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Relative, Absolute, & Mixed References

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Relative Reference (Address) ABCD 15 26 3 4 In C3, =A1+B2 means Display sum of the content of cell which is 2 columns to the left and 2 rows above and the content of cell which is 1 column to the left and 1 row above. When this formula is copied to other cells, the same instruction is copied. E.g., if the formula is copied to D4, it becomes =B2+C3.

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Absolute Reference (Address) ABCD 15 26 3 4 In C3, =$A$1+B2 means Display the sum of the content of cell which is at A1 and the content of cell which is 1 column to the left and 1 row above. When this formula is copied to other cells, the same instruction is copied. E.g., if the formula is copied to D4, it becomes =$A$1+C3.

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Mixed Reference (Address) ABCD 15 26 37 48 In C2, =$A$1+$B2 means Add the content of cell which is at A1 and the content of cell which is in column B and in the same row. When this formula is copied to other cells, the same instruction is copied. E.g., if the formula is copied to C4, it becomes =$A$1+$B4.

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Mixed Reference (cont.) ABCD 15 26789 3 4 In B3, =$A$1+B$2 means Add the content of cell which is at A1 and the content of cell which is in the same column and in row 2. When this formula is copied to other cells, the same instruction is copied. E.g., if the formula is copied to C4, it becomes =$A$1+C$2.

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IF() Function ABCDEF 1NameExamGrade 2Adams87Pass 3Benson92Pass 4Carson68Fail 5Danson78Pass 6 =IF(B2>=70,”Pass”,”Fail”)

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IF() Function Form =IF(condition, value-for-TRUE-case, value-for-FALSE-case) Example Assume: B2 contains semester average Then, in C2, we can have: =IF(B2>=70, “Pass”, “Fail”)

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VLOOKUP() Function Suppose letter grades for exam scores are assigned as follows: A – 90 or above B – 80 or above, but less than 90 C – 70 or above, but less than 80 D – 60 or above, but less than 70 F – less than 60 Use VLOOKUP() function to assigning letter grade to a score, buy looking up a table.

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Grade Table Lookup ABCDEFGH 1NameExamGrade 2Adams87B 3Benson92A 4Carson68D 5Danson78C 6Criteria 70F 860D 970C 1080B 1190A

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VLOOKUP() Format =VLOOKUP( Value to look up, The range of the table, The column number containing the grade) For example, In the preceding case =VLOOKUP(B2, $G$7:$H$11,2)

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With VLOOKUP(), Remember… In the VLOOKUP(), the 2 nd argument, the range for the lookup table, should be in absolute address. In the lookup table, values to be looked up should be in ascending order (from small to larger).

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Tax Table Lookup ABCFGH 1NameIncome Tax Rate 2Adams180000% 3Benson8500015% 4Carson2800010% 5Danson3100015% 6Erickson125000? 700% 820,00010% 950,00015% 10100,00020% 11200,00030%

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Your Turn Given the preceding table, look up the Tax Rate for Erickson with the VLOOK() function.

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HLOOKUP (Horizontal Lookup Table) ABCDEFGH 1Name Exa m Grade 2Adams87B 3Benson92A 4Carson68D 5Danson78C 6 7 8Criteria 9060708090 10FDCBA 11

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HLOOKUP() Format =HLOOKUP( Value to look up, The range of the table, The row number containing the grade) For example, In the preceding case =HLOOKUP(B2, $B$(:$F$10,2)

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With HLOOKUP(), Remember… In the HLOOKUP(), the 2 nd argument, the range for the lookup table, should be in absolute address. In the lookup table, values to be looked up should be in ascending order (from small to larger) from left to right.

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