Presentation on theme: "Genetic Genealogy A Report on The CLOUD DNA Project. 1.Our Data Examined 2.Intro to Genetic Genealogy & DNA 101 3.Genealogical DNA and its Components 4.Examining."— Presentation transcript:
Genetic Genealogy A Report on The CLOUD DNA Project. 1.Our Data Examined 2.Intro to Genetic Genealogy & DNA Genealogical DNA and its Components 4.Examining & Interpreting DNA Data 5.Drawing for Door Prize
DNA in Genealogy (Genetic Genealogy) What is it? –A new & exciting field of science. –An adjunct to traditional genealogy (not stand-alone proof). What can it do? –Help break down ancestral brick walls. –Verify lineages. –Validate documentation. –Show who you’re NOT related to (eliminate unnecessary time and money following ‘unrelated’ leads.) –Indicate a common ancestor with another person. –Predict a range of time when the common ancestor lived.
Genealogical DNA tests: –Do NOT identify any INDIVIDUAL. –Characterize (“identify”) GROUPS of people. –Identifies Paternal or Maternal line ONLY. –Is used in conjunction with traditional genealogical research.
How to use DNA? Combine with other data: –Surname. –Paper trail / traditional genealogical data. –Common geography and dates. –Oral family histories, etc. Use comprehensive DNA databases to look for relatives (Y-Search database, etc.)
DNA Used for Genealogy 1.mtDNA – passed from a mother to her children. –Changes too slowly to be useful for recent relationships. –Woman’s surname changes, so maternal line is more difficult to trace. 2.Y-DNA – passed from a father to his son. –Changes often enough to be used for recent relationships. –Father’s surname passed through generations, making paternal line easier to trace.
father grand- father great- grand- father paternal line Y-DNA maternal line mtDNA sondaughter great- grand- mother grand- mother mother (Common Surname)(Surname changes)
DNA Data Components
Kit number Surname Haplogroup DYS# – aka marker or locus (locii) Alleles – aka markers Family group – assigned by project administrator SNP (slow – deep ancestry) STR (faster – recent ancestry)
DNA Data Components Kit Number – the ID assigned by the testing company
DNA Data Components Last Name – the Surname
DNA Data Components Haplo – the haploGROUP – determined by SNP (deep ancestry)
DNA Data Components Remember SNP? All members of a haplogroup share an ancient common ancestor, determined by the mutation of his SNP.
Haplogroups Determined by position on the Y-Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. Most of our people are in group R1b. Tree begins with hypothesized earliest human. One of our people is in group I
Most of our group appears to fall into R1b1b2*
Haplogroup What does it mean to me? –As a Genealogist – nothing other than it is a defined group you belong to. –... and – you are NOT related (within a useful time frame) to someone from a different haplogroup. –Haplogroups are significant to anthropologists in their study of ancient human origins. Do I need to do a deep ancestry (SNP) test? –It is helpful for at least one person from a documented group to test. Others of the same group are assumed to be of the same haplogroup (assuming their pedigrees & DNA signatures match).
Haplogroup A Haplogroup is simply one of your Y-DNA ancestry research tools. It narrows your paternal (or maternal) search to a sub- group of the human race. The R1b mutation is thought to have occurred app. 25,000 or more years ago. The percentage of R1b in your genetic makeup is probably extremely small unless your line remained “pure” for most of that 25,000 years. Don’t get sidetracked by the haplogroup. Use it for the tool it is – a clue that refines the scope of your search.
Getting back to the Data Components.
DNA Data Components Remember SNP? All members of a haplogroup share an ancient common ancestor, determined by the mutation of his SNP. (Continued)
DNA Data Components Remember STR? (Short Tandem Repeat) These are the faster-mutating genes. The SNP’s placed us in a broad group, descended from an ancient ancestor. The STR’s can help identify much more recent divisions of our family tree.
DNA Data Components Remember STR? (Short Tandem Repeat) These are the faster-mutating genes. The SNP’s placed us in a broad group. The STR’s can help identify much more recent divisions of our family tree. DYS# is the name of a marker or position on the Y-chromosome.
DNA Data Components Remember STR? (Short Tandem Repeats) These are the faster-mutating genes. The SNP’s placed us in a broad group. The STR’s can help identify much more recent divisions of our family tree. DYS# is the name of a marker – the “locus” or position on the chromosome. The number at a marker is the number of repeats or “allele value” at that marker. Below is marker DYS-390 with an allele value of 23.
DNA Data Components The series of numbers (alleles) for each kit make up a unique signature for that person’s paternal line. That series of numbers, the signature, is called a haploTYPE. Haplotype or “signature” haploTYPE vs. haploGROUP
The DNA Data consists of: –Kit number –Surname –Haplogroup (SNP – deep ancestry) –Haplotype (STR – recent ancestry)
Next: We will look at our Project Data and attempt to interpret it.