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Chapter Two.

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1 Chapter Two

2 Goals of the Chapter To understand what money is.
To understand how we use money. To understand how we measure money.

3 Adam Smith: Invisible Hand
Term used by Adam Smith to describe the natural force that guides free market capitalism through competition for scarce resources. According to Adam Smith, in a free market each participant will try to maximize self-interest, and the interaction of market participants, leading to exchange of goods and services, enables each participant to be better of than when simply producing for himself/herself. He further said that in a free market, no regulation of any type would be needed to ensure that the mutually beneficial exchange of goods and services took place, since this "invisible hand" would guide market participants to trade in the most mutually beneficial manner. Adam Smith: Invisible Hand

4 Meaning & Function of Money
Economist’s Meaning of Money 1. Anything that is generally accepted in payment for goods and services 2. Not the same as wealth or income Functions of Money 1. Medium of exchange 2. Unit of account 3. Store of value Evolution of Payments System 1. Precious metals like gold and silver 2. Paper currency (fiat money) 3. Checks 4. Electronic means of payment 5. Electronic money: Debit cards, Stored-value cards, Smart cards, E-cash

5 Money and How We Use It Money is an asset that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services or repayment of debt. Income is a flow of earnings over time, where wealth is the value of assets minus liabilities.

6 The first of these characteristics is the most important
Money and How We Use It Money has three characteristics: It is a means of payment It is a unit of account, and It is a store of value. The first of these characteristics is the most important

7 Money and How We Use It It is a means of payment
People insist on payment in money. Barter requires a “double coincidence of wants”. Money is easier and finalizes payments so no further claim on buyers and sellers.

8 Money and How We Use It It is a unit of account.
Money is used to quote prices and record debts - it is a standard of value. Prices provide the information needed to ensure resources are allocated to their best uses. Using dollars makes relative price comparisons easier.

9 Money and How We Use It It is a store of value
A means of payment has to be durable and capable of transferring purchasing power from one day to the next. Paper currency does degrade, but is accepted at face value in transactions. Other forms of wealth are also a store of value: stocks, bonds, houses, etc.

10 The Payments System The payments system is a web of arrangements that allow for the exchange of goods and services, as well as assets. It is critical this functions well. Money is at the heart of the payments system.

11 Commodity and Fiat Monies
Gold coins and notes, backed by gold, were used into the 20th century. Today’s paper money is called fiat money, because its value comes from government decree, or fiat. We are willing to accept these bills as payment because the US government stands behind its paper money. In the end, money is about trust.

12 Money is used as a medium of exchange, in final settlement of a debt, and as a ready store of value. Its different functions are associated with different empirical measures of the money supply. There is no single "correct" measure of the money supply: instead, there are several measures, classified along a spectrum or continuum between narrow and broad monetary aggregates. Narrow measures include only the most liquid assets, the ones most easily used to spend (currency, checkable deposits). Broader measures add less liquid types of assets (certificates of deposit, etc.)

13 This continuum corresponds to the way that different types of money are more or less controlled by monetary policy. Narrow measures include those more directly affected and controlled by monetary policy, whereas broader measures are less closely related to monetary-policy actions. The different types of money are typically classified as "M"s. The "M"s usually range from M0 (narrowest) to M3 (broadest) but which "M"s are actually used depends on the country's central bank.

14 Checks A check is an instruction to the bank to take funds from your account and transfer them to another account. A check is therefore not a final payment as currency is. A check sets in motion a series of transactions as seen in Figure 2.1.

15 Figure 2.1: The Path of a Paper Check

16 Measuring Money Changes in the quantity of money are related to
Interest Rates Economic Growth Inflation

17 Measuring Money Inflation: Inflation rate:
The process of prices rising. Inflation rate: The measurement of the process. With inflation, you need more money to buy the same basket of goods. The primary cause of inflation is too much money.

18 Measuring Money The value of the means of payment depends on how much of it is circulating. We therefore must be able to measure how much is circulating. Defining money means defining liquidity (see figure 2.2).

19 Figure 2.2 - The Liquidity Spectrum

20 Measuring Money Different definitions of money are based upon degree of liquidity. Drawing the line in different places has led to several measure of money called the money aggregates: M1 and M2. M1: Narrowest definition. Only the most liquid assets. M2: Broader definition. Includes assets not used as means of payment.

21 Table 2.1: The Monetary Aggregates

22 Measuring Money What do the money aggregates mean?
As of winter 2010, nominal US gross domestic product (GDP) was $14,500 billion. Using the data in Table 2.1 above: GDP is nearly nine times as large as M1. GDP is about 70 percent larger than M2.

23 Measuring Money Which M do we use to understand inflation?
Until the early 1980’s we used M1. But with changes in accounts, M2 became more useful. M2 represents nearly one-half of GDP, so M1 is no longer a useful measure of money. Figure 2.3 shows the M’s growth rates.

24 M2 Graph

25 Figure 2.3: Growth Rates of the Money Aggregates

26 Measuring Money How useful is M2 in tracking inflation?
When the quantity of money grows quickly, it produces high inflation. Figure 2.4 shows the inflation rate versus M2 two years earlier for the US. Positive correlation up until 1980. From no correlation. Growth in M2 stopped being a useful tool for forecasting inflation.

27 Figure 2.4: Money Growth and Inflation

28 Money Growth and Inflation
When inflation is high, money growth helps forecast inflation (from 1960 to 1980). When inflation is low, the relationship is not as close (from 1990 to 2006).

29 Measuring Money Why does M2 no longer predict inflation?
Maybe the relationship only applies at high levels of inflation. Maybe it only shows up over longer periods of time. Maybe we need a new measure of money. We do know that at low levels of money growth, inflation is likely to stay low.

30 The CPI answers the question: “How much more would it cost for people to purchase today the same basket of goods and services that they actually bought at some fixed time in the past?”

31 Computing CPI Inflation
Survey people to see what they bought. Figure out what it would cost to buy the same basket of goods & service today. Compute the percentage change in the cost of the basket of goods.

32 Table 2.2: Computing the Consumer Price Index

33 In 2009 the public held about $880 billion in US currency.
You can compare this to each person holding $2800. 80% of this money was in $100 bills. Many of these bills are in other countries. People in other countries hold other currencies that are more stable than their own.

34 In 2007 there was $2500 of U. S. currency in circulation for each U. S
In 2007 there was $2500 of U.S. currency in circulation for each U.S. resident. As much as 2/3rds of this is abroad

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