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CLOUD Surname DNA Project. Genetic Genealogy A Report on The CLOUD DNA Project. 1.Our Data Examined 2.Intro to Genetic Genealogy & DNA 101 3.Genealogical.

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Presentation on theme: "CLOUD Surname DNA Project. Genetic Genealogy A Report on The CLOUD DNA Project. 1.Our Data Examined 2.Intro to Genetic Genealogy & DNA 101 3.Genealogical."— Presentation transcript:

1 CLOUD Surname DNA Project

2 Genetic Genealogy A Report on The CLOUD DNA Project. 1.Our Data Examined 2.Intro to Genetic Genealogy & DNA Genealogical DNA and its Components 4.Examining & Interpreting DNA Data 5.Drawing for Door Prize

3 A Family Tree The Colors represent mutations. The blue represents the DNA that was passed from earlier generations – and is shared by all descendants.

4 A Family Tree The errors (mutations) passed at conception can be used to identify members of that family branch.

5 The Tools Two different types of mutations are used: SNP (pronounced “snip”) –occurs very rarely (many thousands of years). –identifies broad groups of humanity. STR –occurs more frequently. –identifies recent family branches.

6 Let’s Dive In and Look at Our DNA Project

7 An Individual’s Data Example of Y-STR data from Family Tree DNA.

8 An Individual’s Data Here is an example of a 25-marker haplotype for a sample individual taken from their Family Tree DNA Y-DNA value page (STR values). The result received for a Y-DNA test is a string of allele values called a “ haplotype.” The “DYS#” is the name of an STR “marker”.

9 Our Project’s Data Data with no other information – sorted by kit number. Each line is a haploTYPE – the DNA results for one person, a “kit”. The tests come in 12, 25, 37 and 67 marker resolutions.

10 Our Project’s Data The “haploGROUP” represents the SNP mutation – or ancient ancestry. Each row is a series of STR values – a haploTYPE.

11 Here is our project’s data from the project web page:

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13 Focus in on a smaller area.... and explain how to use it.

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15 Click on a kit number - to compare marker values

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17 To the far right are four columns. 1.Diff - (absolute value) sum of all genetic differences. 2.GenDis12 - (absolute value) sum of 12-marker differences. 3.GenDis25 - (absolute value) sum of 25-marker differences. 4.GenDis37 - (absolute value) sum of 37-marker differences. They “GenDis” vales were intended to give a “genetic distance” computation, but that hasn’t been done and they are actually only simple sums of the absolute value of the difference at each marker. These columns are of limited usefulness.

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19 Click on the pedigree icon - to view this person’s pedigree

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21 Move the cursor over the downward arrow - to view information on that person

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23 37 markers shown

24 Kits with similar values (haplotypes) may be related. A match of 35 or more markers implies a recent common ancestor. A match of 32/37 or less implies no relationship.

25 Highlight the differences and look for patterns indicating relationships

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27 A Family Tree

28 The I2b Haplogroup comes from a different ancient ancestor. We will need to find additional members of this family to test.

29 DYS-391 = 10 and DYS-389i = 14 looks promising:

30 Maybe DYS-389-ii = 28 and 570 = 18. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

31 Or how about the combination of: 389-ii = 31; 447 = 24; 449 = 28; 464d = 17 ?

32 Most of the lines could be related – but something is missing! The pedigree information. Every clue helps.

33 Having pedigree information helps arrange the data so that the mutations can be studied more effectively.

34 The pedigree information for our project can be seen at: cloud/ dna/ results/ pedchart.php It is important the submitted pedigrees be as accurate as possible. The DNA data can: Validate the pedigrees. Invalidate the pedigrees. Help find ancestors for isolated lines.

35 Now look at the 10 & 14 combo These two family groups look related ?? It looks like these researchers need to focus on these lines to find the missing link. Family Groups from pedigree info.

36 - 14 now looks significant. - It looks like all these people are descended from a common ancestor. -Which came first – 10 or 14 ? - If one came before the other, it can help identify the earlier ancestor. -What was the starting value? - It might identify which came first. - The Modal Haplotype might help.

37 Modal Haplotypes The DNA data (the numbers) in the row for a kit is that person’s haplotype – it is his paternal line’s DNA Signature. Scientists have collected data from people in the various haplogroups (like R1b and I ) and have computed MODAL values for each group. A MODAL value is the number which occurs most often. The modal value is a best guess at the DNA Signature (haplotype) of the ancient ancestor who was the progenitor of each haplogroup.

38 Modal Haplotypes People in different HaploGROUPs cannot be related within many thousands of years (this narrows the scope of our research). Y-STR test results accurately predict a person’s HaploGROUP about 90% of the time. (SNP tests are available to confirm the haploGROUP prediction.) The following rule of thumb may be used: HaploGROUP Designation – ancient origins: R1b – Western Europe R1a – Eastern Europe I – Nordic J2 – Semitic E1 – Semitic Q – Native American etc.

39 Modal Haplotypes Haplogroups I, R1a and R1b account for approximately 80% of Europe's present-day population. People in these groups need to test more markers to discriminate between family lines. I is common across central Europe and up into Scandinavia. R1a is common in eastern Europe and reaches into central Asia as far as India and Pakistan. R1b is common on the western Atlantic coast as far as Scotland. image courtesy DNA Heritage

40 Modal Haplotypes haploGROUP – NAME for ancient branch of human race. haploTYPE – SIGNATURE of recent branch (series of numbers). The MODAL HaploTYPE is a guess at the DNA SIGNATURE of someone who lived thousands of years ago. It uses the most commonly occurring value of people living today (i.e. of those who have taken DNA tests). Most of our group fall into the R1b haploGroup, so we will use the R1b Modal haploType.

41 Modal Haplotypes for R1b (37 markers shown) These four Modal values come from different studies. AMH – Atlantic Modal Haplotype (R1b primarily on the western coast of Europe). R1b haplogroup project. R1b1c. R1b1c7 (found in NW Ireland and lowland Scotland). A modal haplotype might help determine which mutation came first in the Cloud DNA Project. Let’s take another look at our data.

42 First, get the modal value for any group with more than two people in it.

43 Now add the R1b modal haplotype at the top.

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45 Which mutations came first? DYS-389 i and ii must be interpreted differently than the rest of the markers. That will be discussed in a later presentation. DYS-389i/ii = 13/29 is R1b modal. 13/28 is a one-step mutation and everyone in the first three groups has it (the 14/29 value is a second mutation on top of the 13/28 value).

46 Which mutations came first? DYS-389 i and ii must be interpreted differently than the rest of the markers. That will be discussed in a later presentation. DYS-389i/ii = 13/29 is R1b modal. 13/28 is a one-step mutation and everyone in the first three groups has it (the 14/29 value is a second mutation on top of the 13/28 value). 14/29 is a two-step mutation that follows the 13/28 mutation and everyone in the Jeremiah group shares it with most of the William group.

47 Which mutations came first? DYS-389 i and ii must be interpreted differently than the rest of the markers. That will be discussed in a later presentation. DYS-389i/ii = 13/29 is R1b modal. 13/28 is a one-step mutation and everyone in the first three groups has it (the 14/29 value is a second mutation on top of the 13/28 value). 14/29 is a two-step mutation that follows the 13/28 mutation and everyone in the Jeremiah group shares it with most of the William group. The 13/28 value must appear after William since some have the ancient R1b Modal of 13/29.

48 Which mutations came first? DYS-389 i and ii must be interpreted differently than the rest of the markers. That will be discussed in a later presentation. DYS-389i/ii = 13/29 is R1b modal. 13/28 is a one-step mutation and everyone in the first three groups has it (the 14/29 value is a second mutation on top of the 13/28 value). 14/29 is a two-step mutation that follows the 13/28 mutation and everyone in the Jeremiah group shares it with most of the William group. The 13/28 value must appear after William since some have the ancient R1b Modal of 13/29. Modal for DYS-391 is 11 and some have it, so apparently 10 occurred after William’s birth. It’s not clear which happened first – the DYS-391 mutation to 10 or the DYS-389- i mutation to 14. Perhaps the pedigree information can help us.

49 DYS-391 = 10 DYS-389i = 14

50 DYS-391 = 10 DYS-389i = 14 Triangulation Finding where a mutation occurred. MRCA

51 DYS-391 = 10 DYS-389i = 14 Triangulation Finding where a mutation occurred. MRCA Problem ? ? ? ? Conflicting data – missing mutations: one or more pedigrees wrong ? parallel mutation ? If bottom mutation is correct, it’s possible that Jeremiah is MRCA and source of DYS389-i = 14 mutation. Need to investigate validity of pedigrees. ?

52 DYS-391 = 10 DYS-389i = 14 Find MRCA for DYS-391 = 10. MRCA Error ? Note missing mutation. ?

53 DYS-391 = 10 DYS-389i = 14 Lines that have both DYS-391 = 10 and DYS-389-i = 14 need to research the descendants of William Cloud (1780 PA) & Elizabeth Hayes. - esp. line of Jeremiah of Twiggs County GA) ?

54 The line of Joseph (1710 PA) shares mutations with kits and and appears to tie in with their line somewhere.

55 The line of Joseph (1710 PA) appears to intersect with the line of Nathaniel.

56 SNP – traces deep ancestry. STR – traces recent ancestry.

57 Next: We will examine the parts and definitions of the DNA data.

58 DNA chromosome pair helix Intermission


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