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Physics 362 Modern Physics Seminars Future arguments   Introduction to Astronomy   The Michelson-Morley Experiment   Consequences of relativity:

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Presentation on theme: "Physics 362 Modern Physics Seminars Future arguments   Introduction to Astronomy   The Michelson-Morley Experiment   Consequences of relativity:"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Physics 362 Modern Physics Seminars

3 Future arguments   Introduction to Astronomy   The Michelson-Morley Experiment   Consequences of relativity: relativity and time travel, relativity in everyday life   Measuring distances in astronomy and the Hubble law   X-ray astrophysics   Nuclear Energy Production   Alternate energy sources (wind-mills, solar cells, etc.)   Principles of general relativity   Radiation processes   Neutrinos   Superconductivity   Cosmology

4 Today’s seminar The failure of Classical Physics Classical mechanics and electromagnetism The Michelson-Morley experiment

5 The Michelson Interferometer

6 Fringe Interference

7 Parallel Fringes

8 Fringe position A change in the distance of one of the two mirrors introduces a phase change between the two light beams.

9 Fringe position When the mirror is moved by ½, the path is change by and the fringe pattern is moved by one fringe.

10 Measuring the Refraction Index

11 Light for M1 Light for M2 Screen

12 Measuring the Refraction Index Light for M1 Light for M2 Screen

13 Measuring the Refraction Index Light for M1 Light for M2 Screen  N· NmNm NaNa

14 Measuring the Refraction Index L = thickness n = index of refraction  Number of wavelengths in the block (2 times): N m =2L/ n =2Ln/ Number of wavelengths in same distance without block: N a =2L/ =2L/  Phase change (in terms of wavelengths):  N=N m  N a =2Ln/  2L/  2L/  (n-1)

15 Measuring Distances Phase change:  N =2Ln/  2L/  2L/  (n-1)  The length of an object can be expressed in terms of the wavelength of light!!! For this experiment A. A. Michelson received the Nobel Price in 1907.

16 The Michelson Interferometer 1881

17 The Michelson-Morley Experiment

18 Light for M1 Light for M2 Screen If light from M2 is delayed by  t Light for M1 Light for M2 Screen  L=  t·c  L

19 The Michelson-Morley Experiment v Mirror Beam Splitter Screen u 12 =c+v u 21 =c-v u 13 =u 31 =   t = t 121 = t 131 = Lv 2 /c 3

20 The Michelson-Morley Experiment How can we measure the delay? There is no reference available that is at rest in ether!!!  The experimental apparatus is rotated

21 The Michelson-Morley Experiment

22 Mirror Beam Splitter Screen  t a = t 121 = t 131 = Lv 2 /c 3   a = c  t a) v u 12 =c+v u 21 =c-v u 13 =u 31 =

23 The Michelson-Morley Experiment v Mirror Beam Splitter Screen  t b = t 121 = t 131 =  Lv 2 /c 3   =  a -  b =  Lv 2 /c 2 ~ 0.2  m b)   b = c  t u 12 =u 21 = u 13 =c+v u 31 =c-v

24 The Michelson-Morley Experiment

25 Insert calculation of expected dL


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