# Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 1 Chapter 25: Interference and Diffraction.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 1 Chapter 25: Interference and Diffraction Constructive and Destructive Interference The Michelson Interferometer Thin Films Young’s Double Slit Experiment Gratings Diffraction Resolution of Optical Instruments

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 2 §25.1 Constructive and Destructive Interference Two waves are coherent if they maintain a fixed phase relationship (waves from the same source). Two waves are incoherent otherwise (waves from different sources).

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 3 Constructive interference occurs when two waves are in phase. To be in phase, the points on the wave must have  =(2  )m, where m is an integer. When coherent waves are in phase, the resulting amplitude is just the sum of the individual amplitudes. The energy content of a wave depends on A 2. Thus, I  A 2.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 4 The resulting amplitude and intensity are:

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 5 Destructive interference occurs when two waves are a half cycle out of phase. To be out of phase the points on the wave must have  =(2  )(m+½), where m is an integer.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 6 The resulting amplitude and intensity are:

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 7 Coherent waves can become out of phase if they travel different distances to the point of observation. This represents the extra path length (  l) that the wave from S 2 must travel to reach point P. P d S2S2 S1S1 

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 8 For constructive interference where m = an integer. For destructive interference where m = an integer. When both waves travel in the same medium the interference conditions are:

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 9 Example (text problem 25.1): A 60.0 kHz transmitter sends an EM wave to a receiver 21 km away. The signal also travels to the receiver by another path where it reflects from a helicopter. Assume that there is a 180  phase shift when the wave is reflected. (a) What is the wavelength of this EM wave?

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 10 (b) Will this situation give constructive interference, destructive inference, or something in between? The path length difference is  l = 10 km = 2, a whole number of wavelengths. Since there is also a 180  phase shift there will be destructive interference. Example continued:

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 11 §25.2 Michelson Interferometer In the Michelson interferometer, a beam of coherent light is incident on a beam splitter. Half of the light is transmitted to mirror M 1 and half is reflected to mirror M 2.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 12 The beams of light are reflected by the mirrors, combined together, and observed on the screen. If the arms are of different lengths, a phase difference between the beams can be introduced.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 13 Example (text problem 25.12): A Michelson interferometer is adjusted so that a bright fringe appears on the screen. As one of the mirrors is moved 25.8  m, 92 bright fringes are counted on the screen. What is the wavelength of the light used in the interferometer? Moving the mirror a distance d introduces a path length difference of 2d. The number of bright fringes (N) corresponds to the number of wavelengths in the extra path length.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 14 §25.3 Thin Films When an incident light ray reflects from a boundary with a higher index of refraction, the reflected wave is inverted (a 180° phase shift is introduced).

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 15 A light ray can be reflected many times within a medium.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 16 Example (text problem 25.18): A thin film of oil (n=1.50) of thickness 0.40  m is spread over a puddle of water (n=1.33). For which wavelength in the visible spectrum do you expect constructive interference for reflection at normal incidence? AirWaterOil Incident wave Consider the first two reflected rays. r 1 is from the air-oil boundary and r 2 is from the oil-water boundary. r 1 has a 180  phase shift (n oil >n air ), but r 2 does not (n oil { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/10/2788384/slides/slide_16.jpg", "name": "Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l.", "description": "16 Example (text problem 25.18): A thin film of oil (n=1.50) of thickness 0.40  m is spread over a puddle of water (n=1.33). For which wavelength in the visible spectrum do you expect constructive interference for reflection at normal incidence. AirWaterOil Incident wave Consider the first two reflected rays. r 1 is from the air-oil boundary and r 2 is from the oil-water boundary. r 1 has a 180  phase shift (n oil >n air ), but r 2 does not (n oil

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 17 To get constructive interference, the reflected waves must be in phase. For this situation, this means that the wave that travels in oil must travel an extra path equal to multiples of half the wavelength of light in oil. The extra path distance traveled is 2d, where d is the thickness of the film. The condition for constructive interference here is: Only the wavelengths that satisfy this condition will have constructive interference. Example continued:

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 18 Make a table: m air (  m) 02.40 10.80 20.48 30.34 40.27 All of these wavelengths will show constructive interference, but it is only this one that is in the visible portion of the spectrum. Example continued:

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 19 § 25.4 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment Place a source of coherent light behind a mask that has two vertical slits cut into it. The slits are L tall, their centers are separated by d, and their widths are a.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 20 The slits become sources of waves that, as they travel outward, can interfere with each other.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 21 The pattern seen on the screen There are alternating bright/dark spots. An intensity trace

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 22 The bright spots occur where there is constructive interference: where m is an integer and is called the “order”. The dark spots occur where there is destructive interference:

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 23 Example (text problem 25.28): Show that the interference fringes in a double-slit experiment are equally spaced on a distant screen near the center of the interference pattern. The condition for constructive interference isL From the geometry of the problem,

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 24 The screen is far away compared to the distance between the slits (D>>d) so tan   sin   . Here, The distance between two adjacent minima is: Example continued:

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 25 §25.5 Gratings A grating has a large number of evenly spaced, parallel slits cut into it.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 26 Example (text problem 25.38): Red light with =650 nm can be seen in three orders in a particular grating. About how many rulings per cm does this grating have? For each of the maxima This order is not observed. Third order is observed.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 27 Since the m = 4 case is not observed, it must be that sin  4 >1. We can then assume that  3  90°. This gives and Example continued:

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 28 §25.6-7 Diffraction Using Huygens’s principle: every point on a wave front is a source of wavelets; light will spread out when it passes through a narrow slit. Diffraction is appreciable only when the slit width is nearly the same size or smaller than the wavelength.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 29 The intensity pattern on the screen.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 30 The minima occur when: where m =  1,  2,…

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 31 Example (text problem 25.49): Light from a red laser passes through a single slit to form a diffraction pattern on a distant screen. If the width of the slit is increased by a factor of two, what happens to the width of the central maximum on the screen? The central maximum occurs between  =0 and  as determined by the location of the 1 st minimum in the diffraction pattern: Let m =+1 and assume that  is small. From the previous picture,  only determines the half-width of the maximum. If a is doubled, the width of the maximum is halved.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 32 §26.8 Resolution of Optical Instruments The effect of diffraction is to spread light out. When viewing two distant objects, it is possible that their light is spread out to where the images of each object overlap. The objects become indistinguishable.

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 33 For a circular aperture, the Rayleigh criterion is: where a is the aperture size of your instrument, is the wavelength of light used to make the observation, and  is the angular separation between the two observed bodies. 

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 34 To resolve a pair of objects, the angular separation between them must be greater than the value of .

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 35 Example (text problem 25.56): The radio telescope at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, has a reflecting spherical bowl of 305 m diameter. Radio signals can be received and emitted at various frequencies at the focal point of the reflecting bowl. At a frequency of 300 MHz, what is the angle between two stars that can barely be resolved?

Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 36 Summary Conditions for Constructive/Cestructive Interference Thin Films Young’s Experiment Gratings Diffraction Rayleigh Criterion

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