Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 T1 Figure.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 T1 Figure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T1 Figure 1-4 Contemporary approaches to information systems Management Science Computer Science Operations Research MIS Sociology EconomicsPsychology Behavioral Approaches Technical Approaches

2 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T2 Figure 1.6 Interdependence between organizations & information systems Organization Information System Business Strategy Rules Procedures Software Hardware Database Tele- communications Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

3 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Ostrożnie z prognozami: „Wiek XXI będzie inny niż jego liczne teraz przewidywania, wysadzane klejnotami dziwacznych pomysłów” [Stanisław Lem w Bombie megabitowej]

4 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T3 Figure 1.7 The widening scope of information systems Information Systems Technical Changes Managerial Control Institutional Core Activities Time1950s1960s1970s1980s1990s

5 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T4 Figure 1.9 A virtual organization CORE COMPANY Sales and Marketing Company Finance Company Logistics Company Manufactoring Company Design Company

6 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T5 Figure 1.11 Electronic commerce and electronic business in the networked enterprise The Firm Factories Just-in-time production Continious inventory replenishment Production planning Remote officies and work groups Communicate plans and policies Group collaboration Electronic communication Scheduling Business partners Joint design Outsourcing Suppliers Procurement Supply chain management Customers On-line marketing On-line sales Built-to-order products Customer service Sales force automation ELECTRONIC BUSINESS COMMERCE

7 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T6 Figure 1.12 The information architecture of the firm INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE OF THE ORGANIZATION Functional Business Applications IT Infrastructure Sales and Marketing ManufacturingFinanceAccountingHuman Resources Coordination Strategic Systems Management Systems Knowledge Systems Operational Systems HardwareSoftware Data and Storage Technology Networks

8 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T7 Figure 2.1 Types of information systems Sales and Marketing ManufacturingFinanceAccountingHuman Resources KIND OF INFORMATION SYSTEMGROUPS SERVED Strategic Level Management Level Knowledge Level Operational Level Senior Managers Middle Managers Knowledge and Data Workers Operational Managers

9 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T8 Figure 2.2 The six major types of information systems TYPES OF SYSTEMS Executive Support Systems (ESS) Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Strategic-Level Systems Management-Level Systems Knowledge-Level Systems Operational-Level Systems 5-year sales trend forecasting 5-year operating plan 5-year budget forecasting Profit plannig Manpower planning Management Information Systems (MIS) Decision- Support Systems (DSS) Sales managemnt Inventory control Annual budgeting Capital investment analysis Relocation analysis Sales region analysis Production scheduling Contract cost analysis Pricing/profitability analysis Cost analysis Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) Office Automation Systems (OAS) Enginneering workstations Graphics workstations Managerial workstations Word processing Electronic calendars Document imaging Order tracking Compensation Training & development Emplyee record keeping Machine control Plant scheduling Material Movement control Payroll Accounts payable Accounts receivable Order processingCash management Securities trading Sales and Marketing ManufacturingFinanceAccountingHuman Resources

10 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T8 Table 2.1 Characteristics of Information Processing Systems Type of System ESS DSS MIS KWS OAS TPS Information Inputs Aggregate date; external, internal Low-volume data or massive databases optimized for data analysis; analytic models and data analysis tools Summary transaction data; high-volume data; simple models Design specifications; knowledge base Documents; schedules Transactions; events Processing Graphics; simulations; interactive Interactive; simulations, analysis Routine reports; simple models; low-level analysis Modeling; simulations Document manage- ment; scheduling; communication Sorting; listing; merging; updating Information Outputs Projections; responses to queries Special reports; decision analyses; responses to queries Summary and exception reports Models; graphics Documents; schedules; mail Detailed reports; lists; summaries Users Middle managers Operations personnel; supervisors Professionals; staff managers Senior managers Professionals; technical staff Clerical workers

11 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T10 Figure 2.6 How management information systems obtain their data Transaction Processing SystemsManagement Information Systems Order processing systems Materials resource planning system General ledger system Order file Production master file Accountig files Reports Managers MIS FILES Sales data Unit product cost data Produkt change data Expense data MIS

12 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T11 Figure 2.10 Interrelationships among systems Executive support systems (ESS) Knowledge systems (KWS and OAS) Management systems (MIS) Management systems (DSS) Transaction processing systems (TPS)

13 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T12 Figure 2.13 Business-level strategy Business-Level Strtegy VendorsCustomers The Business Firm Point-of-sale systems Datamining Efficient Customer Response Product differentiation (IT products) Focused differentition (Datamining) Low-cost producer Intra Firm Strategy Stockless inventory Continuous replenishment Just-in-time delivery Supply Chain Management

14 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T13 Figure 2.14 The competitive forces model The firm Traditional competitors Substitute products and services New market entrants SuppliersCustomers

15 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T14 Figure 3.1 The two-way relationship between organizations and information technology Mediating Factors Environment Culture Structure Standard Procedures Business Processes Politics Management Decisions Chance Organizations Information Technology

16 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T15 Figure 3.2 The technical microeconomic definition of the organization Organization Production process Inputs from the environment Outputs to the environment Labor Capital K1K1 K2K2 L2L2 L1L1 Q (A) (B)

17 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T16 Figure 3.4 Environments and organizations have a reciprocal relationship Environmental Resources and Constrains Governments Competitors Customers Financial Institutions Culture Knowledge Technology Information Systems The Firm The Organization and Its Environment

18 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T17 Figure 3.9 The systems development process EXTERNAL Environmental factors Uncertainties Opportunities System development Adoption Utilization Management Institutional factors Values Norms Interests INTERNAL

19 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T18 Figure 3.13 Organisational resistance Task Technology Structure People

20 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T19 Figure 4.1 The Evolution of Management Theory PostmodernContemporaryClassical CognitiveBehavioral Technical-Rational Reengineering Value chain analysis The learning organization Structuration theory Datamining Organizational knowledge Network organizations Virtual organizations Strategic IS User acceptance Total Quality Management Systems Structural Human Relations Administrative/Bureaucratic School Scientific Management Sensemaking Knowledge-based firms

21 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ Existing stock of explicit organizational information and knowledge T20 Figure 4.3 The Knowledge-Based View of the Firm KnowledgeInformation Chaos Environment Consequences Information-and-knowledge processing structures Organizational knowledge base: routines, structures, alliances, behavior Tacit information and knowledge; Know-how UtilizationLearningOrigins THE ORGANIZATION ACTIONS=+

22 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T21 Fiugre 4.4 Diffrent kinds of information systems at the various organizational levels Structured Semi- structured OperationalKnowledge Accounts receivable TPS Product design KWS Electronic scheduling OAS Production cost overruns Budget preparation MIS Production facility location DSS New products New markets ESS Project scheduling Unstructuredl ManagementStrategic TYPE OF DECISION ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL TPS = Transaction processing system OAS = Office automation system KWS = Knowledge work systemESS = Executive support system DSS = Decision-support system MIS Management information system Key:

23 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T22 Figure 4.5 The Decision-making Process Is the choice working?Implementation Which should you choose?Choice What are the alternatives?Design Is there a problem?Intelligence

24 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T23 Tabele 4.3 Models of Organizational Decision Making Rational actorComprehensive rationality Organizations select goals, examine all alternatives and consequences, and then choose a policy that maximizes the goal or preference function. Bureacratic Organizational output Standard operating procedures Goals are determined by resource constrains and existing human and capital resources; SOPs are combined into programs, and programs into repertoires; these determine what policies will be chosen. The primary purpose of the organization is to survive; uncertainty reduction is the principal goal. Policies are chosen that are incrementally different from the past PoliticalPolitical outcomeOrganizational decisions result from political competition; key players are involved in a game of influence, bargaining, and power. Organizational outcomes are determined by the beliefs and goals of players, their skills in playing the games, the resources they bring to bear, and the limits on their attention and power. Garbage canNonadaptative organizational program Most organizations are nonadaptative, temprary, and disappear over time. Organizational decizions result from interactions among streams of problems, potential actions, participants, and chance. NameBasic ConceptInference Pattern

25 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T24 Figure 5.1 The relationship between ethical, social, and political issues in an information society Polity Society Indyvidual Ethical Issues Social Issues Political Issues Information Technology and Systems Information Rights and Obligations Property Rights and Obligations System Quality Quality of Life Accountability and Control

26 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T25 Table 5.2 Federal privacy laws in the United States Freedom of Information act, 1968 as Amended (5 USC 552) Privacy Act of 1974 as Amended (5 USC 552a) Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988 Computer Security Act of 1987 Federal Managers Financial Integrity Act of 1982 Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970 Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1978 Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978 Privacy Protection Act of 1980 Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 Video Privacy Protection Act of General Federal Privacy Laws 2. Privacy Laws Affecting Private Institutions

27 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T26 Figure 5.2 Who owns the pieces? LOGO Artists, design firm, or Web site publisher TEXTUAL CONTENT Writer or newspaper publisher ARTICLE EXCERPT Writer or newspaper publisher BUSINESS Stock exchanges, write service, or database publischer COLUMN Writer, syndication service, or newspaper publisher PHOTOGRAPH Freelance photographer, wire service, photo agency, photo library, or newspaper publisher

28 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T27 Table 5.4 Internet crime and abuse HackingHackers exploit weaknesses in Web site security to obtain access to proprietary data such as customer information and passwords. They may use „Trojan horses” posing as legitimate software to obtain information from the host computer. Jamming Jammers use software routines to tie up the computer hosting a Web site so that legitimate visitors can’t access the site. Malicious softwareCyber vandals use data flowing through the Internet to transmit computer viruses, which can disable computers that they „infect” (see Chapter 16) SniffingSniffing is a form of electronic eavesdropping by placing a piece of software to intercept information passing from a user to the computer hosting a Web site. This information can include credit card numbers and other confidental data. ProblemDescription SpoofingSpoofers fraudulently misrepresent themselves as other organizations, setting up false Web sites where they can collect confidential information from unsuspecting visitors to the site

29 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T28 Figure 6.1 Hardware components of a computer system Central Procesing Unit (CPU) Arithmetic-Logic Unit Control Unit Input Devices Keyboard Computer mouse Touch screen Source data automation Output Devices Printers Video Display terminals Plotters Audio output Communication Devices Secondary Storage Magnetic disk Optical disk Magnetic tape Buses Primary Storage

30 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T29 Table 6.1 Examples of ASCII and EBCDIC Codes A E Z Character or NumberASCII-8 BinaryEBCDIC Binary

31 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T30 Table 6.2 Time and Size in the Computer World Milisecond1/1000 second Terabyte Microsecond1/1,000,000 second String of eight bits Nanosecond1/1,000,000,000 second 1,000,000,000 bytes Picosecond1/1,000,000,000,000 second 1,000,000,000,000 bytes Time Storage Capacity Byte 1000 bytes a Megabyte Kilobyte 1,000,000 bytes Gigabyte a Actually 1024 storage positions

32 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T31 Figure 6.4 The CPU and primary storage Central Processing Unit (CPU) Arithmetic-Logic Unit = 33 9 < 10 Control Unit Primary storage address Primary Storage Data Bus Address Bus Control Bus Secondary Storage Output Devices Input Devices 1 8 T# U4

33 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T32 Figure 6.9 Types of client/server computing Data Logic Interface Data SERVER Data Logic Interface CLIENT

34 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T33 Figure 6.10 Disk pack storage 11 disks 20 recording surfaces 3500 RPMs Read/write heads ”fly” over disk surfaces

35 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T34 Figure 7.1 The major types of software Operating System Schedules computer events Allocates computer resources Monitors events Language Translators Interpreters Compilers Utility Programs Routine operations (e.g., sort, list, print) Manage data (e.g., create files, merge files) SYSTEM SOFTWARE APPLICATION SOFTWARE Programming languages Assembly language FORTRAN COBOL BASIC PASCAL C 4th-generation” languages and PC software tools Hardware Users Application software System software

36 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T35 Figure 7.2 Single-program execution versus multiprogramming Traditional system with no multiprogramming Multiprogramming environment Operating system Program 1 Program 3 Program 2 Program 1 Unused memory

37 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T36 Figure 7.4 The language translation process Source code program Other object code modules Load module Linkage editor Object code Compiler

38 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T37 Figure 7.9 Fourth-generation languages Oriented toward end usersOriented toward IS professionals PC tools Lotus WordPerfect Internet Explorer Access SQL RPG-III Query languages/ report generators Systat SAS Graph Graphic languages FOCUS Natural Power Builder Microsoft FrontPage Application generators AVP Sales/Use Tax People Soft HRMS SAP R/3 Application software packages APL Nomad2 Very high-level programming languages

39 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T38 Figure 7.13 Class, subclasses, inheritance, and overriding PermanentTemporary Hourly rate Nonsalaried Pay - OVERRIDE Base pay (subclass of Employee)Salaried (Methods)Pay (Class variables)Name ID Employee(Class) HoursHours Overtime (subclass of Nonsalaried) Name ID (subclass of Nonsalaried) (subclass of Employee) Pay Pay - OVERRIDE

40 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T39 Figure 8.1 The data hierarchy Hierarchy Example Course File Student Database Personal History File Financial File NAME Course File COURSEDATE John Stewart Karen Taylor Emily Vincent GRADE IS 101 IS 101 IS 101 B+ A C F99 F99 F (Letter J in ASCII) 0Bit Byte Field Record File Database John Stewart (Name field) John Stewart IS 101 F99 B+ NAMECOURSEDATE GRADE

41 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T40 Figure 8.5 Traditional file processing Users ACCOUNTING Application program 1 Derivative files Master file Data elements A to Z FINANCE SALES AND MARKETING MANUFACTURING Application program 2 Application program 3 Application program 4 A F G E DCB E EGA A AB B D

42 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T41 Figure 8.6 The contemporary data environment INTEGRATED HUMAN RESOURCES DATABASE Employees Name Address Social security number Position Marital status Payroll Hours worked Pay rate Gross pay Fed tax State tax Net pay Benefits Life insurance Pension plan Health care plan Retirement benefit Benefits application programs Benefits department Payroll department Personnel department Personnel application programs Payroll application programs Database management system

43 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T42 Figure 8.10 A hierarchcal database for a human resources system ROOTEmployee BenefitsJob Assignments CompensationFIRST CHILD SECOND CHILD Performance Ratings Salary History PensionLife insurance Health

44 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T43 Figure 8.11 The network data model Course 1Course 2Course 3 Student 1Student 2Student 3Student 4Student 5

45 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T44 Figure 8.12 The relational data model ORDER- DATE ORDER- NUMBER PART- NUMBER PART- DESCRIPTION UNIT- PRICE SUPPLIER- NUMBER DELIVERY- DATE PART- NUMBER PART- AMOUNT ORDER- TOTAL SUPPLIER- NUMBER SUPPLIER- NAME SUPPLIER- ADDRESS /02/99 Door latch CBM inc.44 Winslow, Gary IN /12/99 02/13/9903/01/99 02/29/99 02/22/ Door handle Compressor Ace Inc. Bryant Corp. Rte. 101, Essex NJ Elm, Rochester NY SUPPLIER PART ORDER Table (Relation) Rows (Records, Tuples) Columns (Field)

46 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T45 Figure 9.1 Components of a telecommunications system Host computer Front-end processor Multiplexer Modems Communications channels Minicomputer Terminals Remote Installation Modem Multiplexer Terminals

47 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T46 Figure 9.3 Frequency ranges for communications media devices AM Radio FM Radio and VHF-TV Short- Wave Radio UHF- TV Cellular phones RAM Mobile Data Cordless Phones Paging PCS Industrial Radar Microwave Satellite Remote Controls Wireless Fiber Optics Radio WaveMicrowaveInfra- red Visible Light Ultra- violet X-RayGamma and Cosmic

48 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T47 Figure 9.5 A star network topology Terminal 1 Terminal 2 Terminal 3 Computer 1Computer 2 Computer 3 Printer Host CPU

49 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T48 Figure 9.6 A bus network topology Computer 2 Computer 1Computer 3 Computer 4 Terminal Printer

50 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T49 Figure 9.7 A ring network topolgy Computer 5 Computer 1 Computer 2 Computer 3 Computer 4 Printer Hard disk drive

51 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T50 Figure 9.12 Electronic data interchange Purchase orders Payments Shipping notices Price updates Invoices Computer CUSTOMERSELLER

52 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T51 Table 10.1 Major internet capabilities CapabilityFunctions Supported Usenet newsgroups LISTSERVs Chatting Telnet FTP Gophers World Wide Web Perso-to-person messaging; document sharing Discussion groups on electronic bulletin boards Discussion groups using mailing list servers Interactive conversations Log on to one computer system and do work on another Transfer files from computer to computer Locate information using a hierarchy of menus Retrieve, format, and display information (including text, audio, graphics, and video) using hypertext links

53 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T52 Figure 10.5 Model of an extranet Customer Business partner Supplier Firewall Internet Data- bases Server Client

54 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T53 Table 10.3 Internet business models CategoryDescriptionExamples Virtual Storefront Marketplace Concentrator Information Brokers Transaction Brokers Electronic Clearinghouses Reverse Auction Digital Product Delivery Content Provider On-line Service Provider Sells physical goods or services on-line instead of through a physical storefront or retail outlet Delivery of nondigital goods and services takes place through traditional means Concentrates information about products and services from multiple providers at one central point. Purchasers can search, comparisonshop, and sometimes complete the sales transaction Provide product, pricing, and availability information. Some facilitate transactions, but their main value is the information they provide. Buyers can view rates and terms, but the primary business activity is to complete the transaction Provide auction-like settings for products where price and availability are costantly changing, sometimes in response to customer actions Consumers submit a bid to multiple sellers to buy goods or services at a buyer-specified price Sells and delivers software, multimedia, and other digital products over the internet Creates revenue by providing content. The customer may pay to access the content, or revenue may be generated by selling advertising space or by having advertisers [pay for placement in an organized listing in a searchable database. Provides service and support for hardware and software users. Amazon.com Network Bank Internet Mall InsureMarket Travelocity Auto-by-Tel E*Trade Bid.com OnSale Priceline.com PhotoDisc Cyber Media Wall Street Journal Interactive

55 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T54 Figure 10.6 The benefits of disintermediation to the customer ManufacturerDistributorRetailerCustomer$48.50 Cost/ Sweater $40.34 $20.45 Manufacturer Retailer Customer

56 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T55 Figure 10.9 Intranet linking supply chain functions Customers Customer service Maketing and sales Accounting and finance Intranet Production planning Procurement Inventory Shipping and distribution Production and manufacturing

57 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ New Developments New system projects Project descriptions Business rationale New capabilities required Hardware Software Database Telecommunications T56 Table 11.1 Information systems plan Purpose of the Plan Overview of plan cntents Changes in firm’s current situation Firm’s strategic plan Current business organization Management strategy Strategic Business Plan Current situation Current business organization Changing environments Major goals of the business plan Current systems Major systems supporting business functions Major current capabilities Hardware Software Database Telecommunications Dificulties meeting business requirements Anticipated future demands Management strategy Aquisition plans Milestones and timing Organizational realignment Internal reorganization Management controls Major training initiatives Personnel strategy Implementation plan Anticipated difficulties in implementatinon Progress reports Budget Requirements Requirements Potential savings Financing Acquisition cycle

58 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T57 Figure 11.2 Using CSFs to develop systems Manager A CSFs Manager B CSFs Manager C CSFs Manager D CSFs Aggregate + analyze indyvidual CSFs Develop agreement on company CSFs Define company CSFs Use CSFs to develop information systems priorities Define DSS and databases

59 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T58 Figure 11.3 Organizational change carries risks and rewards Automation Risk Return Low High Low Rationalization Reengineering Paradigm Shifts

60 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T59 Table 11.5 New process design options with information technology AssumptionTechnologyOptionExamples Field personnel need offices to receive, store and transmit information People are needed to ascertain where things are located Businesses need reserve inventory to prevent stockouts Wireless communication Shared databases Automatic identification and tracking technology Communications networks and EDI Personnel can send and receive information wherever they are. People can collaborate on the same project from scattered locations; information can be used simultaneously wherever it is needed Things can tell people where they are Just-in-time delivery and stockless supply Manitoba Insurance Price Waterhouse U.S. West Banc One United Parcel Service Schneider National Wal-Mart Baxter International Information can appear only in one place at one time

61 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T60 Figure 11.5 The system developmeny process System Analysis System design Programming Testing Conversion Production and Maintenance Organization

62 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T61 Figure 12.1 The lifecycle methodology for system development System study OPERATIONS STAGES Design Programming Installation Project definition Post- implementation END PRODUCTS Project proposal report System proposal report Design specifications Program specifications - code System performance tests Post-implementation audit Milestone 1 Project initiation Milestone 2 Design solutin decision Milestone 3 Design specification sign-off Milestone 4 Produstion decision Year 1Year 23-8 Year Life Span

63 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T62 Figure 12.2 The prototyping process Identify basic requirementsStep 1 Develop a working prototype Step 2 Step 3 Use the prototype NO YES User satisfied? Step 4 Revise and enhance the prototype Operational prototype

64 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T63 Figure 12.7 High-level structure chart for a payroll system Payroll process Get valid inputs Calculate pay Write outputs Get inputs Validate inputs Calculate gross pay Calculate net pay Update master file Write checks, reports, and output files

65 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T64 Figure 12.8 Basic control constructs Sequence Action A Action B Selection IF condition R Action C ELSE Action D ENDIF Iteration DO WHILE Condition S Action E ENDDO A R B DC E S FT T

66 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T65 Figure System flowchart for a payroll system Human resources data Load and validate Valid transactions Compute and update Payroll reports and checks Direct deposit tape General ledger file Updated payroll master file Payroll master file Time cards Payroll master file

67 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T66 Figure 13.1 Information system problem areas Design OperationsInformation system Data Cost

68 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T67 Figure 13.3 Approaches and implementation stages in the implementation literature IMPLEMENTATION STAGES AdoptionManagementRoutinization APPROACHES Actors’ roles Strategy Organizational factors XXXX

69 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T68 Table 13.1 Actions and indications for succesful system Support by local funds New organizational arrangements Stable supply and maintenance New personnel classifications Changes in organizational authority Internalization of the training program Continual updating of the system Promotion of key personnel Survival of the system after turnover of its originators Attainment of widespread use Source: Yin (1981)

70 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T69 Figure 13.5 Factors in information system success or failure User involvement and influence Management support Level of complexity/risk Management of implementation process Design Cost Operations Data IMPLEMENTATION OUTCOME

71 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T70 Table 13.4 Strategies to manage projects by controlling risk Degree of Risk Very High High Project Structure 1. High 2. High 3. High 4. High 5. Low 6. Low 7. Low 8. Low Very Low Low Project Technology Level High Low Project Size Large Small Large Project Management Tool Very Low Low Medium Low Medium High use of formal planning High use of formal control High use of formal control Medium use of formal planning Medium use of formal control Medium use of formal planning High internal integration High external integration High use of formal planning High use of formal control High external integration High use of formal control High external integration High internal integration

72 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T71 Figur 14.1 A number of contemporary information systems are designed to give close-in support to info workers Share Knowledge Capture and Codify Knowledge Create Knowledge Distribute Knowledge Group Collaboration Systems Groupware Intranets Office Automation Systems Word Processing Desktop Publishing Imaging and Web Publishing Electronic Calendaars Desktop Databases Knowledge Work Systems CAD Virtual Reality Investment Workstations Artificial Intelligence Systems Expert Systems Neural Nets Fuzzy Logic Genetic Algorithms Intelligent Agents

73 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T72 Figure 14.3 Web publishing and document management Author Web Page Edit and Review Web Server Text indexing and searching links Links to other Web pages

74 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T73 Figure 14.5 The arificial intelligence family Artificial Intelligence Natural Language Robotics Perceptive Systems Expert Systems ”Intelligent” Machines

75 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T74 Figure 14.9 How case-based reasoning works User describes the problem System searches database for similar cases System asks user additional questions to narrow the search System finds closest fit and retrieves solution System modifies the solution to better fit the problem System stores problem and successful solution in the database Case database Successful? NOYES

76 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T75 Table 14.4 Examples of intelligent agents for electronic commerce Agent ProductDescriptionVendor Firefly Jango Smart NewsReader Helps users find music or films of interest. Users send critiques of movies and music to the Firefly Web site. When they want to select a new movie to see or a CD to buy, they supply data on their personal favourites, and Firefly will produce a list of similar items based on the critiques. The service is being extended to books, restaurants, and mutual funds. BargainFinder does real-time comparison shopping among on-line participa- ting CD music stores and returns the names of vendors that offer the lowest price. LifestyleFinder recommends Web sites to users based on information they provide about their lifestyles Automatically consults Web sites and prepares reports to users on prices and other features of products such as books, clothing, wine and PCs Windows application that provides access to Usenet newsgroups based on interests specified by the user. It can read through an article and score each thread of conversation based on the user’s past interests Agents Inc. Andersen Consulting Excite Intel BargainFinder and LifestyleFinder AuctionBotUniversity of Michigan Allows sellers to set up their own auctions where buyers and sellers can place bids according to the protocols and parameters that have been established for the auction

77 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T76 figure 15.1 Overview of a decision support system (DSS) TPS DSS Software System, Models, OLAP Tools, Datamining Tools DSS Database User Interface User External Data

78 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T77 Table 15.1 Examples of decision support systems OrganizationDSS Aplication American Airlines Equico Capital Corporation General Accident Insurance Bank of America Frito-Lay, Inc. Burlington Coat Factory National Gypsum Southern Railway Texas Oil and Gas Corporation United Airlines U. S. Department of Defence Price and route selection Investment evaluation Customer buying patterns and fraud detection Customer profiles Price, advertising, and promotion selection Store location and inventory mix Corporate planning and forecasting Train dispatching and routing Evaluation of potential drilling sites Flight scheduling Defense contract analysis

79 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T78 Figure 15.3 Customer decision support on the internet CDSS Data Models Newsgroups Information brokers Serch engines and directories Competitors Customers Other customers Models Data

80 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T79 Figure 15.6 Group systems tools Idea generation Brainstorming Topic Commenter Group Outliner Idea Organizer Issue Analyzer Group Writer Idea Organization Vote selection Alternative Eval. Questionnaire Group Matrix Prioritizing Policy Formation Stakeholder Id. Policy development Session Planning Session manager Organizational Memory Enterprise Analyzer Graphical Browser Group Dictionary Brief Case Access to information Personal productivity

81 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T80 Figure 16.1 Telecommunications network vulnerabilities Radiation TAPS Radiation Crosstalk Radiation Crosstalk TAPS Radiation Switching center Processor Communication lines User, Identification, Authentication, Subtle software modifications Remote consoles Access, Attachment of records, Bugs Hardware, Imroper connections Systems programmer, Disable protective features, Reveal protective measures Maintenance staff, Disable hardware devices, Use stand- alone utility programs Operator, Replace supervisor, Reveal protective measures Hardware, Failure of protection circuits, Contribute to software failures Software, Failure of protection features, Access control, Bounds control Files Thef Copying Unauthorized access

82 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T81 Table 16.2 Common computer viruses Virus NameDescription Concept Junkie Ripper (or Jack the Ripper) Monkey One_Half Makes the hard disk look like it has failed because Windows will not run A „multipartite” virus that can infect files as well as the boot sector of the hard drive (the section of a PC hard drive that the PC first reads when it boots up), May cause memory conflicts Macro virus that attaches itself to Microsoft Word documents and can be spread when Word documents are attached to . Can copy itself from one document to another and delete files Encrypts the hard disk so that only the virus can read the data there, flashing „One_Half” on the computer screen when its activity is half-completed. Very descructive because it can mutate, making it difficult to identify and eliminate. Corrupts data written to a PC’s hard disk about one time in every thousand Makes a clicking sound with each keystroke but only on the eighteenth day of the month. May corrupt data on the floppy disks it infects Form

83 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T82 Figure 16.2 Points in the processing cycle where errors can occur Data preparation Transmission Conversion On-line data entry Form completion Keypunching, Optical scanning, Other input Validation Processing/ file maintenance Output Transmission Distribution

84 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T83 Figure 16.3 The cost of errors over the system development cycle Estimate of the relative cost of repairing errors based on consultant reports and the popular trade literature Costs Analysis and design ProgrammingConversionPostimplementation

85 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T84 Table 16.3 Effect of weakness in general controls WeaknessImpact Implementation controls Software controls (system software) Physical hardware controls New systems or systems that have been modified will have errors or fail to function as required Computer operations control Administrative controls Data file security controls Unauthorized changes can be made in processing. The organization may not be sure of which programs or systems have been changed These controls may not have a direct effect on individual applications. Other general controls depend heavily on system software, so a weakness in this area impairs the other general controls Hardware may have serious malfunctions or may break down altogether, introducing numerous errors or destroying computerized records All of the other controls may not be properly executed or enforced Unauthorized changes can be made in data stored in computer systems or unauthorized individuals can access sensitive information Random errors may occur in a system. (Most processing will be correct, but occasionally it may not be.) Software controls (program security)

86 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T85 Table 16.4 Important edit techniques Edit TechniqueDescriptionExample Reasonableness checks Existence checks Dependency checks To be accepted, data must fall within certain limits set in advance, or they will be rejected Characteristics of the contents (letter/ digit), length, and sign of individual data fields are checked by the system The computer compares input reference data to tables or master files to make sure that valid codes are being used The computer checks whether a logical relationship is maintained between data for the same transaction. When it is not, the transaction is rejected If an order transaction is for 20,000 units and the largest order on record was 50 units, the transaction will be rejected A nine-position Social Security number should not contain any alphabetic characters An employee can have a Fair Labor Standards Act code of only 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5. All other values for this field will be rejected A car loan initiation transaction should show a logical relationship between the size of the loan, the number of loan repayments, and the size of each installment Format checks

87 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T86 Figure 17.1 International information systems infrastructure Global Environment: Business Drivers and Challenges Corporate Global Strategies Organization Structure Management and Business Procedures Technology Platform International Information Systems Infrastucture

88 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T87 Table 17.1 The global business drivers General Cultural Factors Global communication and transportation technologies Development of global culture Emergence of global social norms Political stability Global knowledge base Specific Business Factors Global markets Global production and operations Global coordination Global workforce Global economies of scale

89 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T88 Table 17.2 Challenges and obstacles to global business systems General Cultural particularism: regionalism, nationalism Social expectations: brand-name expectations; work hours Political lows: transborder data and privacy laws Specific Standards: different EDI, , telecommunications standards Reliability: phone networks not reliable Speed: data transfer speeds differ, slower than United States Personnel: shortages of skilled consultants

90 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T89 Table 17.3 Global business strategy and stucture Business FunctionDomestic ExporterMultinational Production Finance/Accounting Sales/Marketing Human Resources Strategic Management Centralized Mixed Centralized Dispersed Centralized Dispersed Centralized Coordinated Centralized Coordinated Centralized Coordinated FranchiserTransnational Strategy

91 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T90 Figure 17.2 Global strategy and system configurations SYSTEM CONFIGURATION Centralized Duplicated Decentralized Networked STRATEGY Domestic ExporterMultinationalFranchiserTransnational X X X X XX X

92 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T91 Figure 17.3 Agency and other coordination costs increase Global Core Business Processes Global Core Systems Regional Coordinated Systems Local Option Systems Regional Business Processes Local Business Processes

93 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T92 Figure 18.1 Traditional view systems Vendors Organizational Boundaries Customers Organizational Boundaries Business processes Inbound logistics ManufacturingFinanceSupport Marketing and sales Business processes Inbound logistics ManufacturingFinanceSupport Marketing and sales Business Value Chain Business Systems

94 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T93 Figure 18.2 Enterprise view of systems Inbound logistics ManufacturingFinanceSupport Marketing and sales Business Value Chain Vendors Customers Business processes Inbound logistics ManufacturingFinanceSupport Marketing and sales Enterprise Business Systems Business processes

95 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T94 Table 18.1 Basic concepts of enterprise computing ConceptMeasureKey Questions IT investment portfolio Business logic IT architecture Benchmark competitors’ expenditures Lists of technical capabilities Descriptions business model and processes Descriptions of systems that support business model and processes Are we spending too much, or too little on IT? Are we receiving a good return on investment? Do we have the technical capablity to achieve our strategic objectives? How do we plan to make money and what business activities and processes should we emphasize Do we have the right systems environment and applications to implement the business logic? IT infrastructure

96 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T95 Figure 18.3 Enterprise computing concepts Business Unit A Firm Information Archtecture Firm IT Infrastructure VENDORS CUSTOMERS The enterprise Enterprise-Wide Business Processes Business Unit A Business processes Systems applications Business Unit B Business processes Systems applications Business Unit C Business processes Systems applications Enterprise-wide systems and applications Firm infrastucture Hardware Software envirmonment Shared applications Telecommunications Public infrastucture

97 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T96 Figure 18.4 Industrial networks ES Individuals Companies and Enterprise Systems Industrial Networks Trans-enterprise Applications Customer Application Superstructure ExtrnetIntranetInternet Inbound Logistics Outbound Logistics Customer Service Value Chain

98 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T97 Table 18.2 Business drivers of Enterprisesystems: changing environments Business DriverImpact Market change Firm-level change Product changes Globaliztion and increasing information intesity reduce margins in traditional industries Mergers, acquisitions, and consolidations in traditional industries increase scale economies and intensify industry competition Business process redesign efforts of the 1990s in traditional industries force jettsoning legacy systems and highlight the need for enterprise-wide systems to support the newly defined business processes The growth of information, knowledge, and high-tech-based products shortens product cycle times; increasing information intensity of traditional products and services shortens cycle times From discrete business process focus toward a view of the firm as an integrated set of processes; from neoclassical competition firm- based views of cooperation and alliance Growing belief that information architecture investments could lead to unique knowledge that could not be purchased on input factor markets Industry change Management process thinking Management strategy

99 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T98 Table 18.3 Technological drivers of enterprise systems and industrial networks Technology DriverNature of change Relational database technology Expanded public network infrastructure Deployment of client/server Relational technology approaches hierarchical database speeds but with greatly enhanced flexibility Storage devices double in capacity every six months Open Internet networking technologies cause network costs to plunge; digital communication costs drop by a factor of 1000X in the 1990s; public switched network and dedicated Internet trunk lines displace proprietary networks and make transcompany information transfers commonplace; development of common protocols-XML, HTTP, TCP/IP Client/server becomes the dominant mode of computing causing major drops in information storage, processing, and distribution costs in the 1990s Enterprise software emerges with standardized applications in an integrated environment that greatly reduces the costs of enterprise systems Desktop computing becomes the dominant mode of information distribution and 60% of the labor force comes on-line at work, gratly increasing the role of information in the firm Reductions in storage costs Evolution of desktop computing Enterprise software and crossware

100 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T99 Figure 18.5 An ideal model for planning enterprise systems Firm strategy and governence Business model Business processes Firm information archtecture Firm IT infrastructure

101 Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ T100 Figure 18.8 The infrastructure governance model Strategic group Operational group Business units/Regions Functional groups/Process owners Enterprise platform Internet/intranet/extranets Wireless communications New architecture Legacy infrastructure TPS Databases Telecommunications Business model Business processes


Download ppt "Color Transparencies Managemen Information Systems, 6E Kenneth C. Laudon, Jane P. Laudon ©2000 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 T1 Figure."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google