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Circuit Extraction 1 Outline –What is Circuit Extraction? –Why Circuit Extraction? –Circuit Extraction Algorithms Goal –Understand Extraction problem –Understand.

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Presentation on theme: "Circuit Extraction 1 Outline –What is Circuit Extraction? –Why Circuit Extraction? –Circuit Extraction Algorithms Goal –Understand Extraction problem –Understand."— Presentation transcript:

1 Circuit Extraction 1 Outline –What is Circuit Extraction? –Why Circuit Extraction? –Circuit Extraction Algorithms Goal –Understand Extraction problem –Understand Extraction algorithms

2 What is Circuit Extraction? Convert layout geometry to circuit netlist –devices »sometimes convert to gates –connectivity –parasitics Goal –verify that layout matches circuit »assume layout passes DRC –determine actual circuit parasitics »back-annotate and resimulate –use minimum CPU time, memory –integrated extractor + layout editor »use existing data structures »extract interactively 4/2

3 Why Circuit Extraction? A very crude simulation of manufacturing process –how will layout turn into circuit Performance –estimated parasitics during design phase –compute more exactly with extraction –back annotate –resimulate and verify circuit still performs as desired Correctness –input to DRC, ERC, IV –DRC needs some electrical knowledge –check that parasitics do not cause electrical rules violation –compare designed versus extracted circuit

4 Geometry Representation Polygon –rectangles as special case –most natural representation –simple specification of most design rules –requires good polygon package Raster –at design rule resolution –memory hog Tile –corner-stitched rectangles, trapezoids –good for incremental analysis –local connections already stored Edge –requires connectivity information –minimal memory

5 Extraction Algorithms Identify designed circuit elements –transistors –capacitors –resistors –inductors Trace connectivity between elements Compute wiring parasitics –optional Convert transistors to logic –optional Output in suitable format –SPICE, EXT, SIM, EDIF,...

6 Circuit Element Identification Apply boolean operations –mask combinations that make different electrical structures –use same methods as in design rule checking Examples –n_channel = poly active nselect ~nwell –p_channel = poly active pselect nwell –capacitor = poly electrode Issues –identification of passive elements difficult without special layers »look just like parasitic elements without pattern recognition –region connectivity required for bipolar devices »not strictly a lateral or vertical device CBE1E1 E2E2

7 Connectivity Find all electrically-connected groups of geometry –polygons on same layer that touch are connected –identify contacts - both layers in contact are connected Trace net connections –corner-stitching - trace in net order by following stitches, contacts –bin-sorted polygons - find touching neighbors, follow them »A and B touch if A B is one contour »contact if top and bottom layers overlap via polygon –scan line sweep - build nets as they intersect scan line »may need to coalesce nets N1N2 N1-2

8 Parasitic Computation Parasitics of interconnect and devices –resistance, inductance, capacitance Range of computation –local rules »parallel plate, fringing, coupling capacitance »contact resistance –pattern recognition »parasitics of mask configurations »e.g. wire crossovers –numerical simulation »3-D simulation of structure »really accurate, really expensive N1 N2N3 N1, N2, N3 resistance N1, N2, N3 capacitance to substate N1-N2, N1-N3, N2-N3 coupling capacitance

9 Logic Identification Map transistor structures to gates –pattern recognition rules »technology and design style dependent »map into standard cells if standard cell layout –can then feed into logic simulation Issues –mapping of array structures - PLAs, ROMs, RAMs –hierarchical extraction simplifies task –often do not extract automatically-generated arrays

10 Hierarchical Circuit Extraction Extract each unique area once Interaction issue –circuit elements »usually forbid device creation via cell interaction »each cell must be a legal circuit –connections - wire crossing cell can connect to it –parasitics - capacitance between wires in neighboring cells Issues –circuit simulators ultimately need flat circuit –hierarchical extraction slower than flat without substantial layout restrictions A.1B.2C.5 N1N1 N2N2 AB C 12


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