Presentation on theme: "Khaled Huthaily, Ed.D. Assistant Professor of Arabic & Educational Linguistics Central and Southwest Asia Program The University of Montana Teaching in."— Presentation transcript:
Khaled Huthaily, Ed.D. Assistant Professor of Arabic & Educational Linguistics Central and Southwest Asia Program The University of Montana Teaching in the Target Language can be Done!
Brainstorming What is this presentation about? What is the “problem”? Why is it a “problem”?
Research and Commonsense Ellis, 1994; Gass, 1997; Turnbull, 2001; Mayfield, 2005; Peng & Zhang, 2009 Exposing the students to the target language helps them develop their language skills Amount of target language use was not more than 60% -- not enough! Why?
What’s happening in the classroom? Limited use of the target language in the classroom Teachers’ lack of confidence in using the target language in the classroom The use of “Arabic FusHa,” “Formal Spoken Arabic” or “Colloquial” Students feel that the first language is used for “serious” talks and the target language is just for activities Students ask other students in L1 about the meanings of words What else?
Fluency or Accuracy? T: Where are you from? S: I from Chongqing. T: No. S: (confused) Oh, I from China. T: No, I AM from Chongqing. S: I am from Chongqing. T: Good, sit down. (Peng & Zhang, 2009)
Minimize or Avoid L1? A. Avoid L1 completely: –Teacher does not speak the student’s L1; or –Students have different L1’s B. Minimize L1 –Less use of L1 –L1 = negative; L2 = positive
How L1 can be useful “the L1 may be used positively by teachers and students” (p. 403) Teachers: –Convey meaning –Explain grammar –Organize the class –… Students: –Collaborative learning –Individual strategy use –… (Vivian Cook, 2001)
Why L2? Input – Exposing Students to L2 Samples Motivation Evidence of learning Develop listening skills Develop speaking skills Later skills (reading and writing) depend on listening and speaking Communication Etc.
Daily Questions Initiation, Response, Feedback (IRF) Time; Day; Date Current or Recent Events “How are you?” “How is the weather?” Problems with the above examples!
What we can do on day 1 Basic Common Phrases/Sentences from Day 1 –Yes; No –Present/Absent –Excuse me –Thank you –How do I say …? –What does … mean? –Why? –Where? Here/There –Can you repeat? –I (don’t) know.
Some Examples REALIA Body Language TA’s Help Taking the register How the weekend was spent Counting students in the class Basic phrases Charts Photos and Images Authentic Materials
Conclusion Don’t avoid L1, but maximize L2. Khaled Huthaily, Ed.D. Assistant Professor of Arabic & Educational Linguistics Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures Central and Southwest Asia Program The University of Montana