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Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices What is Money? –The Origins of Money Shells, stones, whiskey, tobacco, livestock Precious metals – Gold.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices What is Money? –The Origins of Money Shells, stones, whiskey, tobacco, livestock Precious metals – Gold."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices What is Money? –The Origins of Money Shells, stones, whiskey, tobacco, livestock Precious metals – Gold and Silver

2 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Characteristics of Money Scarcity Durability Divisibility

3 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Characteristics of Money –Medium of Exchange Trade money for goods and services –Store of Value Non-perishable –Unit of Account A means of measuring wealth and value

4 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Physical Money –Full-bodied Money Gold and Silver Coins Intrinsic Value –Purity and weight Debased Coinage

5 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Physical Money –Representative Money Redeemable for a defined amount of full- bodied money The U.S. Dollar prior to the 1930s U.S. Silver Certificates

6 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Physical Money –Fiat Money Value by government decree Legal tender Laws Federal Reserve Notes (FRNs)

7 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Deposit Money –A means to facilitate large transaction –Store safely large deposits –Transfers are facilitated by the countrys financial mechanism (commercial banks,etc.)

8 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Money Definitions –M1 Currency and Checkable Deposits –M2 M1 + noncheckable deposits, MMMFs –M3 M2 + large denomination time deposits, institutional MMFs

9 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Money Definitions –L All liquid Assets as money –MZM Zero Maturity Money Liquid Long term money –DIVISIA MONEY Liquidity and At handedness A degree of measure based on liquidity

10 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Money Substitutes –Debit Cards Represent some deposited amount Are money –Credit Cards Are not money until we make a transaction –Money Market Mutual Funds Checkable deposits managed in an asset pool Part of M2

11 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Quantity of Money and Monetarist Views –Too Much Money Chasing too few goods Causing inflation –Velocity of Money (Level of Activity/ MS) V = Y / M, where Y is GDP, M is Money Supply –Y = p * y, price level and output Rearranged we see: –MV=Y

12 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Quantity of Money and Monetarist Views –Says Law Production creates its own demand People would not work if they didnt intend to buy anything At full employment there will be a link between changes in the money supply and the price level Inflation if everywhere and always a monetary phenomenon – Milton Friedman

13 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices The Keynesian View –Attempt to regulate aggregate output through changes in interest rates, since velocity is difficult to measure –Changes in interest rates are hoped to effect Consumption and Savings/Investment –Ultimately change in the money supply effects the availability of money and the level of interest rates

14 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Effects of Money on the Economy –Reduction in the supply of money reduces overall spending, which slows the economy –Increases in the money stock lead to lower short term interest rates (this effect may not last long) –Too little money hampers growth, but finding the right mix is difficult

15 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Effects of Money on the Economy –The effect on the economy may differ depending on the type of money used in policy decisions –Example: the new tax cut will increase the level of what type of money when checks are received

16 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Inflation and Money – Store of Value –Value of money is viewed in relative terms as compared to other the broad spectrum of goods

17 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Inflation and Money – Store of Value –Inflation: A general rise in the level of prices –Alternative definition: An increase in the money supply which cause the value of money to decline relative to the price of other goods This is a commodity view of money

18 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Inflation and Money – Store of Value –Inflation creates a wealth transfer effect as some benefit at the expense of others –Inflation may be seen as a tax generally on those who can least afford to pay it

19 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Price Indexes –Are used to measure the general change in the value of money based on a comparison of a selection of goods and services This is generally referred to as a Market Basket of goods and services

20 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Price Indexes

21 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Price Indexes –To compare price indexes the bases (base year values) must be equivalent –Types of indexes CPI – Consumer Price Index –Base PPI – Producer Price Index –Base 1982 GDP Deflator – A total economy index –Base 1992

22 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Price Indexes –To analyze changes in purchasing power look at the reciprocal of the index –Index equal –Reciprocal equal 0.61

23 Chapter 1 The Financial System – Money and Prices Price Indexes –Price Indexes are built using regression models –A shift in the intercept of the regression model between different time periods indicates the overall change in the price level


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