir to the "kludgy" DOS platform. Norton UtilitiesPC ToolsMicrosoft Anti-VirusQEMM DOS/4GW32-bitDOS extenderStackerdisk compressionlook and feel During the period when Digital Research was competing in the operating system market some computers, like Amstrad PC-1512, were sold with floppy disks for two operating systems (only one of which could be used at a time), MS-DOS and CP-M86 or a derivative of it. Digital Research produced DOS Plus, which was compatible with MS-DOS 2.11, supported CP/M-86 programs, had additional features including multi-tasking, and could read and write disks in CP/M and MS-DOS format.Amstrad PC-1512DOS Plus While OS/2 was under protracted development, Digital Research released the MS-DOS compatible DR-DOS 5, which included features only available as third-party add-ons for MS- DOS (and still maintained considerable internal CP/M-86 compatibility). Unwilling to lose any portion of the market, Microsoft responded by announcing the "pending" release of MS-DOS 5.0 in May This effectively killed most DR-DOS sales until the actual release of MS-DOS 5.0 in June Digital Research brought out DR-DOS 6, which sold well until the "pre- announcement" of MS-DOS 6.0 again stifled the sales of DR-DOS.DR-DOS

85 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Microsoft has been accused of carefully orchestrating leaks about future versions of MS-DOS in an attempt to create what in the industry is called FUD (fear, uncertainty, and doubt) regarding DR-DOS. For example, in October 1990, shortly after the release of DR-DOS 5.0, and long before the eventual June 1991 release of MS-DOS 5.0, stories on feature enhancements in MS- DOS started to appear in InfoWorld and PC Week. Brad Silverberg, Vice President of Systems Software at Microsoft and General Manager of its Windows and MS-DOS Business Unit, wrote a forceful letter to PC Week (November 5, 1990), denying that Microsoft was engaged in FUD tactics ("to serve our customers better, we decided to be more forthcoming about version 5.0") and denying that Microsoft copied features from DR-DOS: "The feature enhancements of MS-DOS version 5.0 were decided and development was begun long before we heard about DR-DOS 5.0. There will be some similar features. With 50 million MS-DOS users, it shouldn't be surprising that DRI has heard some of the same requests from customers that we have." – (Schulman et al. 1994). The pact between Microsoft and IBM to promote OS/2 began to fall apart in 1990 when Windows 3.0 became a marketplace success. Much of Microsoft's further contributions to OS/2 also went in to creating a third GUI replacement for DOS, Windows NT. Windows 3.0Windows NT IBM, which had already been developing the next version of OS/2, carried on development of the platform without Microsoft and sold it as the alternative to DOS and Windows.

86 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA MS-DOS lingers in Windows Vista.Windows Vista MS-DOS has effectively ceased to exist as a platform for desktop computing. Since the releases of Windows 9x, it was integrated as a full product mostly used for bootstrapping, and no longer officially released as a standalone DOS, although at first DOS 7 (which was the DOS part included in Windows 95) had been developed as a standalone OS[citation needed]. It was still available, but became increasingly irrelevant as development shifted to the Windows API.Windows 9xbootstrappingcitation neededWindows API Windows XP contains a copy of the core MS-DOS 8 files from Windows Millennium, accessible only by formatting a floppy as an "MS-DOS startup disk". Attempting to run COMMAND.COM from such a disk under the NTVDM results in the message "Incorrect MS-DOS version".[citation needed] (Note that the DOS boot disk created by Windows XP is even more stripped-down than that created in Windows 98, as it does not include CD-ROM support.)Windows MillenniumNTVDMcitation needed With Windows Vista the files on the startup disk are dated 18th April 2005 but are otherwise unchanged, including the string "MS-DOS Version 8 (C) Copyright Microsoft Corp" inside COMMAND.COM. However the only versions of DOS currently recognized as stand-alone OSs, and supported as such by the Microsoft Corporation are DOS 6.0 and 6.22, both of which remain available for download via their MSDN, volume license, and OEM license partner websites, for customers with valid login credentials.MSDN Today, DOS is still used in embedded x86 systems due to its simple architecture, and minimal memory and processor requirements. The command line interpreter of NT-based versions of Windows, cmd.exe, maintains most of the same commands and some compatibility with DOS batch files.command line interpreterNTcmd.exe

87 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA The Windows command-line interface All versions of Microsoft Windows have had an MS-DOS like command-line interface (CLI). Versions of Windows (up to 3.11) ran as a Graphical User Interface(GUI) running under MS- DOS. Windows 95 and 98 had an MS-DOS prompt which behaved very much like MS-DOS, with added facilities for such features as long file names.Microsoft Windowscommand-line interface The true 32-bit versions of Windows, from Windows NT, are not based on DOS but provide a command-line interface similar to MS-DOS's character-mode interface known as the console. This is provided by a native executable, cmd.exe. Many Windows console applications are incorrectly referred to as DOS applications. However, in reality they are Windows applications, using Windows system calls, using the text console for input and output rather than a graphical interface. Both true MS-DOS programs and Windows console programs can be run from the command line in the same console window. 32-bit Windows can run MS-DOS programs through the use of the NTVDM (NT Virtual DOS Machine), and the 16-bit command.com interpreter which is still included to maintain application compatibility with programs that require it.NTVDM Recent versions of Windows for x64 architectures, including Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows Server 2003 x64 and Windows Vista x64, no longer include the NTVDM and can therefore no longer natively run MS-DOS or 16-bit Windows applications. For MS-DOS and Windows 3.11 or earlier programs, however, there exist alternatives in the form of emulators such as Microsoft's own Virtual PC, Bochs, DOSBox, etc.Windows XP Professional x64 EditionWindows Server 2003Windows VistaVirtual PCBochsDOSBox

88 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Related systems Single-user Several similar products were produced by other companies. In the case of PC DOS and DR-DOS, it is common but incorrect to call these "clones". Given that Microsoft manufactured PC DOS for IBM, PC DOS and MS-DOS were (to continue the genetic analogy) "identical twins" that diverged only in adulthood and eventually became quite different products. Although DR-DOS is regarded as a clone of MS-DOS, the DR-DOS versions appeared months and years before Microsoft's products. (For example, MS- DOS 4, released in July 1988, was followed by DR-DOS 5 in May MS-DOS 5 came in April 1991, with DR-DOS 6 being released the following June. MS-DOS 6 did not arrive until April 1993, with Novell DOS 7, DR-DOS' successor, following the next month.) What made the difference in the end was Microsoft's desire to make DOS a better platform for running Windows. Both IBM (DOS 5.02) and DRI (DOS 6 update) had to release interim releases for new undocumented Windows functionality. DR-DOS PC DOS DR-DOSDR-DOS, Novell DOSNovell DOS, and OpenDOS FreeDOSFreeDOS, FreeDOS 32FreeDOS 32, and GNU/DOS PTS-DOS

89 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA These products are collectively referred to as DOS. However, MS-DOS can be a generic reference to DOS on IBM-PC compatible computers. Multiuser Several multiuser operating systems capable of running MS-DOS software, and also purpose-written software with multiuser enhancements such as record locking for multiuser databases, have been produced. Concurrent DOSConcurrent DOS, derived from Concurrent CP/M-86, later Multiuser DOSConcurrent CP/M-86Multiuser DOS

90 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA COMMANDS TO VIEW THE VERSION NAME AND NUMBERS. VER TO VIEW THE VOLUME NAME AND LABEL VOL TO CHANGE THE VOLUME NAME LABEL ANYNAME TO VIEW / CHANGE THE SYSTEM DATE DATE TO VIEW / CHANGE THE SYSTEM TIME TIME TO CREATE A NEW FILE COPY CON FILENAME.TXT TO SAVE THE FILE F6 TO VIEW THE FILE TYPE FILENAME.TXT

91 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO MODIFY THE FILE (EXTERNAL COMMAND) EDIT FILENAME.TXT TO CHANGE THE FILE NAME/DIRECTORY NAME REN FILENAME.TXT NEWFILENAME.TXT TO DELETE THE FILE DEL FILENAME.TXT TO COPY THE FILE COPY TOTAL_SOURCEPS_PATH TOTAL_DESTINATION_PATH TO COPY THE FILE WITH NEW NAME COPY TOTAL_SOURCE_PATH TOTAL_DESTINATION_PATH\NEW_NAME.TXT TO CUT AND PASTE A FILE MOVE TOTAL_SOURCE_PATH TOTAL_DESTINATION_PATH TO CUT AND PASTE WITH A NEW NAME MOVE TOTAL_SOURCE_PATH TOTAL_DESTINATION_PATH\NEW_NAME TO ADD SOME FILES WITHIN ONE FILE COPY FILE1.TXT + FILE2.TXT + FILE3.TXT FILE4.TXT

92 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO CREATE A DIRECTORY MD DIRECTORY_NAME TO CHANGE THE DIRECTORY CD DIRECTORY_NAME TO DELETE THE DIRECTORY RD DIRECTORY_NAME TO VIEW THE FILE-DIRECTORY STRUCTURE TREE/F DIRECTORY_NAME TO ERASE THE DIRECTORY STRUCTURE (WIN98/ME) DELTREE DIRECTORY_NAME.

93 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO VIEW THE DIRECTORIES DIR TO VIEW DIRECTORIES PAGEWISE DIR/P TO VIEW DIRECTORIES PAGE & WIDTHWISE DIR/P/W TO VIEW THE DIRECTORIES ONLY DIR/P/AD TO VIEW THE FILES ONLY DIR/P/A-D TO VIEW THE FILES IN ORDER DIR/P/O TO VIEW THE FILES IN DATEWISE ORDER DIR/P/OD TO VIEW THE FILES IN DATEWISE DESCENDING ORDER DIR/P/O-D

94 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO VIEW THE FILES IN SIZEWISE ORDER DIR/P/OS TO VIEW THE FILES IN SIZEWISE DESCENDING ORDER DIR/P/O-S TO VIEW THE FILES WITH HIDDEN ATTRIBUTE DIR/P/AH TO VIEW THE FILES WITH NON HIDDEN ATTRIBUTE DIR/P/A-H TO VIEW THE FILES READ ONLY ATTRIBUTE DIR/P/AR TO VIEW THE FILES WITH NON READ ONLY ATTRIBUTE DIR/P/A-R TO VIEW THE FILES WITH SYSTEM ATTRIBUTE DIR/P/AS TO VIEW THE FILE WITH NON SYSTEM ATTRIBUTE DIR/P/A-S

95 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO VIEW THE FILES WITH ARCHIEVE ATTRIBUTE DIR/P/AA TO VIEW THE FILES WITH NON ARCHIEVE ATTRIBUTE DIR/P/A-A TO SEARCH THE FILES WITH TXT EXTENSION DIR/P/S *.TXT TO SEARCH ALL TXT FILES WITH FIRST LETTER AS ‘S’ DIR/P/S S *.TXT TO SEARCH ALL FILES WITH 3 RD LETTER AS ‘C’ DIR/P/S ??C?????.*

96 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO CHANGE THE FILE READONLY ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB +R FILENAME.TXT TO REMOVE THE FILE READONLY ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB -R FILENAME.TXT TO CHANGE THE FILE HIDDEN ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB +H FILENAME.TXT TO REMOVE THE FILE HIDDEN ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB -H FILENAME.TXT TO CHANGE THE FILE SYSTEM ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB +S FILENAME.TXT TO REMOVE THE FILE SYSTEM ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB -S FILENAME.TXT TO CHANGE THE FILE ARCHIEVE ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB +A FILENAME.TXT TO REMOVE THE FILE ARCHIEVE ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB -A FILENAME.TXT

97 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO CHANGE THE FILE READONLY ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB +R FILENAME.TXT TO REMOVE THE FILE READONLY ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB -R FILENAME.TXT TO CHANGE THE FILE HIDDEN ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB +H FILENAME.TXT TO REMOVE THE FILE HIDDEN ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB -H FILENAME.TXT TO CHANGE THE FILE SYSTEM ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB +S FILENAME.TXT TO REMOVE THE FILE SYSTEM ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB -S FILENAME.TXT TO CHANGE THE FILE ARCHIEVE ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB +A FILENAME.TXT TO REMOVE THE FILE ARCHIEVE ATTRIBUTE ATTRIB -A FILENAME.TXT

98 MICROSOFT DOS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO VIEW THE FILE PAGEWISE (EXTERNAL) MORE FILENAME.TXT TO ERASE A DRIVE CONTENT (EXTERNAL) FORMAT DRIVE_NAME: TO VIEW THE HARDDISK STATUS CHKDSK TO VIEW THE RAM STATUS MEM TO CLEAR THE SCREEN CLS TO CLOSE DOS EXIT TO SHUTDOWN THE COMPUTER (WINDOWS XP) SHUTDOWN -S

99 LMIIT TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAMTHAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM. KOL 147 PHONE NO : B E W I T H U S A N D F E E L T H E M A G I C ( STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA )

100 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document—by denoting certain text as links, headings, paragraphs, lists, etc.—and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images, and other objects. HTML is written in the form of "tags" that are surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code (such as JavaScript) that can affect the behavior of Web browsers and other HTML processors. In 1980, physicist Tim Berners-Lee, who was an independent contractor at CERN, proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system for CERN researchers to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineer Robert Cailliau each submitted separate proposals for an Internet-based hypertext system providing similar functionality. The following year, they collaborated on a joint proposal, the WorldWideWeb (W3) project,[1] which was accepted by CERN

101 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY First specifications The first publicly available description of HTML was a document called HTML Tags, first mentioned on the Internet by Berners-Lee in late It describes 22 elements comprising the initial, relatively simple design of HTML. Thirteen of these elements still exist in HTML 4. Berners-Lee considered HTML to be, at the time, an application of SGML, but it was not formally defined as such until the mid-1993 publication, by the IETF, of the first proposal for an HTML specification: Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly's "Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)" Internet-Draft, which included an SGML Document Type Definition to define the grammar.The draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Similarly, Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+ (Hypertext Markup Format)", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already- implemented features like tables and fill-out forms.SGMLIETFDan Connolly"Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)" Internet-DraftDocument Type DefinitionNCSA Mosaic After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Published as Request for Comments 1866, HTML 2.0 included ideas from the HTML and HTML+ drafts. There was no "HTML 1.0"; the 2.0 designation was intended to distinguish the new edition from previous drafts.Request for Comments

102 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests. Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).[10] However, in 2000, HTML also became an international standard (ISO/IEC 15445:2000). The last HTML specification published by the W3C is the HTML 4.01 Recommendation, published in late Its issues and errors were last acknowledged by errata published in 2001.World Wide Web Consortium[10]ISOIEC

103 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HTML version timeline November 1995 HTML 2.0HTML 2.0 was published as IETF RFC Supplemental RFCs added capabilities:RFC 1866RFCs November 1995: RFC 1867 (form-based file upload)RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 (tables)RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 (client-side image maps)RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 (internationalization)RFC 2070internationalization In June 2000, all of these were declared obsolete/historic by RFC 2854.RFC 2854 January 1997 HTML 3.2[11]HTML 3.2[11] was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized exclusively by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group in September 1997.W3C Recommendation HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas entirely, reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions, and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags. Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. The ability to include mathematical formulas in HTML wasn't standardized until years later in MathML.blink elementmarquee elementMathML

104 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HTML version timeline December 1997 HTML 4.0HTML 4.0 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It offers three "flavors": Strict, in which deprecated elements are forbidden, Transitional, in which deprecated elements are allowed, Frameset, in which mostly only frame related elements are allowed;frame Initially code-named "Cougar", HTML 4.0 adopted many browser-specific element types and attributes, but at the same time sought to phase out Netscape's visual markup features by marking them as deprecated in favor of style sheets.deprecated April 1998 HTML 4.0 was reissued with minor edits without incrementing the version number. December 1999 HTML 4.01HTML 4.01 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It offers the same three flavors as HTML 4.0, and its last errata were published May 12, 2001.errataMay May 2000 ISO/IEC 15445:2000ISO/IEC 15445:2000 ("ISO HTML", based on HTML 4.01 Strict) was published as an ISO/IEC international standard.ISO As of mid-2008, HTML 4.01 and ISO/IEC 15445:2000 are the most recent versions of HTML. Development of the parallel, XML-based language XHTML occupied the W3C's HTML Working Group through the early and mid-2000s.

105 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HTML markup consists of several key components, including elements (and their attributes), character-based data types, and character references and entity references. Another important component is the document type declaration, which specifies the Document Type Definition.[citation needed] As of HTML 5, no Document Type Definition will need to be specified, and will only determine the layout mode.[citation needed]document type declaration Document Type Definitioncitation neededHTML 5citation needed The Hello world program, a common computer program employed for comparing programming languages, scripting languages, and markup languages is made of 9 lines of code in HTML, albeit line breaks and the tag, or the document type declaration, are optional:Hello world programcomputer program programming languagesscripting languagesmarkup languageslines of codeline breaksdocument type declaration Hello HTML Hello World!! This Document Type Declaration is in HTML5 format. If the tag is not included, the layout mode defaults to "quirks mode."[citation needed ]quirks modecitation needed

106 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HTTP The World Wide Web is composed primarily of HTML documents transmitted from Web servers to Web browsers using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). However, HTTP is used to serve images, sound, and other content in addition to HTML. To allow the Web browser to know how to handle each document it receives, other information is transmitted along with the document. This metadata usually includes the MIME type (e.g. text/html or application/xhtml+xml) and the character encoding (see Character encodings in HTML).World Wide Web serversHypertext Transfer ProtocolmetadataMIMECharacter encodings in HTML In modern browsers, the MIME type that is sent with the HTML document may affect how the document is initially interpreted. A document sent with the XHTML MIME type is expected to be well-formed XML, and syntax errors may cause the browser to fail to render it. The same document sent with the HTML MIME type might be displayed successfully, since some browsers are more lenient with HTML.well-formed The W3C recommendations state that XHTML 1.0 documents that follow guidelines set forth in the recommendation's Appendix C may be labeled with either MIME Type. The current XHTML 1.1 Working Draft also states that XHTML 1.1 documents should be labeled with either MIME type.

107 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HTML This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources (ideally, using inline citations). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2009)Main article: HTML citereferences or sourcesimprove this articlereliable sourcesinline citationschallengedremovedHTML Most graphical clients allow the use of a subset of HTML (often ill-defined) to provide formatting and semantic markup not available with plain text. This may include typographic information like coloured headings, emphasized and quoted text, inline images and diagrams. Many such clients include both a GUI editor for composing HTML messages and a rendering engine for displaying them. Use of HTML in e- mail is controversial because of compatibility issues, because it can help disguise phishing attacks, because it can confuse spam filters and because the message size is larger than plain text. semanticplain textGUI phishingspam

108 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HTML TAGS TO START THE HTML COADING TO NAME THE TITLE TO DENOTE HEAD OF THE PAGE TO MAKE THE BODY OF THE PAGE TO MAKE A MOVING TEXT MESSAGE TO MOVE TO NEXT LINE

109 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO ADD A HORIZONTAL LINE TO MAKE A ORDER LIST MOULALI SUBHASGRAM GOPIBALLAVPUR TO MAKE A UNORDER LIST MOULALI SUBHASGRAM GOPIBALLAVPUR TO CHANGE THE FONT COLOR SIZE AND FACE TYPE TEXT TO MAKE A PARAGRAPH PARAGRAPH

110 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO MAKE THE BOLD TEXT BOLD TO MAKE THE ITALICS TEXT ITALICS TO MAKE THE UNDELINE TEXT UNDERLINE TO MAKE THE CENTRE ALIGNMENT CENTER TO INSERT A PICTURE TO INSERT HYPERLINK ON A TEXT/OBJECT TEXT

111 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO MAKE A TABLE NAME ADDRESS LMIIT HO 69 MIDDLE ROAD,KOL 14 LMIIT SUBHASGRAM TEC SUBHASHGRAM, KOL 147 TO MAKE ROWSPAN A B C

112 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO MAKE COLSPAN A B C TO MAKE INPUT TYPES BUTTON TEXTBOX TEXTAREA CHECKBOX RADIO BUTTON

113 MICROSOFT HTML STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO MAKE DROP DOWN LIST SWARAJ RATANADIP MUKUL TO MAKE A GROUP LIST CALCULATION TEXT TEXT TO MAKE A FORM

114 LMIIT TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAMTHAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM. KOL 147 PHONE NO : B E W I T H U S A N D F E E L T H E M A G I C ( STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA )

115 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY The Internet is a global network of interconnected computers, enabling users to share information along multiple channels. Typically, a computer that connects to the Internet can access information from a vast array of available servers and other computers by moving information from them to the computer's local memory. The same connection allows that computer to send information to servers on the network; that information is in turn accessed and potentially modified by a variety of other interconnected computers. A majority of widely accessible information on the Internet consists of inter-linked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). Computer users typically manage sent and received information with web browsers; other software for users' interface with computer networks includes specialized programs for electronic mail, online chat, file transfer and file sharing.servershypertextWorld Wide Webweb browserselectronic mailonline chatfile transferfile sharing The movement of information in the Internet is achieved via a system of interconnected computer networks that share data by packet switching using the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies.computer networksdatapacket switchingInternet Protocol Suitecopperfiber-opticwireless The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in every-day speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a global data communications system. It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.World Wide WebcomputersresourceshyperlinksURLs The term internet is written both with capital and without capital, and is used both with and without the definite article.capital

116 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY The Internet is a global network of interconnected computers, enabling users to share information along multiple channels. Typically, a computer that connects to the Internet can access information from a vast array of available servers and other computers by moving information from them to the computer's local memory. The same connection allows that computer to send information to servers on the network; that information is in turn accessed and potentially modified by a variety of other interconnected computers. A majority of widely accessible information on the Internet consists of inter-linked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). Computer users typically manage sent and received information with web browsers; other software for users' interface with computer networks includes specialized programs for electronic mail, online chat, file transfer and file sharing.servershypertextWorld Wide Webweb browserselectronic mailonline chatfile transferfile sharing The movement of information in the Internet is achieved via a system of interconnected computer networks that share data by packet switching using the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP). It is a "network of networks" that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies.computer networksdatapacket switchingInternet Protocol Suitecopperfiber-opticwireless The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in every-day speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a global data communications system. It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.World Wide WebcomputersresourceshyperlinksURLs The term internet is written both with capital and without capital, and is used both with and without the definite article.capital

117 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY Main article: History of the InternetHistory of the Internet Creation The USSR's launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 to regain a technological lead.[2][3] ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and networking as a potential unifying human revolution.USSRSputnik1958[2][3]Information Processing Technology Office Semi Automatic Ground Environment radarJ. C. R. Licklider Licklider moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing.Harvard UniversityMIT1950information technologyLincoln Laboratory1957BBNPDP-1time-sharing At the IPTO, Licklider got Lawrence Roberts to start a project to make a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran,[4] who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to circuit switching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between UCLA and SRI (later SRI International) in Menlo Park, California, on October 29, The ARPANET was one of the "eve" networks of today's Internet.Lawrence RobertsPaul Baran[4] U.S. Air Forcepacket switchingcircuit switchingARPANETUCLASRI Menlo Park

118 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY Following on from the demonstration that packet switching worked on the ARPANET, the British Post Office, Telenet, DATAPAC and TRANSPAC collaborated to create the first international packet-switched network service. In the UK, this was referred to as the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in The collection of X.25-based networks grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by The X.25 packet switching standard was developed in the CCITT (now called ITU-T) around British Post OfficeTelenetDATAPAC International Packet Switched Service1978X.25Hong KongITU-T X.25 was independent of the TCP/IP protocols that arose from the experimental work of DARPA on the ARPANET, Packet Radio Net and Packet Satellite Net during the same time period. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn developed the first description of the TCP protocols during 1973 and published a paper on the subject in May Use of the term "Internet" to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated in December 1974 with the publication of RFC 675, the first full specification of TCP that was written by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine, then at Stanford University. During the next nine years, work proceeded to refine the protocols and to implement them on a wide range of operating systems. DARPAVinton CerfRobert Kahn RFC 675 The first TCP/IP-based wide-area network was operational by January 1, 1983 when all hosts on the ARPANET were switched over from the older NCP protocols. In 1985, the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) commissioned the construction of the NSFNET, a university 56 kilobit/second network backbone using computers called "fuzzballs" by their inventor, David L. Mills. The following year, NSF sponsored the conversion to a higher-speed 1.5 megabit/second network. A key decision to use the DARPA TCP/IP protocols was made byTCP/IP National Science FoundationNSFNET universitykilobitfuzzballsDavid L. Millsmegabit/secondDARPATCP/IP

119 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY Dennis Jennings, then in charge of the Supercomputer program at NSF. The opening of the network to commercial interests began in The US Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the link was made in the summer of Other commercial electronic services were soon connected, including OnTyme, Tel and Compuserve. In that same year, three commercial Internet service providers (ISP) were created: UUNET, PSINet and CERFNET. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the Internet include Usenet and BITNET. Various other commercial and educational networks, such as Telenet, Tymnet, Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the growing Internet. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network was eventually interconnected with the others in the 1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over virtually any pre-existing communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth, although the rapid growth of the Internet was due primarily to the availability of commercial routers from companies such as Cisco Systems, Proteon and Juniper, the availability of commercial Ethernet equipment for local- area networking, and the widespread implementation of TCP/IP on the UNIX operating systemMCI MailUUNETPSINetUsenetBITNETTelenetTymnetCompuserveJANET Telenet dial-up access Cisco SystemsJuniperEthernetUNIX

120 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY Dennis Jennings, then in charge of the Supercomputer program at NSF. The opening of the network to commercial interests began in The US Federal Networking Council approved the interconnection of the NSFNET to the commercial MCI Mail system in that year and the link was made in the summer of Other commercial electronic services were soon connected, including OnTyme, Tel and Compuserve. In that same year, three commercial Internet service providers (ISP) were created: UUNET, PSINet and CERFNET. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the Internet include Usenet and BITNET. Various other commercial and educational networks, such as Telenet, Tymnet, Compuserve and JANET were interconnected with the growing Internet. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network was eventually interconnected with the others in the 1980s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over virtually any pre-existing communication networks allowed for a great ease of growth, although the rapid growth of the Internet was due primarily to the availability of commercial routers from companies such as Cisco Systems, Proteon and Juniper, the availability of commercial Ethernet equipment for local- area networking, and the widespread implementation of TCP/IP on the UNIX operating systemMCI MailUUNETPSINetUsenetBITNETTelenetTymnetCompuserveJANET Telenet dial-up access Cisco SystemsJuniperEthernetUNIX

121 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Graph of internet users per 100 inhabitants between 1997 and 2007 by International Telecommunication UnionInternational Telecommunication Union Although the basic applications and guidelines that make the Internet possible had existed for almost two decades, the network did not gain a public face until the 1990s. On 6 August 1991, CERN, a pan European organisation for particle research, publicized the new World Wide Web project. The Web was invented by English scientist Tim Berners-Lee in CERNWorld Wide WebEnglishTim Berners-Lee An early popular web browser was ViolaWWW, patterned after HyperCard and built using the X Window System. It was eventually replaced in popularity by the Mosaic web browser. In 1993, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois released version 1.0 of Mosaic, and by late 1994 there was growing public interest in the previously academic, technical Internet. By 1996 usage of the word Internet had become commonplace, and consequently, so had its use as a synecdoche in reference to the World Wide Web.web browserViolaWWWHyperCardX Window SystemMosaic National Center for Supercomputing ApplicationsUniversity of Illinoissynecdoche Meanwhile, over the course of the decade, the Internet successfully accommodated the majority of previously existing public computer networks (although some networks, such as FidoNet, have remained separate). During the 1990s, it was estimated that the Internet grew by 100% per year, with a brief period of explosive growth in 1996 and This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non- proprietary open nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network.FidoNet Using various statistics, AMD estimated the population of internet users to be 1.5 billion as of January 2009.

122 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA University students' appreciation and contributions New findings in the field of communications during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s were quickly adopted by universities across North America. Examples of early university Internet communities are Cleveland FreeNet, Blacksburg Electronic Village and NSTN in Nova Scotia. Students took up the opportunity of free communications and saw this new phenomenon as a tool of liberation. Personal computers and the Internet would free them from corporations and governments (Nelson, Jennings, Stallman).Blacksburg Electronic Village Graduate students played a huge part in the creation of ARPANET.[citation needed] In the 1960s, the network working group, which did most of the design for ARPANET's protocols, was composed mainly of graduate studentsARPANETcitation needed

123 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA The My Opera Community server rack. From the top, user file storage (content of files.myopera.com), "bigma" (the master MySQL database server), and two IBM blade centers containing multi-purpose machines (Apache front ends, Apache back ends, slave MySQL database servers, load balancers, file servers, cache servers and sync masters)My Opera CommunityMySQLdatabaseApacheload balancersfile servers Aside from the complex physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts (e.g., peering agreements), and by technical specifications or protocols that describe how to exchange data over the network. Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies.peering agreementsprotocols data By December 31, 2008, billion people were using the Internet according to Internet World Statistics. Internet protocols For more details on this topic, see Internet Protocol Suite.Internet Protocol Suite The complex communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture. While the hardware can often be used to support other software systems, it is the design and the rigorous standardization process of the software architecture that characterizes the Internet. The responsibility for the architectural design of the Internet software systems has been delegated to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).The IETF conducts standard- setting work groups, open to any individual, about the various aspects ofInternet Engineering Task Force

124 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Internet architecture. Resulting discussions and final standards are published in Requests for Comments (RFCs), freely available on the IETF web site. Requests for Comments The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in a series of RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards. These standards describe a system known as the Internet Protocol Suite. This is a model architecture that divides methods into a layered system of protocols (RFC 1122, RFC 1123). The layers correspond to the environment or scope in which their services operate. At the top is the space (Application Layer) of the software application, e.g., a web browser application, and just below it is the Transport Layer which connects applications on different hosts via the network (e.g., client-server model). The underlying network consists of two layers: the Internet Layer which enables computers to connect to one-another via intermediate (transit) networks and thus is the layer that establishes internetworking and the Internet, and lastly, at the bottom, is a software layer that provides connectivity between hosts on the same local link (therefor called Link Layer), e.g., a local area network (LAN) or a dial-up connection. This model is also known as the TCP/IP model of networking. While other models have been developed, such as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, they are not compatible in the details of description, nor implementation.Internet StandardsInternet Protocol SuiteRFC 1122RFC 1123Application LayerTransport Layer client-serverInternet LayerinternetworkingLink LayerLANdial-up connectionTCP/IPOpen Systems Interconnection

125 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP) which provides addressing systems for computers on the Internet and facilitates the internetworking of networks. IP Version 4 (IPv4) is the initial version used on the first generation of the today's Internet and is still in dominant use. It was designed to address up to ~4.3 billion (109) Internet hosts. However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion. A new protocol version, IPv6, was developed which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of data traffic. IPv6 is currently in commercial deployment phase around the world.Internet Protocol internetworkingIPv4IPv4 address exhaustionIPv6 deployment IPv6 is not interoperable with IPv4. It essentially establishes a "parallel" version of the Internet not accessible with IPv4 software. This means software upgrades are necessary for every networking device that needs to communicate on the IPv6 Internet. Most modern computer operating systems are already converted to operate with both versions of the Internet Protocol. Network infrastructures, however, are still lagging in this development.

126 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Internet structure There have been many analyses of the Internet and its structure. For example, it has been determined that both the Internet IP routing structure and hypertext links of the World Wide Web are examples of scale-free networks.scale-free networks Similar to the way the commercial Internet providers connect via Internet exchange points, research networks tend to interconnect into large subnetworks such as the following:Internet exchange points GEANT GLORIAD The Internet2 Network (formally known as the Abilene Network)Internet2Abilene Network JANETJANET (the UK's national research and education network)national research and education network These in turn are built around relatively smaller networks. See also the list of academic computer network organizations.academic computer network organizations Computer network diagramsComputer network diagrams often represent the Internet using a cloud symbol from which network communications pass in and out.

127 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA ICANN ICANN headquarters in Marina Del Rey, California, United StatesMarina Del ReyCalifornia For more details on this topic, see ICANN.ICANN The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers on the Internet, including domain names, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, and protocol port and parameter numbers. A globally unified namespace (i.e., a system of names in which there is at most one holder for each possible name) is essential for the Internet to function. ICANN is headquartered in Marina del Rey, California, but is overseen by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and non- commercial communities. The US government continues to have the primary role in approving changes to the root zone file that lies at the heart of the domain name system. Because the Internet is a distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected networks, the Internet has no governing body. ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet, but the scope of its authority extends only to the Internet's systems of domain names, IP addresses, protocol ports and parameter numbers.domain namesMarina del Rey, Californiaroot zoneIP addresses On November 16, 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society, held in Tunis, established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues.World Summit on the Information SocietyTunisInternet Governance Forum

128 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Language For more details on this topic, see English on the Internet.English on the Internet For more details on this topic, see Global Internet usage.Global Internet usage Further information: UnicodeUnicode The prevalent language for communication on the Internet is English. This may be a result of the Internet's origins, as well as English's role as a lingua franca. It may also be related to the poor capability of early computers, largely originating in the United States, to handle characters other than those in the English variant of the Latin alphabet.Englishlingua francaLatin alphabet After English (28.6% of Web visitors) the most requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese (20.3%), Spanish (8.2%), Japanese (5.9%), French and Portuguese (4.6%), German (4.1%), Arabic (2.6%), Russian (2.4%), and Korean (2.3%).World Wide WebChineseSpanishJapaneseFrenchPortugueseGermanArabicRussianKorean By region, 41% of the world's Internet users are based in Asia, 25% in Europe, 16% in North America, 11% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 3% in Africa, 3% in the Middle East and 1% in Australia.The Internet's technologies have developed enough in recent years, especially in the use of Unicode, that good facilities are available for development and communication in most widely used languages. However, some glitches such as mojibake (incorrect display of foreign language characters, also known as kryakozyabry) still remain.AsiaEurope North AmericaLatin AmericaCaribbeanAfricaMiddle EastUnicode mojibake

129 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Internet and the workplace The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections and Web applications.Web applications The Internet viewed on mobile devices The Internet can now be accessed virtually anywhere by numerous means. Mobile phones, datacards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet from anywhere there is a cellular network supporting that device's technology.Mobile phonesdatacardshandheldgame consolescellular routers Within the limitations imposed by the small screen and other limited facilities of such a pocket-sized device, all the services of the Internet, including and web browsing, may be available in this way. Service providers may restrict the range of these services and charges for data access may be significant, compared to home usage.

130 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Common uses For more details on this topic, see . The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. Even today it can be important to distinguish between Internet and internal systems. Internet may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other networks and machines out of both the sender's and the recipient's control. During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered with by third parties, if anyone considers it important enough. Purely internal or intranet mail systems, where the information never leaves the corporate or organization's network, are much more secure, although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring, and occasionally accessing, the of other employees not addressed to them. Today you can send pictures and attach files on . Most servers today also feature the ability to send to multiple addresses.IT addresses The World Wide Web For more details on this topic, see World Wide Web.World Wide Web Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, demonstrating hyperlinksWWWhyperlinks Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web (or just the Web) interchangeably, but, as discussed above, the two terms are not synonymous.synonymous

131 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA The World Wide Web is a huge set of interlinked documents, images and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. These hyperlinks and URLs allow the web servers and other machines that store originals, and cached copies of, these resources to deliver them as required using HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). HTTP is only one of the communication protocols used on the Internet.documentsimages hyperlinksURLsweb serversHTTP Web servicesWeb services also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data. Software products that can access the resources of the Web are correctly termed user agents. In normal use, web browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Firefox and Apple Safari, access web pages and allow users to navigate from one to another via hyperlinks. Web documents may contain almost any combination of computer data including graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and interactive content including games, office applications and scientific demonstrations.user agentsweb browsersInternet ExplorerFirefoxApple Safaricomputer datatextvideomultimediagamesoffice applications Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google, millions of people worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled a sudden and extreme decentralization of information and data.keywordInternet researchsearch enginesYahoo!Googleencyclopediaslibraries Using the Web, it is also easier than ever before for individuals and organisations to publish ideas and information to an extremely large audience. Anyone can find ways to publish a web page, a blog or build a website for very little initial cost. Publishing and maintaining large, professional websites full of attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition, however.publishaudienceblogcost

132 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Many individuals and some companies and groups use "web logs" or blogs, which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. Some commercial organisations encourage staff to fill them with advice on their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result. One example of this practice is Microsoft, whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work.blogsstaffMicrosoftproduct developers Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular, and have become increasingly sophisticated. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and MySpace currently have large followings. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts.AngelfireGeoCitiesFacebookMySpacesocial network services AdvertisingAdvertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow.e-commerce In the early days, web pages were usually created as sets of complete and isolated HTML text files stored on a web server. More recently, websites are more often created using content management or wiki software with, initially, very little content. Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of a club or other organisation or members of the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose, while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form. There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors.HTMLcontent management wiki Remote access

133 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Further information: Remote accessRemote access The Internet allows computer users to connect to other computers and information stores easily, wherever they may be across the world. They may do this with or without the use of security, authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements.security This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information ed to them from offices all over the world. Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice.accountantauditserverleased lines An office worker away from his desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can open a remote desktop session into his normal office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection via the Internet. This gives the worker complete access to all of his or her normal files and data, including and other applications, while away from the office.remote desktopVirtual Private Network This concept is also referred to by some network security people as the Virtual Private Nightmare, because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into its employees' homes.

134 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Collaboration See also: Collaborative softwareCollaborative software The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas, but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place. An example of this is the free software movement, which has produced Linux, Mozilla Firefox, OpenOffice.org etc. collaborativefree software movementLinux Mozilla FirefoxOpenOffice.org Internet "chat", whether in the form of IRC chat rooms or channels, or via instant messaging systems, allow colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day. Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via . Extensions to these systems may allow files to be exchanged, "whiteboard" drawings to be shared or voice and video contact between team members.IRCinstant messaging Version controlVersion control systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents without either accidentally overwriting each other's work or having members wait until they get "sent" documents to be able to make their contributions. Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing.

135 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA File sharing For more details on this topic, see File sharing.File sharing A computer file can be ed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to- peer networks.computer file edattachmentwebsiteFTPfile servermirrorpeer-to- peer In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication, the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption, and money may change hands for access to the file. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passed—hopefully fully encrypted—across the Internet. The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests.authenticationencryptiondigital signaturesMD5 These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products. Streaming media

136 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Many existing radio and television broadcasters provide Internet "feeds" of their live audio and video streams (for example, the BBC). They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. The range of material is much wider, from pornography to highly specialized, technical webcasts. Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where—usually audio—material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move. These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material on a worldwide basis.BBCtelevisionradiopornographywebcastsPodcastingportable media player WebcamsWebcams can be seen as an even lower-budget extension of this phenomenon. While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture is usually either small or updates slowly. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal, traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises, live and in real time. Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams, with and without two-way sound.Panama Canalchat roomsvideo conferencing YouTubeYouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users. It uses a flash-based web player to stream and show the video files. Users are able to watch videos without signing up; however, if they do sign up, they are able to upload an unlimited amount of videos and build their own personal profile. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions, and upload hundreds of thousands, of videos daily.flash

137 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Internet Telephony (VoIP) For more details on this topic, see VoIP.VoIP VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol, referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication. The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. The benefit is that, as the Internet carries the voice traffic, VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call, especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL.Internet Protocolwalkie-talkiecableADSL VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service. Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. Simple, inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer. Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls. Remaining problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialling and reliability. Currently, a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service, but it is not universally available. Traditional phones are line-powered and operate during a power failure; VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices.emergency telephone numberbackup power source VoIP has also become increasingly popular for gaming applications, as a form of communication between players. Popular VoIP clients for gaming include Ventrilo and Teamspeak, and others. PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 also offer VoIP chat features.VentriloTeamspeak PlayStation 3Xbox 360

138 MICROSOFT INTERNET STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA BROWSING STEPS: START – INTERNET EXPLORER – ADDRESS – WRITE WEBSITE ADDRESS - OK SURFING STEPS: CLICK ON THE LINK. STEPS: OPEN ANY PROVIDER – ENTER USER NAME / PASSWORD – COMPOSE – WRITE ADDRESS – WRITE SUBJECT – WRITE LETTER – ATTACH FILE – BROWSE - SELECT THE FILE – ATTACH – SEND – LOG OUT. TO CHECK MAILS: OPEN ANY PROVIDER – ENTER USER NAME / PASSWORD – INBOX – CLICK ON SUBJECT – READ THE MAIL LOG OUT. DOWNLOAD: RIGHT CLICK ON THE LINK/PICTURE – SAVE AS TARGET/PICTURE. UPLOAD: (FILE ATTACHMENT IN ) SERACH ENGINE: TO SEARCH AN ELEMENT FROM ANY UNKNOWN SITE CHATTING: TO TALK IN INTERNET STEPS: GOTO REDIFFBOL/YAHOO MESSANGER – USER ID / PASSWORD – CHAT ROOM – SELECT THE ROOM – START CHATTING.

139 LMIIT TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAMTHAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM. KOL 147 PHONE NO : B E W I T H U S A N D F E E L T H E M A G I C ( STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA )

140 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA HISTORY Microsoft Office Access, previously known as Microsoft Access, is a relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software development tools. It is a member of the Microsoft Office suite of applications and is included in the Professional and higher versions for Windows and also sold separately. There is no version for MacOS or for Microsoft Office Mobile.relational database management systemMicrosoft Jet Database Enginegraphical user interfaceMicrosoft OfficeMacOSMicrosoft Office Mobile Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can also import or link directly to data stored in other Access databases, Excel, SharePoint lists, text, XML, Outlook, HTML, dBase, Paradox, Lotus 1-2-3, or any ODBC-compliant data container including Microsoft SQL Server, Oracle, MySQL and PostgreSQL. Software developers and data architects can use it to develop application software and non-programmer "power users" can use it to build simple applications. It supports some object-oriented techniques but falls short of being a fully object-oriented development tool.[clarification needed]dataODBC Microsoft SQL ServerOracleMySQLPostgreSQLSoftware developersdata architectsapplication softwareobject-orientedclarification needed

141 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Access 1.1 manual cover Access version 1.0 was released in November 1992, quickly followed in May 1993 by an Access 1.1 release to improve compatibility with other Microsoft products and include the Access Basic programming language. Microsoft specified the minimum hardware requirements for Access v2.0: Microsoft Windows v3.0 with 4 MB of RAM required, 6 MB RAM recommended; 8 MB of available hard disk space required, 14 MB hard disk space recommended. The product was shipped on seven 1.44 MB diskettes. The manual shows a 1993 copyright date. Originally, the software worked well with relatively small databases but testing showed some circumstances caused data corruption. For example, file sizes over 10 MB were problematic (note that most hard disks were smaller than 500 MB at the time this was in wide use), and the Getting Started manual warns about a number of circumstances where obsolete device drivers or incorrect configurations can cause data loss. With the phasing out of Windows 95, 98 and ME, improved network reliability, and Microsoft having released 8 service packs for the Jet Database Engine, the reliability of Access databases has been vastly improved in both size and number of users. With Office 95, Microsoft Access 95 became part of the Microsoft Office Professional Suite joining Microsoft Excel, Word, and PowerPoint and transitioning from Access Basic to Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). Since then, there have been releases of Microsoft Access with each release of Office. This includes Access 97 (version 8.0), Access 2000 (version 9.0), Access 2002 (version 10.0), Access 2003 (version 11.0), and Access 2007 (version 12.0).

142 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA The native Access database format (the Jet MDB Database) has also evolved over the years. Formats include Access 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 95, 97, 2000, and The most significant transition was from the Access 97 to the Access 2000 format which was not backward compatible, and Access 2000 required the new format. Since Access 2000, all newer versions of Access support the Access 2000 format. New features were added to the Access 2002 format which can be used by Access 2002, 2003, and In Access 2007, a new database format was introduced: ACCDB. The ACCDB supports complex data types such as multivalue and attachment fields. These new field types are essentially recordsets in fields and allow the storage of multiple values in one field. Prior to the introduction of Access, the desktop database market was dominated by Borland with their Paradox and dBase programs, and FoxPro. Microsoft Access was the first mass market database program for Windows. With the purchase of FoxPro and incorporating its Rushmore query optimization routines into Access, Microsoft Access quickly became the dominant database for Windows effectively eliminating the competition which failed to transition from the MS-DOS world. Access's initial codename was Cirrus; the forms engine was called Ruby. This was before Visual Basic - Bill Gates saw the prototypes and decided that the BASIC language component should be co-developed as a separate expandable application, a project called Thunder. The two projects were developed separately as the underlying forms engines were incompatible with each other; however, these were merged together again after VBA.Visual BasicBill GatesBASIC VBA Access was also the name of a communications program from Microsoft, meant to compete with ProComm and other programs. This proved a failure and was dropped. Years later, Microsoft reused the name for its database software.ProComm

143 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Uses Microsoft Access is part of the Microsoft Office suite and is the most popular Windows desktop database application. It is targeted for the information worker market, and is the natural progression for managing data when the need for a relational database arises or after reaching the limits of Microsoft Excel. Microsoft Access is used by programmers and non-programmers to create their own database solutions. Access tables support a variety of standard field types, indices, and referential integrity. Access also includes a very intuitive query interface, forms to display and enter data, and reports for printing. The underlying Jet database which contains these objects is multiuser aware and handles record locking and referential integrity including cascading updates and deletes. Simple tasks can be automated through macros with point and click options. Microsoft Access is very popular among non-programmers who can create visually pleasing and relatively advanced solutions on their own. It is also easy to place a database on a network and have multiple users share and update data without overwriting each other’s work. Data is locked at the record level which is significantly different from Excel which locks the entire spreadsheet. Microsoft offers a wide range of template databases within the program and for download from their web site. These options are available upon starting Access and allow users to quickly use and enhance a database with pre-defined tables, queries, forms, reports, and macros. Popular templates include tracking contacts, assets, issues, events, projects, and tasks. Templates do not include VBA code.web site

144 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Uses Microsoft Access also offers the ability for programmers to create solutions using the programming language Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), which is similar to Visual Basic 6.0 and used throughout the Microsoft Office programs such as Excel, Word, Outlook and PowerPoint. Most VB6 code including the use of Windows API calls, can be used in VBA. Power users and developers can extend basic end-user solutions to a professional solution with advanced automation, data validation, error trapping, and multi-user support. Database solutions created entirely in Microsoft Access are well suited for individual and workgroup use across a network. The number of simultaneous users that can be supported depends on the amount of data, the tasks being performed, level of use, and application design. Generally accepted limits are solutions with 1 GB or less of data (Access supports up to 2 GB) and 50 or fewer simultaneous users. This is appropriate for workgroup and department solutions where the total number of users number a few hundred. Applications that simply view data or have simple data entry can support considerably more users. Applications that run complex queries or analysis across large datasets would naturally require greater bandwidth and memory. Microsoft Access is designed to scale to support more data and users by linking to multiple Access databases or using a backend database like SQL Server. With the latter design, the amount of data and users can scale to enterprise level solutions. Microsoft Access is not appropriate for web based applications as its forms and reports only work in Windows. Therefore, it cannot be compared to an ASP.NET or Java/J2EE solution.

145 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Uses The Access Jet database is a file based system and does not have the features of servers such as SQL Server, Oracle, or other ODBC compliant databases. It also doesn’t have the overhead, hardware, or licensing requirements of server based solutions. People can use Access databases for web based solutions when the number of users is small or if it's just delivering data without editing. Programs like Microsoft FrontPage and many ISPs offer Microsoft Access as a database storage option. In enterprise environments, Microsoft Access is particularly appropriate for meeting end user database needs, and rapid application development. Microsoft Access is easy enough for end users to create their own queries, forms and reports, laying out fields and groupings, setting formats, etc. This frees up professional developers to focus on more complex portions of the application. A “compiled” MDE or ACCDE version of an Access database can be created to prevent users from getting to the design surfaces to modify module code, forms, and reports. This is often used in environments where end user modifications are discouraged or the application's code should be kept private. Microsoft offers a runtime version of Microsoft Access 2007 for download. This allows people to create Access solutions and distribute it for use by non-Microsoft Access owners (similar to the way DLLs or EXEs are distributed). Unlike the regular version of Access, the runtime version allows users to use the Access application but they cannot use its design surfaces.runtime version of Microsoft Access 2007 Microsoft also offers developer extensions for download to help distribute Access applications, create database templates, and integrate source code control with Visual SourceSafe.developer extensions

146 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Features Microsoft Access is known for its ability to empower non-professional developers to create database applications on their own. Users can easily create tables, queries, forms and reports, and connect them together with macros. Advanced users can use VBA to write rich solutions with advanced data manipulation and user control. The original concept of Access was for end users to be able to “access” data from any source. Access offers the ability to import and export data to many formats including Excel, Outlook, ASCII, dBase, Paradox, FoxPro, SQL Server, Oracle, ODBC, etc. It also has the ability to link to data in its existing location and use it for viewing, querying, editing, and reporting. This allows the existing data to change and the Access platform to always use the latest data. It can even perform heterogeneous joins between data sets stored across different platforms. Access is often used by people downloading data from enterprise level databases for manipulation, analysis, and reporting locally. A significant strength of Microsoft Access is its Jet Database format (MDB or ACCDB in Access 2007) which can contain the application and data in one file. This makes it very convenient to distribute the entire application to another user, who can run it in disconnected environments.

147 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Features One of the benefits of Access from a programmer's perspective is its relative compatibility with SQL (structured query language) — queries can be viewed graphically or edited as SQL statements, and SQL statements can be used directly in Macros and VBA Modules to manipulate Access tables. Users can mix and use both VBA and "Macros" for programming forms and logic and offers object-oriented possibilities. VBA can also be included in queries.SQLVBA Microsoft Access offers parameterized queries. These queries and Access tables can be referenced from other programs like VB6 and.NET through DAO or ADO. From Microsoft Access, VBA can reference parameterized stored procedures via ADO. SQL Express or MSDE (Microsoft SQL Server Desktop Engine) 2000, a scaled down version of Microsoft SQL Server 2000, has been a free download for a decade and may be used with Access as an alternative to the Jet Database Engine.MSDEJet Database Engine Microsoft Access is a file server based database. Unlike client server RDBMS, Microsoft Access does not implement database triggers, stored procedures, or transaction logging.RDBMSdatabase triggersstored procedures.

148 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Features In ADP files (supported in Access 2000 and later), the database-related features are geared more towards a client-server architecture with MSDE or Microsoft SQL Server serving as the back-end instead of using the Jet Engine. Thus, it supports the creation of nearly all objects in the underlying server (tables with constraints and triggers, views, stored procedures and UDF-s). However, only forms, reports, macros and modules are stored in the ADP file (the other objects are stored in the back-end database). This centralization of queries and tables in the database server offers a more restrictive environment which appeals to certain missions.ADP The advantage of an ADP is that it supports the direct creation and editing of SQL Server tables, views, and stored procedures. The disadvantage compared to the native Access database is the inability to keep temporary tables (the ADP cannot store local tables) or link to data from other sources. By definition, this eliminates the ability to query across different data sources. As a result of these limitations and improvements to the native Access database, Microsoft is recommending the use of linked tables in Access for getting to SQL Server data rather than ADPs

149 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Development All database tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules are stored in the Access Jet database as a single file. For query development, Access offers a Query Designer, a graphical user interface that allows users to create queries without knowledge of the SQL programming language. In the Query Designer, users can "show" the datasources of the query (which can be tables or queries) and select the fields they want returned by clicking and dragging them into the grid. Joins can be created by clicking and dragging fields in tables to fields in other tables. Access allows users to view and manipulate the SQL code if desired. Any Access table, including linked tables from different data sources, can be used in a query. Access also supports the creation of Pass-Through queries. These are queries that can be linked to external data sources through the use of ODBC connections on the local machine. This enables users to interact with data stored outside the Access programme without using linked Tables. The Pass-Through queries are written using the SQL syntax supported by the external data source. When developing Reports that are linked to Queries placing or moving items in the design view of the Report Access runs the linked query in the background on any placement or movement of an item in that Report. If the Report is linked to a Query that takes a long time to return records this forces you to wait until the query has run before you can add/edit or move the next item in the Report (this feature cannot be turned off).

150 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Development Non-programmers can use the macro feature to automate simple tasks through a series of drop down selections. Macros allow users to easily chain commands together such as running queries, importing or exporting data, opening and closing forms, previewing and printing reports, etc. Macros support basic logic (IF conditions) and the ability to call other macros. Macros can also contain sub-macros which are similar to subroutines. In Access 2007, macros are significantly enhanced with the inclusion of error handling and temporary variable support. Access 2007 also introduces embedded macros that are essentially properties of an object's event. This eliminates the need to store macros as individual objects. Macros however, are limited in their functionality by a lack of programming loops and advanced coding logic. Most professional Access developers use the VBA programming language for a richer and more powerful development environment. The programming language available in Access is, as in other products of the Microsoft Office suite, Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications, which is nearly identical to Visual Basic 6.0 (VB6). VBA code can be stored in modules and code behind forms and reports. Modules can also be classes.Microsoft OfficeVisual Basic for Applications

151 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Development To manipulate data in tables and queries in VBA, two database access libraries of COM components are provided: the Data Access Objects (DAO), which is included in Access and Windows and evolved to ACE in Microsoft Access 2007 for the ACCDE database format, and ActiveX Data Objects ActiveX Data Objects (ADO). Beside DAO and ADO, developers can also use OLE DB and ODBC for developing native C/C++ programs for Access. For ADPs and the direct manipulation of SQL Server data, ADO is required. DAO is most appropriate for managing data in Access/Jet databases, and the only way to manipulate the complex field types in ACCDB tables.COMData Access ObjectsActiveX Data Objects In the database container or navigation pane of Access 2007, Access automatically categorizes each object by type. Many Access developers use the Leszynski naming convention, though this is not universal; it is a programming convention, not a DBMS- enforced rule. It is particularly helpful in VBA where references to object names may not indicate its data type (e.g. tbl for tables, qry for queries).Leszynski naming convention Microsoft Access is most often used for individual and workgroup projects (the Access 97 speed characterization was done for 32 users). Since Access 97, and with Access 2003 and 2007, Microsoft Access and hardware have evolved significantly. Databases under 1 GB in size (which can now fit entirely in RAM) and 50 simultaneous users are well within the capabilities of Microsoft Access. Of course, performance depends on the database design and tasks. Disk intensive work such as complex searching and querying are the most time consuming.

152 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Development As data from a Microsoft Access database can be cached in RAM, processing speed may be substantially better when there is only a single user or if the data is not changing. In the past, the effect of packet latency on the record locking system caused Access databases to be too slow on Virtual Private Network (VPN) or Wide Area Network (WAN) against a Jet database. This is less of an issue now with broadband connections. Performance can also be enhanced if a continuous connection is maintained to the back end database throughout the session rather than opening and closing it for each table access. If Access Database performance over VPN or WAN suffers, then Microsoft Terminal Services is an effective solution. Access databases linked to SQL Server or Access Data Projects work great over VPN and WAN.Virtual Private NetworkWide Area Networkcontinuous connection Terminal Services Split Database Architecture For best results in multiuser environments, Access applications should adopt a split database architecture. The database should be divided into a front end database that contains the application (queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules) that is linked to tables stored in a back end shared database containing the data. The latter database is stored on a shared network drive, and the front-end database is distributed to each user's desktop and linked to the shared database. Using this design, each user has a copy of Microsoft Access installed on their machine along with their application database.split database architecture

153 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Development This reduces network traffic since the application does not need to be sent over the line for each use, and allows the front end database to contain tables with data that is private to each user for storing settings or temporary data. This split database design also allows development of the application independent of the data. When a new version is ready, the front end database is replaced without impacting the data database. Microsoft Access has two built-in utilities, Database Splitter and Linked Table Manager, to facilitate this architecture. Linked tables in Access use explicit paths rather than relative paths, so the development environment should have the same path as the production environment or a "dynamic- linker" routine should be written in VBA.VBA Access to SQL Server Upsizing To scale Access applications to enterprise or web solutions, a recommended technique is to migrate to Microsoft SQL Server or equivalent server database. A client-server design significantly reduces maintenance and increases security, availability, stability, and transaction logging. Access includes an Upsizing Wizard that allows users to upsize their databases to Microsoft SQL Server an ODBC client-server database. An additional solution, the SQL Server Migration Assistant for Access(SSMA), is also available for download fromupsize Microsoft SQL ServerSQL Server Migration Assistant for Access

154 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Development This reduces network traffic since the application does not need to be sent over the line for each use, and allows the front end database to contain tables with data that is private to each user for storing settings or temporary data. This split database design also allows development of the application independent of the data. When a new version is ready, the front end database is replaced without impacting the data database. Microsoft Access has two built-in utilities, Database Splitter and Linked Table Manager, to facilitate this architecture. Linked tables in Access use explicit paths rather than relative paths, so the development environment should have the same path as the production environment or a "dynamic- linker" routine should be written in VBA.VBA Access to SQL Server Upsizing To scale Access applications to enterprise or web solutions, a recommended technique is to migrate to Microsoft SQL Server or equivalent server database. A client-server design significantly reduces maintenance and increases security, availability, stability, and transaction logging. Access includes an Upsizing Wizard that allows users to upsize their databases to Microsoft SQL Server an ODBC client-server database. An additional solution, the SQL Server Migration Assistant for Access(SSMA), is also available for download fromupsize Microsoft SQL ServerSQL Server Migration Assistant for Access

155 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Development Microsoft. A variety of upsizing options are available. After migrating the data and queries to SQL Server, the MDB/ACCDB Access database can be linked to the database. This is the easiest migration and most appropriate if the user does not have rights to create objects such as stored procedures on SQL Server. Retrieving data from linked tables is optimized to just the records needed, but are not as efficient for multi-table joins that may require copying the whole table across the network.upsizing options Access databases can also be converted to an Access Data Projects (ADP) which is tied directly to one SQL Server database. ADPs support the ability to directly create and modify SQL Server objects such as tables, views, stored procedures, views, and SQL Server constraints. The views and stored procedures can significantly reduce the network traffic for multi-table joins. Unfortunately, ADPs do not support temporary tables or link to other data sources beyond the single SQL Server database. (MDB/ACCDB databases can link to a variety of data sources and let you perform heterogenous queries across them).

156 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Development Finally, some Access databases are completely replaced by another solution such as ASP.NET or Java once the data is converted. In many cases, hybrid solutions are created where web interfaces are built by developers using ASP.NET, while administrative or reporting features that don't need to be distributed to everyone and/or change often, are kept in Access for information workers to maintain. While all Access data can migrate to SQL Server, it should be noted that Access queries are richer than SQL Server queries, so some queries cannot migrate successfully. In some situations, you may need to translate VBA functions and user defined functions into TSQL or.NET functions / procedures. Crosstab queries can be migrated to SQL Server using the PIVOT command. [edit] Protectionedit Microsoft Access offers several ways to secure the application while allowing users to remain productive. The most basic is a database password. Once entered, the user has full control of all the database objects. This is a relatively weak form of protection which can be easily cracked.

157 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Development A higher level of protection is the use of workgroup security requiring a user name and password. Users and groups can be specified along with their rights at the object type or individual object level. This can be used to specify people with readonly or data entry rights but may be challenging to specify. A separate workgroup security file contains the settings which can be used to manage multiple databases. Workgroup security is not supported in the Access 2007 ACCDB database format, although Access 2007 still supports it for MDB databases. Databases can also be encrypted. The ACCDB format offers significantly advanced encryption from previous versions. Additionally, if the database design needs to be secured to prevent changes, Access databases can be locked/protected (and the source code compiled) by converting the database to an.MDE file. All changes to the VBA project (modules, forms, or reports) need to be made to the original MDB and then reconverted to MDE. In Access 2007, the ACCDB database is converted to an ACCDE file. Some tools are available for unlocking and 'decompiling', although certain elements including original VBA comments and formatting are normally irretrievable.compileddecompiling

158 MICROSOFT ACCESS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO MAKE A DATABASE IN ACCESS MSACCESS – GIVE A NAME – CREATE – DOUBLE CLICK ON DESIGN VIEW – ADD FIELD NAMES AS “NAME”,”ADDRESS”,”PHONE NO” TYPE AS “TEXT” – CLOSE – TABLE NAME ‘YES’ – PRIMARY KEY ‘NO’ – DOUBLE CLICK ON THE TABLE NAME. TO MAKE RELATIONSHIP MAKE AT LEAST TWO TABLE WITH AT LEAST ONE SAME FIELD – RIGHT CLICK ON ANY TABLE – DESIGN VIEW – ADD PRIMARY KEY ON THAT FIELD – CLOSE – SAVE ‘YES’. TOOLS – RELATIONSHIP- ADD TWO TABLES – DRAG BOLD ONE TO NORMAL FIELD – CHECK ALL TEXT BOXES – CREATE. DOUBLE CLICK ON THE MAIN TABLE. TO MAKE QUERY QUERY – DESIGN VIEW – ADD THE FIELDS FROM DIFFERENT TABLES – SELECT THE CRITERIA A ND WRITE THE WORD TO BE SEARCH – RUN – SAVE THE QUERY. TO MAKE FORM : TO ENTER THE DATA IN FORM VIEW SELECT FORM – DOUBLE CLIK ON THE WIZERD – SELECT THE FIELDS – SELECT THE STYLE – NEXT – FINISH.

159 LMIIT TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAMTHAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM. KOL 147 PHONE NO : B E W I T H U S A N D F E E L T H E M A G I C ( STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA )

160 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of instructions.machinedatainstructions The first devices resembling a modern computer were developed in the mid-20th century (1940– 1945), although various similar machines had been constructed earlier. Early electronic computers were the size of a large room, consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers (PC). Modern computers based on tiny integrated circuits are millions to billions of times more capable, and occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into a wristwatch, powered by a watch battery. Personal computers in their various forms are icons of the Information Age, what most people think of as a "computer", but the embedded computers found in machines ranging from fighter aircraft to industrial robots, digital cameras, and children's toys are the most numerous.PCintegrated circuitswristwatchwatch batteryPersonal computers iconsInformation Ageembedded computersfighter aircraftindustrial robotsdigital cameraschildren's toys The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators. The Church–Turing thesis is a mathematical statement of this versatility: any computer with a certain minimum capability is, in principle, capable of performing the same tasks that any other computer can perform. Therefore computers ranging from a personal digital assistant to a supercomputer are all able to perform the same computational tasks, given enough time and storage capacity.programscalculatorsChurch–Turing thesispersonal digital assistantsupercomputer

161 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History of computing The Jacquard loom was one of the first programmable devices.Jacquard loom It is difficult to identify any one device as the earliest computer, partly because the term "computer" has been subject to varying interpretations over time. Originally, the term "computer" referred to a person who performed numerical calculations (a human computer), often with the aid of a mechanical calculating device.human computermechanical calculating device The history of the modern computer begins with two separate technologies—that of automated calculation and that of programmability. Examples of early mechanical calculating devices included the abacus, the slide rule and arguably the astrolabe and the Antikythera mechanism (which dates from about BC). Hero of Alexandria (c. 10–70 AD) built a mechanical theater which performed a play lasting 10 minutes and was operated by a complex system of ropes and drums that might be considered to be a means of deciding which parts of the mechanism performed which actions and when. This is the essence of programmability.abacusslide ruleastrolabeAntikythera mechanismHero of Alexandria The "castle clock", an astronomical clock invented by Al-Jazari in 1206, is considered to be the earliest programmable analog computer. It displayed the zodiac, the solar and lunar orbits, a crescent moon-shaped pointer travelling across a gateway causing automatic doors to open every hour,[5][6] and five robotic musicians who played music when struck by levers operated by a camshaft attached to a water wheel. The length of day and night could be re-programmed to compensate for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year.astronomical clockAl-Jazariprogrammableanalog computerzodiacsolarlunar orbits crescent moonpointerautomatic doors hour[5][6]roboticlevers camshaftwater wheeldaynight

162 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History of computing The end of the Middle Ages saw a re-invigoration of European mathematics and engineering, and Wilhelm Schickard's 1623 device was the first of a number of mechanical calculators constructed by European engineers. None fit the modern definition of a computer however, because they could not be programmed.Middle AgesWilhelm Schickard In 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard made an improvement to the textile loom that used a series of punched paper cards as a template to allow his loom to weave intricate patterns automatically. The resulting Jacquard loom was an important step in the development of computers because the use of punched cards to define woven patterns can be viewed as an early, albeit limited, form of programmability.Joseph Marie Jacquardtextile loom punched paper cards It was the fusion of automatic calculation with programmability that produced the first recognizable computers. In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize and design a fully programmable mechanical computer that he called "The Analytical Engine". Due to limited finances, and an inability to resist tinkering with the design, Babbage never actually built his Analytical Engine.Charles BabbageAnalytical Engine

163 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History of computing In the late 1880s Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a machine readable medium. Prior uses of machine readable media, above, had been for control, not data. "After some initial trials with paper tape, he settled on punched cards..."[7] To process these punched cards he invented the tabulator, and the key punch machines. These three inventions were the foundation of the modern information processing industry. Large-scale automated data processing of punched cards was performed for the U.S. Census in 1890 by Hollerith's company, which later became the core of IBM. By the end of the 19th century a number of technologies that would later prove useful in the realization of practical computers had begun to appear: the punched card, Boolean algebra, the vacuum tube (thermionic valve) and the teleprinter.tabulatorkey punchU.S. Census in 1890IBM punched cardBoolean algebravacuum tubeteleprinter During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were met by increasingly sophisticated analog computers, which used a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a basis for computation. However, these were not programmable and generally lacked the versatility and accuracy of modern digital computers.analog computerselectricalcomputation George StibitzGeorge Stibitz is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. While working at Bell Labs in November of 1937, Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the "Model K" (for "kitchen table", on which he had assembled it), which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation. Later models added greater sophistication including complex arithmetic and programmability.binaryan arithmetic operation

164 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History of computing A succession of steadily more powerful and flexible computing devices were constructed in the 1930s and 1940s, gradually adding the key features that are seen in modern computers. The use of digital electronics (largely invented by Claude Shannon in 1937) and more flexible programmability were vitally important steps, but defining one point along this road as "the first digital electronic computer" is difficult (Shannon 1940). Notable achievements include:Claude Shannon(Shannon 1940) EDSACEDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored program (von Neumann) architecture.von Neumann Konrad ZuseKonrad Zuse's electromechanical "Z machines". The Z3 (1941) was the first working machine featuring binary arithmetic, including floating point arithmetic and a measure of programmability. In 1998 the Z3 was proved to be Turing complete, therefore being the world's first operational computer.electromechanicalZ3binaryTuring complete The non-programmable Atanasoff–Berry Computer (1941) which used vacuum tube based computation, binary numbers, and regenerative capacitor memory.Atanasoff–Berry Computercomputationregenerative capacitor memory The secret British Colossus computers (1943), which had limited programmability but demonstrated that a device using thousands of tubes could be reasonably reliable and electronically reprogrammable. It was used for breaking German wartime codes.Colossus computersbreaking The Harvard Mark I (1944), a large-scale electromechanical computer with limited programmability.Harvard Mark I

165 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History of computing The U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory ENIAC (1946), which used decimal arithmetic and is sometimes called the first general purpose electronic computer (since Konrad Zuse's Z3 of 1941 used electromagnets instead of electronics). Initially, however, ENIAC had an inflexible architecture which essentially required rewiring to change its programming.Ballistics Research LaboratoryENIACdecimalelectronic Konrad ZuseZ3electromagnetselectronics Several developers of ENIAC, recognizing its flaws, came up with a far more flexible and elegant design, which came to be known as the "stored program architecture" or von Neumann architecture. This design was first formally described by John von Neumann in the paper First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC, distributed in A number of projects to develop computers based on the stored-program architecture commenced around this time, the first of these being completed in Great Britain. The first to be demonstrated working was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM or "Baby"), while the EDSAC, completed a year after SSEM, was the first practical implementation of the stored program design. Shortly thereafter, the machine originally described by von Neumann's paper—EDVAC—was completed but did not see full-time use for an additional two years. von Neumann architectureJohn von NeumannFirst Draft of a Report on the EDVACGreat BritainManchester Small-Scale Experimental MachineEDSACEDVAC

166 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA History of computing Nearly all modern computers implement some form of the stored-program architecture, making it the single trait by which the word "computer" is now defined. While the technologies used in computers have changed dramatically since the first electronic, general-purpose computers of the 1940s, most still use the von Neumann architecture. MicroprocessorsMicroprocessors are miniaturized devices that often implement stored program CPUs.CPUs Computers using vacuum tubes as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s, but by the 1960s had been largely replaced by transistor-based machines, which were smaller, faster, cheaper to produce, required less power, and were more reliable. The first transistorised computer was demonstrated at the University of Manchester in In the 1970s, integrated circuit technology and the subsequent creation of microprocessors, such as the Intel 4004, further decreased size and cost and further increased speed and reliability of computers. By the 1980s, computers became sufficiently small and cheap to replace simple mechanical controls in domestic appliances such as washing machines. The 1980s also witnessed home computers and the now ubiquitous personal computer. With the evolution of the Internet, personal computers are becoming as common as the television and the telephone in the household.vacuum tubestransistorUniversity of Manchesterintegrated circuit microprocessorsIntel 4004washing machineshome computerspersonal computerInternettelevisiontelephone Modern smartphones are fully-programmable computers in their own right, in a technical sense, and as of 2009 may well be the most common form of such computers in existence.smartphones

167 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA A general purpose computer has four main components: the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU), the control unit, the memory, and the input and output devices (collectively termed I/O). These parts are interconnected by busses, often made of groups of wires.arithmetic and logic unitcontrol unitmemorybusses wires The control unit, ALU, registers, and basic I/O (and often other hardware closely linked with these) are collectively known as a central processing unit (CPU). Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have typically been constructed on a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.central processing unitintegrated circuitmicroprocessor Control unit Main articles: CPU design and Control unitCPU designControl unit The control unit (often called a control system or central controller) manages the computer's various components; it reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer. Control systems in advanced computers may change the order of some instructions so as to improve performance. A key component common to all CPUs is the program counter, a special memory cell (a register) that keeps track of which location in memory the next instruction is to be read from.program counter register

168 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Diagram showing how a particular MIPS architecture instruction would be decoded by the control system.MIPS architecture The control system's function is as follows—note that this is a simplified description, and some of these steps may be performed concurrently or in a different order depending on the type of CPU: Read the code for the next instruction from the cell indicated by the program counter. Decode the numerical code for the instruction into a set of commands or signals for each of the other systems. Increment the program counter so it points to the next instruction. Read whatever data the instruction requires from cells in memory (or perhaps from an input device). The location of this required data is typically stored within the instruction code. Provide the necessary data to an ALU or register. If the instruction requires an ALU or specialized hardware to complete, instruct the hardware to perform the requested operation. Write the result from the ALU back to a memory location or to a register or perhaps an output device. Jump back to step (1).

169 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Since the program counter is (conceptually) just another set of memory cells, it can be changed by calculations done in the ALU. Adding 100 to the program counter would cause the next instruction to be read from a place 100 locations further down the program. Instructions that modify the program counter are often known as "jumps" and allow for loops (instructions that are repeated by the computer) and often conditional instruction execution (both examples of control flow).control flow It is noticeable that the sequence of operations that the control unit goes through to process an instruction is in itself like a short computer program—and indeed, in some more complex CPU designs, there is another yet smaller computer called a microsequencer that runs a microcode program that causes all of these events to happen. microsequencermicrocode Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) Main article: Arithmetic logic unitArithmetic logic unit The ALU is capable of performing two classes of operations: arithmetic and logic.The set of arithmetic operations that a particular ALU supports may be limited to adding and subtracting or might include multiplying or dividing, trigonometry functions (sine, cosine, etc) and square roots. Some can only operate on whole numbers (integers) whilst others use floating point to represent real numbers—albeit with limited precision.trigonometrysquare rootsintegersfloating pointreal numbers

170 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA However, any computer that is capable of performing just the simplest operations can be programmed to break down the more complex operations into simple steps that it can perform. Therefore, any computer can be programmed to perform any arithmetic operation—although it will take more time to do so if its ALU does not directly support the operation. An ALU may also compare numbers and return boolean truth values (true or false) depending on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other ("is 64 greater than 65?").boolean truth values Logic operations involve Boolean logic: AND, OR, XOR and NOT. These can be useful both for creating complicated conditional statements and processing boolean logic.Boolean logicANDORXORNOTconditional statementsboolean logic SuperscalarSuperscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs so that they can process several instructions at the same time. Graphics processors and computers with SIMD and MIMD features often provide ALUs that can perform arithmetic on vectors and matrices.Graphics processorsSIMD MIMDvectors matrices Memory Main article: Computer storageComputer storage Magnetic core memoryMagnetic core memory was the computer memory of choice throughout the 1960s, until it was replaced by semiconductor memory. A computer's memory can be viewed as a list of cells into which numbers can be placed or read. Each cell has a numbered "address" and can store a single number. The computer can be instructed to "put the number 123 into the cell numbered 1357" or to "add the number that is in cell 1357 to the number that is in cell 2468 and put the answer into cell 1595". The information stored in memory may represent practically anything.

171 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Letters, numbers, even computer instructions can be placed into memory with equal ease. Since the CPU does not differentiate between different types of information, it is the software's responsibility to give significance to what the memory sees as nothing but a series of numbers. In almost all modern computers, each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits (called a byte). Each byte is able to represent 256 different numbers; either from 0 to 255 or -128 to To store larger numbers, several consecutive bytes may be used (typically, two, four or eight). When negative numbers are required, they are usually stored in two's complement notation. Other arrangements are possible, but are usually not seen outside of specialized applications or historical contexts. A computer can store any kind of information in memory if it can be represented numerically. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory.binary numbersbitsbytetwo's complement The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers that can be read and written to much more rapidly than the main memory area. There are typically between two and one hundred registers depending on the type of CPU. Registers are used for the most frequently needed data items to avoid having to access main memory every time data is needed. As data is constantly being worked on, reducing the need to access main memory (which is often slow compared to the ALU and control units) greatly increases the computer's speed.registers

172 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Computer main memory comes in two principal varieties: random access memory or RAM and read-only memory or ROM. RAM can be read and written to anytime the CPU commands it, but ROM is pre-loaded with data and software that never changes, so the CPU can only read from it. ROM is typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions. In general, the contents of RAM are erased when the power to the computer is turned off, but ROM retains its data indefinitely. In a PC, the ROM contains a specialized program called the BIOS that orchestrates loading the computer's operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. In embedded computers, which frequently do not have disk drives, all of the required software may be stored in ROM. Software stored in ROM is often called firmware, because it is notionally more like hardware than software. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM, as it retains its data when turned off but is also rewritable. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM however, so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary.random access memoryread-only memoryBIOSoperating systemembedded computersfirmwareFlash memory In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memories which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. Generally computers with this sort of cache are designed to move frequently needed data into the cache automatically, often without the need for any intervention on the programmer's part.cache memories

173 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Input/output (I/O) Main article: Input/outputInput/output Hard disksHard disks are common I/O devices used with computers. I/O is the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world. Devices that provide input or output to the computer are called peripherals. On a typical personal computer, peripherals include input devices like the keyboard and mouse, and output devices such as the display and printer. Hard disk drives, floppy disk drives and optical disc drives serve as both input and output devices. Computer networking is another form of I/O.peripheralspersonal computer mousedisplayprinterHard disk drivesfloppy disk drivesoptical disc drivesComputer networking Often, I/O devices are complex computers in their own right with their own CPU and memory. A graphics processing unit might contain fifty or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics[citation needed]. Modern desktop computers contain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O.graphics processing unit3D graphicscitation needed desktop computers

174 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Multitasking Main article: Computer multitaskingComputer multitasking While a computer may be viewed as running one gigantic program stored in its main memory, in some systems it is necessary to give the appearance of running several programs simultaneously. This is achieved by multitasking i.e. having the computer switch rapidly between running each program in turn. One means by which this is done is with a special signal called an interrupt which can periodically cause the computer to stop executing instructions where it was and do something else instead. By remembering where it was executing prior to the interrupt, the computer can return to that task later. If several programs are running "at the same time", then the interrupt generator might be causing several hundred interrupts per second, causing a program switch each time. Since modern computers typically execute instructions several orders of magnitude faster than human perception, it may appear that many programs are running at the same time even though only one is ever executing in any given instant. This method of multitasking is sometimes termed "time-sharing" since each program is allocated a "slice" of time in turn.Before the era of cheap computers, the principle use for multitasking was to allow many people to share the same computer.interrupt

175 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Seemingly, multitasking would cause a computer that is switching between several programs to run more slowly - in direct proportion to the number of programs it is running. However, most programs spend much of their time waiting for slow input/output devices to complete their tasks. If a program is waiting for the user to click on the mouse or press a key on the keyboard, then it will not take a "time slice" until the event it is waiting for has occurred. This frees up time for other programs to execute so that many programs may be run at the same time without unacceptable speed loss. Multiprocessing Main article: MultiprocessingMultiprocessing CrayCray designed many supercomputers that used multiprocessing heavily. Some computers are designed to distribute their work across several CPUs in a multiprocessing configuration, a technique once employed only in large and powerful machines such as supercomputers, mainframe computers and servers. Multiprocessor and multi-core (multiple CPUs on a single integrated circuit) personal and laptop computers are now widely available, and are being increasingly used in lower-end markets as a result.supercomputersmainframe computersserversmulti-core

176 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Supercomputers in particular often have highly unique architectures that differ significantly from the basic stored-program architecture and from general purpose computers. They often feature thousands of CPUs, customized high-speed interconnects, and specialized computing hardware. Such designs tend to be useful only for specialized tasks due to the large scale of program organization required to successfully utilize most of the available resources at once. Supercomputers usually see usage in large-scale simulation, graphics rendering, and cryptography applications, as well as with other so-called "embarrassingly parallel" tasks.simulationgraphics renderingcryptographyembarrassingly parallel Networking and the Internet Main articles: Computer networking and InternetComputer networkingInternet Visualization of a portion of the routes on the Internet.routes Computers have been used to coordinate information between multiple locations since the 1950s. The U.S. military's SAGE system was the first large-scale example of such a system, which led to a number of special-purpose commercial systems like Sabre.SAGESabre In the 1970s, computer engineers at research institutions throughout the United States began to link their computers together using telecommunications technology. This effort was funded by ARPA (now DARPA), and the computer network that it produced was called the ARPANET. The technologies that made the Arpanet possible spread and evolved.DARPAcomputer networkARPANET

177 FUNDAMENTAL OF COMPUTER STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA In time, the network spread beyond academic and military institutions and became known as the Internet. The emergence of networking involved a redefinition of the nature and boundaries of the computer. Computer operating systems and applications were modified to include the ability to define and access the resources of other computers on the network, such as peripheral devices, stored information, and the like, as extensions of the resources of an individual computer. Initially these facilities were available primarily to people working in high-tech environments, but in the 1990s the spread of applications like and the World Wide Web, combined with the development of cheap, fast networking technologies like Ethernet and ADSL saw computer networking become almost ubiquitous. In fact, the number of computers that are networked is growing phenomenally. A very large proportion of personal computers regularly connect to the Internet to communicate and receive information. "Wireless" networking, often utilizing mobile phone networks, has meant networking is becoming increasingly ubiquitous even in mobile computing environments.Internet World Wide WebEthernet ADSL personal computersInternetmobile phone

178 LMIIT TECHNOLOGICA COMPUTER EDUCATION RAMTHAKURER MATH NABATARA SCHOOL ROAD SUBHASGRAM. KOL 147 PHONE NO : B E W I T H U S A N D F E E L T H E M A G I C ( STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA )

179 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Microsoft Windows is a series of software operating systems and graphical user interfaces produced by Microsoft. Microsoft first introduced an operating environment named Windows in November 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced previously. At the 2004 IDC Directions conference, it was stated that Windows had approximately 90% of the client operating system market. The most recent client version of Windows is Windows Vista; the most recent server version is Windows Server Vista's successor, Windows 7 (currently in public beta) is slated to be released between July 1, 2009 and June 30, 2010.softwareoperating systemsgraphical user interfacesMicrosoftMS-DOSgraphical user interfacesdominatepersonal computerMac OSIDCclientWindows VistaserverWindows Server 2008Windows 7

180 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Versions See also: List of Microsoft Windows versionsList of Microsoft Windows versions The term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are generally categorized as follows:Microsoft operating system Early versions Main articles: Windows 1.0, Windows 2.0, and Windows 2.1xWindows 1.0Windows 2.0Windows 2.1x The history of Windows dates back to September 1981, when the project named "Interface Manager" was started. It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November The shell of Windows 1.0 was a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Other supplied programs are Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal, and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows, due to Apple Computer owning this feature. Instead all windows are tiled. Only dialog boxes can appear over other windows. Apple LisaMacintoshWindows 1.0shellMS-DOS ExecutiveCalculatorCalendar CardfileClipboardControl PanelNotepadPaintReversiTerminalWriteApple Computertiled Windows 2.0Windows 2.0 was released in October 1987 and featured several improvements to the user interface and memory management. Windows 2.0 allowed application windows to overlap each other and also introduced more sophisticated keyboard-shortcuts. It could also make use of expanded memory.expanded memory

181 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Versions Windows 2.1 was released in two different flavors: Windows/386 employed the 386 virtual 8086 mode to multitask several DOS programs, and the paged memory model to emulate expanded memory using available extended memory. Windows/286 (which, despite its name, would run on the 8086) still ran in real mode, but could make use of the high memory area.Windows/386386virtual 8086 modeextended memoryWindows/286real modehigh memory area The early versions of Windows were often thought of as simply graphical user interfaces, mostly because they ran on top of MS-DOS and used it for file system services. However, even the earliest 16-bit Windows versions already assumed many typical operating system functions; notably, having their own executable file format and providing their own device drivers (timer, graphics, printer, mouse, keyboard and sound) for applications. Unlike MS-DOS, Windows allowed users to execute multiple graphical applications at the same time, through cooperative multitasking. Windows implemented an elaborate, segment-based, software virtual memory scheme, which allowed it to run applications larger than available memory: code segments and resources were swapped in and thrown away when memory became scarce, and data segments moved in memory when a given application had relinquished processor control, typically waiting for user input.[citation needed]MS-DOSfile systemexecutable file formatdevice driversMS-DOScooperative multitasking resourcescitation needed

182 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Windows 3.0 and 3.1 Main articles: Windows 3.0 and Windows 3.1xWindows 3.0Windows 3.1x Windows 3.0Windows 3.0 (1990) and Windows 3.1 (1992) improved the design, mostly because of virtual memory and loadable virtual device drivers (VxDs) which allowed them to share arbitrary devices between multitasked DOS windows.[citation needed] Also, Windows applications could now run in protected mode (when Windows was running in Standard or 386 Enhanced Mode), which gave them access to several megabytes of memory and removed the obligation to participate in the software virtual memory scheme. They still ran inside the same address space, where the segmented memory provided a degree of protection, and multi-tasked cooperatively. For Windows 3.0, Microsoft also rewrote critical operations from C into assembly, making this release faster and less memory-hungry than its predecessors.[citation needed] With the introduction of the Windows for Workgroups 3.11, Windows was able to bypass DOS for file management operations using 32-bit file access.[citation needed]Windows 3.1 virtual memoryVxDscitation neededCassemblycitation neededWindows for Workgroups bit file accesscitation needed Windows 95, 98 and Me

183 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Main articles: Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows MeWindows 95Windows 98Windows Me Windows 95 featured a new user interface, supported long file names, could automatically detect and configure installed hardware (plug and play), natively ran 32-bit applications, and featured several technological improvements that increased its stability over Windows 3.1. Windows 95 uses pre-emptive multitasking and runs each 32-bit application in a separate address space. This makes it harder for a single buggy application to crash the whole system. It was still not a secure multi-user operating system like Windows NT as a strict separation between applications was not enforced by the kernel. The API was a subset of the Win32 API supported by Windows NT, notably lacking support for Unicode and functions related to security. Windows 95 was now bundled together with MS-DOS 7.0, however its role was mostly delegated to that of a boot loader.long file namesplug and playpre-emptive multitaskingaddress spacemulti-userWin32Unicodeboot loader There were several releases of Windows 95; the first in 1995, with Service Pack 1 following in December which included Internet Explorer 2.0. Subsequent versions were only available with the purchase of a new computer and were called OEM Service Releases. OSR1 was equivalent to Windows 95 with SP1. OSR2 (also called Windows 95 B) included support for FAT32 and UDMA and shipped with Internet Explorer 3.0. OSR 2.1 included basic support for USB and OSR 2.5 (also called Windows 95 C) shipped with Internet Explorer 4.0.Internet ExplorerOEMFAT32UDMAUSB

184 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Microsoft's next OS was Windows 98, which had two versions; the first in 1998 and the second, named Windows 98 Second Edition, in 1999.Windows 98Windows 98 Second Edition In 2000, Microsoft released Windows Me (Me standing for Millennium Edition), which used the same core as Windows 98 but adopted some aspects of Windows 2000 and removed the "boot in DOS mode" option. It also added a new feature called System Restore, allowing the user to set the computer's settings back to an earlier date. Me is also the last DOS-based Windows release which does not include Microsoft Product Activation.Windows MeSystem RestoreProduct Activation Windows 7Windows 7, the next Windows release Main article: Windows NTWindows NT The NT family of Windows systems was fashioned and marketed for higher reliability business use, and was unencumbered by any Microsoft DOS patrimony. The first release was MS Windows NT 3.1 (1993, numbered "3.1" to match the consumer Windows version, which was followed by NT 3.5 (1994), NT 3.51 (1995), NT 4.0 (1996), and Windows 2000 (2000) is the last NT-based Windows release which does not include Microsoft Product Activation. NT 4.0 was the first in this line to implement the "Windows 95" user interface (and the first to include Windows 95’s built-in 32-bit runtimes).Windows NT 3.1NT 3.5NT 3.51NT 4.0Windows 2000Product Activation

185 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA Microsoft then moved to combine their consumer and business operating systems with Windows XP, coming in both home and professional versions (and later niche market versions for tablet PCs and media centers); they also diverged release schedules for server operating systems. Windows Server 2003, released a year and a half after Windows XP, brought Windows Server up to date with MS Windows XP. After a lengthy development process, Windows Vista was released toward the end of 2006, and its server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 was released in early In 2009, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 entered beta. Microsoft plans to release Windows 7 in late 2009 or early Windows XPtablet PCsmedia centersWindows Server 2003Windows Serverdevelopment processWindows VistaWindows Server 2008 Windows 7Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows CEWindows CE, Microsoft’s offering in the mobile and embedded markets, is also a true 32-bit operating system that offers various services for all sub-operating workstations. 64-bit operating systems Windows NTWindows NT included support for several different platforms before the x86-based personal computer became dominant in the professional world. Versions of NT from 3.1 to 4.0 variously supported PowerPC, DEC Alpha and MIPS R4000, some of which were 64-bit processors, although the operating system treated them as 32-bit processors.x86 personal computerPowerPCDEC AlphaMIPS With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture, which is referred to as IA-64, Microsoft released new versions of Windows to support it. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 (32-bit) counterparts.IntelItaniumIA-64 Windows XPWindows Server 2003

186 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA On April 25, 2005, Microsoft released Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and x64 versions of Windows Server 2003 to support the AMD64/Intel64 (or x64 in Microsoft terminology) architecture. Microsoft dropped support for the Itanium version of Windows XP in Windows Vista is the first end-user version of Windows that Microsoft has released simultaneously in x86 and x64 editions. Windows Vista does not support the Itanium architecture. The modern 64-bit Windows family comprises AMD64/Intel64 versions of Windows Vista, and Windows Server 2008, in both Itanium and x64 editions. Windows Server 2008 R2 drops the 32-bit version, although Windows 7 does not.Windows XP Professional x64 EditionAMD64/Intel64Windows Vista Windows Server 2008 Windows 7 Windows CE Main article: Windows CEWindows CE This section requires expansion.Windows CE (officially known as Windows Embedded), is an edition of Windows that runs on minimalistic computers, like satellite navigation systems, and uncommonly mobile phones. Windows Embedded runs as CE, rather than NT, which is why it should not be mistaken for Windows XP Embedded, which is NT.expansion

187 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA NOTEPAD FILE NEW: TO CREATE A NEW FILE STEPS : FILE - NEW. OPEN: TO OPEN AN EXISTING FILE. STEPS: FILE - OPEN - SELECT THE FILE - OPEN SAVE: TO SAVE THE FILE OR MODIFY IN COMPUTER STEPS: FILE - SAVE - ANY NAME – SAVE. SAVE AS: TO CREATE ANOTHER FILE WITH ANOTHER NAME STEPS: FILE - SAVE AS - ANY NAME - SAVE. PAGE SETUP: TO SET THE PAGE MARGIN AND ORIENTATION. STEPS: FILE - PAGE SETUP - PAPER =A4 - ORIENTATION =PORTRAIT - MARGIN TOP=BOTTOM=LEFT=RIGHT=1” - OK PRINT: TO MAKE PRINT OUTS ON PAGES STEPS: FILE - PRINT - NUMBER OF COPIES - PRINT. EXIT: TO CLOSE NOTEPAD

188 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA NOTEPAD EDIT UNDO: ONE STEP BACKWARD. CUT: TO CUT AND PASTE AT DESIRED POSITION. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT - EDIT - CUT - PLACE THE CURSOR – EDIT – PASTE. COPY: TO MAKE ANOTHER COPY OF THE SAME TEXT. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT - EDIT - COPY - SET THE CURSOR - EDIT - PASTE. PASTE: AFTER CUT OR COPY THERE MUST BE PASTE TO GET THE RESULT. STEPS: EDIT - PASTE. DELETE: TO ERASE THE SELECTED AREA. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT - EDIT - DELETE. FIND: TO SEARCH A WORD. STEPS: EDIT – PLACE THE CURSOR AT THE TOP OF THE DOCUMENT - FIND – FIND WHAT ( THE WORD TO BE FOUND) – FIND NEXT. REPLACE :- TO REPALCE A WORD WITH ANOTHER. STEPS: FIND – RELPACE – THE WORD TO BE REPLACE – THE WORD WITH WHICH IT WILL BE REPLACED – REPLACE ALL.

189 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA NOTEPAD GOTO : TO GO TO THE SELECTED LINE NO. STEPS: EDIT – GOTO – LINE NO – OK. SELECT ALL : TO SELECT WHOLE DOCUMENT. STEPS: EDIT – SELECT ALL. TIME AND DATE : TO INSERT CURRENT TIME AND DATE. STEPS: EDIT – TIME AND DATE.

190 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA NOTEPAD FORMAT: WORD WRAP: TO MOVE TO NEXT LINE AUTOMATICALLY AS THE CURSOR REACH THE END OF THE LINE. STEPS: FORMAT – WORD WRAP. FONTS: TO CHANGE THE LETTER STYLE AS FONT/BOL/ITALIC/SIZE. STEPS: FORMAT – FONT – SELECT THE STYLES – OK.

191 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PAINT FILE NEW: TO CREATE A NEW FILE STEPS : FILE - NEW. OPEN: TO OPEN AN EXISTING FILE. STEPS: FILE - OPEN - SELECT THE FILE - OPEN SAVE: TO SAVE THE FILE OR MODIFY IN COMPUTER STEPS: FILE - SAVE - ANY NAME – SAVE. SAVE AS: TO CREATE ANOTHER FILE WITH ANOTHER NAME STEPS: FILE - SAVE AS - ANY NAME - SAVE. PAGE SETUP: TO SET THE PAGE MARGIN AND ORIENTATION. STEPS: FILE - PAGE SETUP - PAPER =A4 - ORIENTATION =LANDSCAPE - MARGIN TOP=BOTTOM=LEFT=RIGHT=1” - OK PRINT PREVIEW: TO VIEW THE PREVIEWBEFORE THE PRINTOUT. STEPS: FILE – PRINT PREVIEW. PRINT: TO MAKE PRINT OUTS ON PAGES STEPS: FILE - PRINT - NUMBER OF COPIES - PRINT.

192 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PAINT FILE SET AS BACKGROUND (TIELD) : MULTIPLE PICTURES SET AS BACKGROUND (CENTER) : SINGLE PICTURE. : TO SEND THE DRAWING ON DESKTOP AS WALLPAPER. STEPS: FILE – SET AS WALLPAPER – MINIMIZE THE WINDOW. EXIT: TO CLOSE THE MSPAINT.

193 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PAINT EDIT UNDO: ONE STEP BACKWARD. CUT: TO CUT AND PASTE. STEPS: SELECT THE OBJECT- EDIT - CUT– EDIT – PASTE. COPY: TO MAKE ANOTHER COPY OF THE SAME OBJECT. STEPS: SELECT THE OBJECT - EDIT - COPY - EDIT - PASTE. PASTE: AFTER CUT OR COPY THERE MUST BE PASTE TO GET THE RESULT. STEPS: EDIT - PASTE. CLEAR SELECTION: TO CLEAR THE SELECTED AREA/ STEPS: SELECT THE AREA – EDIT – CLEAR THE SELECTED AREA. SELECT ALL : TO SELECT THE WHOLE PAGE. STEPS: EIDT – SELECT ALL.

194 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PAINT EDIT COPY TO: TO SAVE A SELECTED AREA. STEPS: SELECT THE AREA – EDIT – COPY TO – ANY NAME – SAVE. PASTE FROM: TO INSERT OBJECTS FROM OTHER FILES. STEPS: EDIT – PASTE FROM – SELECT THE FILE – OPEN.

195 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PAINT VIEW TOOLBOX /COLOR BOX/ STATUS BAR/ TEXT TOOLBAR(TEXT TOOL): TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE THE TOOLBARS. ZOOM : TO ENLARGE THE THE PICTURE NORMAL: TO ZOOM AT 100%. LARGE SIZE: TO ZOOM AT 400%. CUSTOM: TO ZOOM AT DESIRED POSITION AT 200/400/600/800 %. SHOW GRID: TO ACTIVATE THE GRAPH FEATURES. (MUST BE ZOOMED AT 400%) STEPS: VIEW – ZOOM – SHOW GRID. SHOW THUMBNAIL: TO VIEW THWE PAGES IN A THUMBNAIL VIEW. STEPS: VIEW – ZOOM - SHOW THUMBNAIL. BITMAP VIEW: TO VIEW THE PAGE FULLSCREEN. STEPS: VIEW – VIEW BITMAP.

196 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PAINT IMAGES FLIP/ROTATE – TO FLIP OR ROTATE WITH A DEGREE. STEPS: SELECT THE AREA – IMAGE – FLIP – FLIP VERTICAL / HORIZONTAL – OK STRETCH/SKEW : TO ENLARGE OR SHRINK OR SKEW WITH PERCENTAGE/DEGREE. STEPS: SELECT THE PAGE – IMAGE – STRETCH/SKEW – SELECT DEGREE / PERCENTAGE – OK. INVERT COLOR: TO CHANGE THE PAGE COLOR ON OPPOSITE. STEPS: IMAGES – INVERT COLOR. ATTRIBUTE: TO CHANGE THE CANVAS SIZE. STEPS: ATTRIBUTE – SELECT THE HEIGHT AND WIDTH – OK CLEAR IMAGE: TO CLEAR THE SCREEN. STEPS: IMAGE – CLEAR THE IMAGE. DRAW OPAQUE: TO DISCRAD THE TRANSPARENCY. STEPS: IMGAE – DRAW OPAQUE.

197 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA PAINT COLOR EDIT COLOR: TO CHANGE THE COLOR. STEPS: COLOR – EDIT COLOR – DEFINE CUSTOM COLOR – SELECT THE COLOR - OK.

198 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA WORDPAD FILE NEW: TO CREATE A NEW FILE STEPS : FILE - NEW. OPEN: TO OPEN AN EXISTING FILE. STEPS: FILE - OPEN - SELECT THE FILE - OPEN SAVE: TO SAVE THE FILE OR MODIFY IN COMPUTER STEPS: FILE - SAVE - ANY NAME – SAVE. SAVE AS: TO CREATE ANOTHER FILE WITH ANOTHER NAME STEPS: FILE - SAVE AS - ANY NAME - SAVE. PAGE SETUP: TO SET THE PAGE MARGIN AND ORIENTATION. STEPS: FILE - PAGE SETUP - PAPER =A4 - ORIENTATION =LANDSCAPE - MARGIN TOP=BOTTOM=LEFT=RIGHT=1” - OK PRINT PREVIEW: TO VIEW THE PREVIEWBEFORE THE PRINTOUT. STEPS: FILE – PRINT PREVIEW. PRINT: TO MAKE PRINT OUTS ON PAGES STEPS: FILE - PRINT - NUMBER OF COPIES - PRINT. EXIT: TO CLOSE WORDPAD

199 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA WORDPAD EDIT UNDO: ONE STEP BACKWARD. CUT: TO CUT AND PASTE. STEPS: SELECT THE OBJECT- EDIT - CUT– EDIT – PASTE. COPY: TO MAKE ANOTHER COPY OF THE SAME OBJECT. STEPS: SELECT THE OBJECT - EDIT - COPY - EDIT - PASTE. PASTE: AFTER CUT OR COPY THERE MUST BE PASTE TO GET THE RESULT. STEPS: EDIT - PASTE. CLEAR : TO CLEAR THE SELECTED AREA. STEPS: SELECT THE AREA – EDIT – CLEAR. SELECT ALL : TO SELECT THE WHOLE PAGE. STEPS: EIDT – SELECT ALL.

200 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA WORDPAD EDIT FIND: TO SEARCH A WORD. STEPS: EDIT – PLACE THE CURSOR AT THE TOP OF THE DOCUMENT - FIND – FIND WHAT ( THE WORD TO BE FOUND) – FIND NEXT. REPLACE :- TO REPALCE A WORD WITH ANOTHER. STEPS: FIND – RELPACE – THE WORD TO BE REPLACE – THE WORD WITH WHICH IT WILL BE REPLACED – REPLACE ALL.

201 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA WORDPAD VIEW TOOLBAR / FORMATBAR/ RULAR/ STATUS BAR: TO ACTIVATE OR DEACTIVATE. INSERT OBJECT: TO INSERT AN OUTSIDE OBJECT FROM ANOTHER APPLICATION LIKE PAINT. STEPS: INSERT – OBJECT – BITMAP IMAGE – OK DRAW ANY THING – CLICK ON OUTSIDE. DATE/TIME: TO INSERT CURRENT TIME AND DATE. STEPS: INSERT – TIME /DATE – OK. FORMAT FONT: TO CHANGE THE LETTER STYLE AND COLOR. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – FORMAT – SELECT THE STYLE – OK. BULLET STYLE: TO MAKE SOME POINTOUTS INFORMATION. STEPS: SELECT THE TEXT – FORMAT – BULLETS. PARAGRAPH: TO ADJUST A PARAGRAPH. STEPS: FORMAT – PRAGRAPH – INDENT =1” – FIRST LINE =.5” – OK. TABS: TO ADJUST TAB KEY. STEPS: FORMAT – TAB – 1” –SET – 3” – SET 3.5” – SET –OK.

202 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA TO COPY A FILE FROM CD TO HARDDISK STEPS: DOUBLE CLICK ON MYCOMPUTER – DOUBLE CLICK ON CD ROM – RIGHT CLICK ON FILE – COPY – MINIMIZE THE WINDOW – RIGHT CLICK ON DESKTOP – PASTE. TO PLAY A SONG IN WINDOWS MEDIA PLAYER STEPS: START – PROGRAM – ACCESSORIES – ENTERTAINMENT – WINDOWS MEDIA PLAYER – FILE – OPEN SELECT THE DRIVE – SELECT THE FILE – OPEN. TO MAKE SHORTCUT OR REPRESENTATIVE FILE ON DESKTOP: STEPS: RIGHT CLICK ON DESKTOP – NEW – SHORTCUT – BROWSE – SELECT THE DRIVE – SELECT THE FILE – OPEN – NEXT – NEXT – FINISH. STEPS: RIGHT CLICK ON THE FILE – SEND TO – DESKTOP TO SEARCH A FILE. START – SEARCH – FOR FILES & FOLDERS – FILE NAME.EXT – SEARCH. FILENAME.EXT AS *.TXT – NOTEPAD *.BMP - PAINT *.JPG – PICTURE *.XLS / XLW – EXCEL *.DOC – WORD/WORDPAD S*.JPG – ALL PICTURE FILES STARTING NAME WITH ‘S’.

203 FUNDAMENTAL OF WINDOWS STEPS WITH TECHNOLOGICA This CD is also containing Tour 2008 Photographs. Please Search The CD with *.jpg Steps: double click on my computer – right click on CDROM – search - *.jpg – Search. Compilation SWARAJ CHAKRABORTY (Eng Hon’s. D.C.A, D.C.H.M & Network) Director of LMiit Technologica Computer Education Ram Tahkurer Math Nabatara School Road Subhasgram, Kolkata Phone No : FOR ANY TYPE OF FREE HELP ON COURSE MATERIAL YOU CAN CONTACT ME BETWEEN 6 PM TO 8 PM ON MY PHONE NO : I WILL BE HAPPY TO HELP YOU. I WISH BEST OF LUCK FOR THE COURSE & YOUR FUTURE.


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