Presentation on theme: "Justice Attempts WW2 Nuremberg and Tokyo. Nuremberg International Military Tribunal – first time in history – 4 judges, 4 alternates, 3 vote min. for."— Presentation transcript:
Justice Attempts WW2 Nuremberg and Tokyo
Nuremberg International Military Tribunal – first time in history – 4 judges, 4 alternates, 3 vote min. for guilty – US, Great Britain, USSR, France (winners) – US Francis Biddle – former US Attny General 2 New Categories of Crime – created to ensure punishment – Crimes Against Peace (II) – Crimes Against Humanity(IV), in addition to: – Common Plan/Conspiracy (I) – War Crimes (III)
Making it Work 24 top leaders of German War machine selected as 1 st round of defendants. – 20 are found in decent health and will stand trial Hitler, Goebbals, Himmler- dead already. TAKING ORDERS DOES NOT EXCUSE! – Impacts punishment Prosecutors – From each of the 4 Allies – US – Robert H. Jackson – Supreme Court Justice Defense Attorneys – Hard to find, hard to defend – German lawyers work for leniency more than innocence
NamePositionFound Guilty of Counts SentencedAction Taken Martin Bormann (in absentia) Deputy Führer III and IV Assists Final Solution DeathWas missing at time of trial. Later found Bormann had died in Karl DönitzSupreme Commander of the Navy (1943) and German Chancellor II and IIIII and III – Leader of warfare, esp. submarine warfare 10 Years in PrisonServed time. Died in Hans FrankGovernor-General of Occupied Poland III and IV DeathHanged on October 16, Wilhelm FrickForeign Minister of the Interior II, III, and IVII, III, and IV – Authored Nuremberg laws, confiscated Jewish assets for the state DeathHanged on October 16, Hans FritzscheHead of the Radio Division of the Propaganda Ministry Not Guilty AcquittedIn 1947 sentenced by Germans to 9 years in work camp; released after 3 years. Died in 1953.
Walther FunkPresident of the Reichsbank (1939) II, III, and IVII, III, and IV – banks accepted bags of jewelry and gold from the SS (from prisoners) Life in PrisonEarly release in Died in Hermann GöringReich Marshal All FourAll Four - Helped orchestrate the Reichstag Fire and the Aryanization of Jewish businesses DeathCommitted suicide on October 15, 1946 (three hours before he was to be executed). Rudolf HessDeputy to the Führer I and II Life in PrisonDied in prison on August 17, Alfred JodlChief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces All FourAll Four – plotted the Czech takeover, orchestrated and oversaw slave labor in war industries DeathHanged on October 16, In 1953, a German appeals court posthumously found Jodl not guilty of breaking international law. Ernst Kaltenbrunner Chief of the Security Police, SD, and RSHA III and IVIII and IV – Ran the Gestapo and the Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing squads in Eastern Europe) DeathHanged on October 16, 1946.
Wilhelm KeitelChief of the High Command of the Armed Forces All Four DeathRequested to be shot as a soldier. Request denied. Hanged on October 16, Konstantin von Neurath Minister of Foreign Affairs and Reich Protector of Bohemia and Moravia All Four 15 Years in PrisonEarly release in Died in Franz von PapenChancellor (1932) Not Guilty Promoted the Nazis, but not the war or the genocide. AcquittedIn 1949, a German court sentenced Papen to 8 years in work camp; time was considered already served. Died in Erich RaederSupreme Commander of the Navy ( ) II, III, and IV Life in PrisonEarly release in Died in 1960.
Joachim von Ribbentrop Reich Foreign Minister All Four DeathHanged on October 16, Alfred RosenbergParty Philosopher and Reich Minister for the Eastern Occupied Area All Four Source of racial ideology, “lebensraum” DeathHanged on October 16, Fritz SauckelPlenipotentiary for Labor Allocation II and IV Provided slave labor (violated Geneva Accords) DeathHanged on October 16, Hjalmar SchachtMinister of Economics and President of the Reichsbank ( ) Not Guilty Nationalist, but not to a criminal extent AcquittedDenazification court sentenced Schacht to 8 years in a work camp; released in Died in Baldur von Schirach Führer of the Hitler Youth IV 20 Years in PrisonServed his time. Died in Arthur Seyss- Inquart Minister of the Interior and Reich Gouvernor of Austria II, III, and IV DeathHanged on October 16, 1946.
This trial took 9 months! Cannot keep up at such a slow pace! Albert SpeerMinister of Armaments and War Production III and IV 20 Years in PrisonServed his time. Died in Julius StreicherFounder of Der Stürmer Der Stürmer IV DeathHanged on October 16, 1946.
Afterwards Trials by German Occupation Zones – (US, USSR, France, Great Britain) US Tries ~200 high officials over 12 trials (USSR et al. will do same) AFTER THIS GERMANY WILL HOLD IT’S OWN TRIALS Categories – German Judges start 1:46 German Judges 10 guilty (life to 5 years), 4 acquitted – Industrialists 2 Zyklon B directors executed, those who used slave labor- some convictions but lesser sentences – Medical Doctors who experimented on inmates 16 Guilty (7 death, 5 life, 4 lesser) 7 acquitted – Killing Squads All 22 convicted (14 death, 2 life, 5 lesser, 1 time spent) – Guards Dachau – 40 convicted (36 death, 4 ten years to life) Nordhausen 16 convicted (1 death, 15 prison) 4 Acquitted
Trial Fatigue 1948 – Public AbroadGrowing Board with Trials 1951 – most prison sentences are lifted/reduced WHY? – Too many, too long, same story – Public ready to forgive and forget – Bigger problems (Cold War and security of the West) BUT this leaves survivors in the cold – justice not complete! Occasional trials over the years ie.: – Eichmann – Jerusalem 1960 – Demjanjuk – Jerusalem 1987
Tokyo – International Tribunal Much less attention than Nuremberg 28 leaders tried over 2.5 years Judged by: – US, USSR, UK, Australia, NZ, Netherlands, China, Canada, Philippines, India All guilty – 7 death – hanged December 1948 (no photos – General MacArthur, provisional governor defied Truman’s orders to photograph hangings) – 16 life, 2 lesser prison, 2 die before sentencing, 1 declared insane Afterwards 5,000 more tried by Asian Nations – 900 Executed