Presentation on theme: "International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - Meeting Bangkok, Thailand 25-27 August 2014 Restoration of Tropical Peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia."— Presentation transcript:
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - Meeting Bangkok, Thailand 25-27 August 2014 Restoration of Tropical Peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia by Suwido H. Limin J. O. Rieley Palangka Raya University Centre for International Cooperation in Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands (CIMTROP) Central Kalimantan, Indonesia 2014
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) - Meeting Bangkok, Thailand 25-27 August 2014 Restoration of Tropical Peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia by Dr. Suwido H. Limin Centre for International Cooperation in Sustainable Management of Tropical Peatlands (CIMTROP) Palangka Raya University Prof. J. O. Rieley School of Geography, University of Nottingham, UK Vice President of the International Peat Society
1. BACKGROUND 1.1. Peat swamp forest has ecological and economic functions that will be sustained only if the forest is maintained in a natural condition. Opening of peat swamp forest will change both functions and lead to many kind of disasters.
1.2. Indigenous communities in Central Kalimantan have never used peatland for traditional rice production. Dayak people have always avoided deep peat, because they know that it is unfertile and will be problematic for rice cultivation. Therefore Dayak settlements have focused on the dry land formed from mineral soils where rice can grow well. Limin (2002) determined the distribution of villages every 100 km along the Kahayan River from the Java Sea as follows : 100 km (18 villages), 100 – 200 km (8 villages), 200 – 300 km (43 villages), 300 – 400 km (64 villages), 400 – 500 km (26 villages) and > 500 km (10 villages).
1.3.Development of peatland in Central Kalimantan called Mega Rice Project (MRP) for tackling poverty issue, in reality has been destructive of peatland environments. 1.4.Failure of the MRP was caused by over dimension of canals, ignoring local knowledge and culture, lack of knowledge of carrying capacity of land and marketing of produce grown. Length of canals of the MRP (Total : 4,473.00 km) - Main Primary Canal (SPI) 187.00 km - Large Primary Canal (SPU) 958.18 km, - Secondary Channels 913.28 km, - Tertiary Channels 900.00 km and - Quarter Channels 1,515.00 km.
1.5.The tropical peat carbon store is very large and influenced by land use practices. Removal of natural peat swamp forest can: change hydrological status of peatland ecosystem. Increase peat decomposition rate Lead to peat subsidence and flooding Increase risk of fire Increase greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, N2O) Contribute to climate change, indicated by increased frequency and intensity of disasters (fire and flood).
Fig 1. Kalampangan Canal-Block C at the Ex-MRP dry season 2005 dry season 2002 Water is just below irrigation canal bottom surface only two weeks after start of the dry season (Fig 1)
Typical peat thickness lost by fire events: Kalampangan 2002 Deep peat : loss 0 – 42.3 cm (Average 22.04 ± 12.09 cm) Kalampangan 2006 Deep peat : loss 18 – 60 cm (average: 34.7 ± 14.51 cm) Deep peat : loss 16 – 43 cm (average: 31.7 ± 11.11 cm) Tumbang Nusa 2006 Deep peat : loss 16 – 55 cm (average: 34.1 ± 13.35 cm) NLPSF-Sabangau 2006 Shallow peat : loss 15 – 24 cm (average; 19.7 ± 3.20 cm)
Peat CO 2 losses are increased in drainage affected areas Forest soil CO 2 emissions: o Kalampangan drainage affected forest 7305 – 7444 g m -2 yr -1  o NLPSF-Sabangau nondrained forest 3493 g m -2 yr -1  Annual peat swamp forest ecosystem level carbon balance is labile (±600 g C m -2 yr -1 [3,4]), while drainage and other disturbances (haze, biomass removal etc.) cause net C-loss form the ecosystem (Fig 2) below : Fig 2. In general subsidence is 10% of the groundwater level. Thus drainage to 100 cm causes a subsidence of 10 cm/year. Each cm subsidence is 13 tonnes CO2/ha/yr. Thus in this case 130 tonnes CO2/ha/yr will be lost.  Jauhiainen et al. Ecology/accepted (Jauhiainen et al GCB 2005)  Hirano et al. 2007. Global Change Biology, 13, 412–425.  Suzuki et al. 1999. Environment-Control-in-Biology, 37, 115-128.
Source of Data : BNPB, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2011. Fig 3. Frequency of flooding and number of deaths Disaster ; Flooded case in Indonesia (1971 - 2010)
2. HOW TO STOP AND HEAL PROBLEMS? 2.1. Restoration of Peatland Environments 2.1.1. Canal blocking will improve and stabilize peat hydrology : a) help restore peat hydrological status b) accelerate natural vegetation colonisation along the canals Dam 05 Dam 03 Fig 4. Dam construction (V-type) in Kalampangan canal (block C of the ex MRP)
Hydrological status change Sabangau Small canal Small canal 400 m Kahayan 400 m Fig 5. Water table before and after dam construction
2.1.2. Replanting of native species in burn scars and deep peat “Buying Living Tree System (BLTS)” is an approach that benefits both people in local communities and the environment. (a) BLTS objectives are to: -Give full responsibility to local people for environmental management, so that they feel ownership of their surroundings and they have rights to manage natural resources in a sustainable way - Establish sustainable income for the local community by planting and maintaining native tree species in damaged peatland areas. - Find alternatives to the Government strategy on the best way to restore the peatland environment damaged by drainage and fires. -Prevent the fires and increase community spontaneous fire management capacity and will on the project area and surrounding areas. -Explore possibilities for carbon trading through reforestation of degraded peatlands.
(b) Result : 1.Percentage of tree survival is higher in well managed areas (>80 % alive after one year planting) (Fig 6). 2. Fires are prevented 3. Farmers get monthly income
Kahui (Shorea balangeran) Fig 6. Buying Living Tree System Experiments (2 years old) Planting and maintenance Galam (Melaleuca leucadendron)
2.1.3. Fire management with priority for fire prevention, because fire is a major threat on degraded peatland and it can release large amounts of carbon. 1) Establishment of Fire Fighting teams at the village level Fig 7. The TSA has suppressed fires in NLPSF-Sabangau and Kalampangan Zone Block C ex MRP (2006) Drill deep well in NLPSF (28 Oct-1 Nov 06) Patrol Unit Team in Upstream of Sabangau river
Fig 8. TSA action in Kalampangan filmed by BBC Crew The Police fill their water tank at the TSA Post Command in Kalampangan (2006) The BBC crew in the TSA action (Nov 2006) Fire at Kalampangan canal (2006) Fire at Tumbang Nusa (2006)
Value of Loss If Prevention Action Succeed Value of Loss If big fire occurs and Need Extinguish Action 1.Cost for TSA members for patrol all day/night and stopping soon of fire occurs, before and during dry season, example US$.10.00. We just loss money US$10.00 1.Based on TSA experiences for extinguish fire during dry season (2-4 months), need budget 3-4 times of prevention cost action. We loss money US$30.00- 40.00 2. Peat layer and flora/fauna: NO LOSS2. Peat layer and flora/fauna: UNTOLD LOSS 3. Social economic of community: NO IMPACT. 3.Social economic of community: MAJOR LOSS 2)Priority is TSA Action Fire protection is a priority action of the TSA since dry season started because success of this action will protect the environment and keep social economy of community. Table 1. Comparison of loss between prevention and extinguish
Fence Notes : Fence with gate; year 1 to year 3 or 4 made by wood and wire. Afterward, fence will be all live trees which has been planted since year 1. Embankment; made by soil from the pond digging. Embankment Fig. 10. Design of Fish Pond Banjir Version or Beje Modern (Designed by Suwido H. Limin, 2000) Fig 10. Design of pond digging of beje modern
Fig 11. Beje modern (Kolam Versi Banjir) at Taruna Jaya village Established in Oct 2012 and harvested in Oct 2013. Collaboration and supported by Sumitomo Corporation and Nippon Koei, Co. Ltd.
2.2. Monitoring and Evaluating the Success of Peatland Restoration 2.2.1. Continuity of research activity 2.2.2. Completed with high technology 1) Since 2010, APT – TTC - Kominfo and CIMTROP University of Palangka Raya have interlaced cooperation and established a monitoring system using ICT The ICT remote monitoring system established can monitor the water level, CO 2, methane, visual image, precipitation, temperature, and humidity.
2) Project Site Fig 12. Map of Palangka Raya and Pulang Pisau Regencies
Figure 14. Tower, Data Center and Data Server 3) Facilities and Equipment
1676,6 ppm (13-09-12) 1602,6 ppm (09-07-12)1610,5 ppm (12-12-12) 1676,6 ppm (13-09-12) 1676,6 (13 Sep’12) 1610,5 (12 Dec’-12) 1602,6 (9 Jul’12) 837.8 (2 Nov’12) 1734,1(9 Oct’12) 1122,1(9 Sep’11) 2191.6 (24 Mar’12) 1381.4 (14 Apr’12) 1692.1 (28 Apr’12 1960.8 (16 Nov’12) 2054.4. (14 Dec’12) 2375.2 (23 Feb’13) 432.9 (21 May’12) No data Figure 15. Fluctuation of water surface of canal and CO2 concentration at Tower A CO 2 and water level at Tower A Concentration of CO 2 increased since May 21, 12 and water level decreased since April 28,12. 4) Result of ICT equipment: CO 2 Emission and Water Table
No data 1610,2 (22 May’12) 1290,6 (22 May’12) 1300,5 (20 Dec’12) 926,9 (02 Feb’13) 966.4 (14 Sep’12) 434.6 (7 Jul’12) 34.3 (27 Aug’11) 881.6 (6 Sep’11) 941.4 (13 Sep’11) 1520.6 (13 Des’11) 140.2 (23 Feb’12) Figure 16. Fluctuation of water surface of canal and CO2 concentration at Tower B CO 2 and water level at Tower B Concentration of CO 2 increased since July 7, 12 and water level decreased since August 27, 12.
No data 1270.1 (26 Jul’12) 1584.2 (3 Sep’12) 1222.9 (28 Sep’12) 452.2 (26 May’12) 174.7 (19 Jul’12) 358.4 (7 Oct’12) 211.9 (9 Jul’12) 398.7 (3 Sep’11) 31.8 (5 Sep’11) 186.9 (6 Oct’11) 165.3 (8 Nov’11) 89.4 (9 Oct’11) 137.2 (26 May’12) 103.5 (10 Jun’12) 30.3 (7 Nov’12) 209.9 (2 Nov’12) Figure 17. Fluctuation of water surface of canal and CO2 concentration at Tower C CO 2 and water level at Tower C Concentration of CO 2 increased since May 26, 12 and water level decreased since July 19,12.
500 (15 Dec’12) 501 (28 Dec’12) 367 (16 Jan’13) 246 (20 Dec’12) 219 (17 Jan’13) 187 (3 Feb’13) No data 319 (5 Feb’13) No data 330.0 (4 Sep’12) 134.0 (25 Sep’12) 134.4 (2 Nov’12) 123.8 (23 Nov’12) 92.8 (27 Nov’12) 75.3 (24 Des’12) 76.8 (10 Jan’13) 70.3 (19 Feb’13) Figure 18. Fluctuation of water surface of canal and CO2 concentration at Tower D CO 2 and water level at Tower D Concentration of CO 2 decreased since Dec 15, 2012 to Feb 5, 2013 and water level almost constant at the same period
Data site No. of Data Concentration Average (ppm) MinMax Tower A2091404.81676.6828.51 ± 298.41 Tower B1685404.61610.2518.01 ± 146.28 Tower C925404.31584.2568.09 ± 190.04 Tower D522187.0501.0 327.91 ± 66.08 Table 2. Comparison of CO 2 emission at each tower CO 2 emission in peatland will be determined by site condition that are micro climate, water table, land cover (vegetation) and human activities (Table 2).
3)Based on data recorded, CO 2 emission and water table are correlated. Concentration of CO2 increased when the water table decreased. Therefore, ICT system which was installed in CIMTROP site research (Block C former of the MRP) can be used for monitoring and evaluating the success of the restoration program.
2.3. REVISION OF REGULATIONS Many of the regulations related to natural resources management do not match, so that they are the root of the problems. Low enforcement. Change of mindset
3. DISCUSSION 3.1. Restoration of damaged peatland (including the Ex-MRP) and conservation of the remaining peatland must be implemented as soon as possible, because: Peatland is a significant carbon store which is currently a net carbon source (CO 2, CH 4 and N 2 O) to the atmosphere leading to increases in the green house effect and global climate change. Amount of melt ice and snow in polar regions indicates changes in the air temperature and has caused changes in atmospheric pressure, wind movements, floods, etc. Forests absorb CO 2 mainly into vegetation biomass, but peat swamp forests have the capacity to create an even larger carbon store in the peat below the forest cover
Peat swamp forests are still under pressure to become destroyed by legal and illegal means. Tropical peatland is important for the environment and is vital for the sustainable livelihoods of local people. Tropical peatland is one of the world’s largest carbon stores. Government policy, law enforcement and commitment are very important for the sustainability function of ecology and economics of peatland for saving the earth.
3.2. Problems of utilization : Peatland development for agriculture and plantation needs high input technology and is also high risk for environments. The Mega Rice Project (MRP) is the greatest example of peatland mismanagement. Peatland development and fires have made Indonesia the number three CO 2 emitter after USA and China with direct and indirect effects on all countries.
3.3. Peatland Damage Solution : Priority action is required to rehabilitate peatland damage including the Ex-Mega Rice Project by blocking channels to restore hydrological integrity. Promote reforestation by conserving remaining peat swamp forest and planting new trees. Prevent fires by appropriate education and control measures. Fire is a major threat to the existing peat and forest, because it increases peat decomposition and tree loss, makes areas difficult to restore, fire fighting takes extensive time and is expensive.
3.4. Essentials Involve local people by empowering them to be custodians of the peatland from which they will receive benefits. To rehabilitate peatland damage must use local knowledge and research findings, and should be involve real researchers or real experts who have experience and knowledge for joining project design. Everybody, agency and country should finance rehabilitation of peatland damage everywhere in the world to prevent further greenhouse gas releases and reduce poverty. Development of the ICT can be help to understand series data of environments as input and guidance for the next planning of peatland management.
4. CONCLUSIONS 4.1. The importance and beauty of peatlands is that they do not just give benefit for communities around the peatland, but for all people around the world. 4.2. Peatland damage needs to be stopped and restoration has to be started now in order to minimize the disasters which keep occurring everywhere and every time. 4.3. The existing peatland areas supporting primary forest must be protected from the fire threat.
4.4. Government policy, law enforcement and commitment for peatland damage including the Mega Rice Project area must be restored back to a forest ecosystem, especially in deep peat areas, in order to create income and protect environment. 4.5. Realization of reduction of carbon emission program must be in simple way, because disasters do not await for human agreements, decisions and fixed regulations. 4.6. The ICT system needs to be used for helping researchers and government in sustainable management of peatland.
November 2011 Mr. Ban Ki-moon visited CIMTROP site at dam no. 03 Kalampangan Zone (Block C the Ex MRP on November 17, 2011.