3Splenius (capitis and cervicis) Origin:Cervicis – spinous process of T3-T6Capitis - lower half of ligmentum nuchea & spinous process of C7 and T1-3.Insertion:Cervicis - transverse process of C1-C3.Capitis – mastoid process and occipital boneActions:WholeCervical ExtensionHalfCervical Rotation to the same side.Cervical Lateral flexion
14Erector spinae muscles O: Fascia of lower back, posterior L, T and lower C vertebrea, and angles of ribs.InesrtionsSpinalis branch - spinous process of T and C and occipital boneLongissimus branch - transverse process of T and C, mastoid process.Iliocostalis branch - angles of the ribs and cervical transverse processesActions:Whole – ExtensionHalf - Lateral flexion
20Iliopsoas O: I: Lesser trochanter of femur Action: Psoas - lateral surface of T12 and L1-5,Iliacus - anterior surface of ilium (iliac fossa)I: Lesser trochanter of femurAction:Whole - Lumbar flexion of trunk[Whole - Hip flexion]
29Internal obliqueO: Inguinal ligament (from anterior iliac crest to pubis) and iliac crestI: Costal cartilages of the lower ribs.Actions:Whole – Lumbar flexionHalfLumbar rotation to the same sideLumbar lateral flexion
43I. INSPRIATION Increase in thorasic cage Volume inside increases Pressure decreasesAir moves into the lungs
44A. Inspiration at Rest 1. Diaphragm Flattens and moves downward when contracted
45A. Inspiration at Rest 1. Diaphragm 2. External Intercostals Flattens and moves downward when contracted2. External IntercostalsLift the ribs up and out when contracted
46B. Inspiration During Exercise 1. Scalenes – elevate upper ribs2. Sternoceidomastoid – elevate clavical and upper ribs3. External intercostal muscles
47II. EXPIRATION Decrease thorasic cage Volume inside decreases Pressure increasesAir moves out of the lungs
48A. Expiration at Rest. No muscles are involved Passive recoil action at rest will decrease the thorasic cage
49B. Expiration During Exercise Internal Intercostals -Rectus Abdominus – help push the diaphragm upward.External obliques– help push the diaphragm upward.Internal obliques– help push the diaphragm upward.Transverse abdominus– help push the diaphragm upward.
50Muslces of Expiration Muscles of Inspiration *Sternocleidomastoid *Scalenes*Internal IntercostalsExternal Intercostals*Rectus AbdominusDiaphragm*External Obliques*Internal Obliques*Transverse AbdominusMuscles ofInspiration
51Note:These muscles need to trained with exercise as any other muscle does.Early limitations (side aches and breathlessness) felt during exercise may involve the untrained state of these muscles.