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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 1 JKA & KY

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 2 Engineering Analysis Engineering analysis is a systematic process for analyzing problems that arise in the various fields of engineering. As part of the problem solving process, the data collected has to be processed, analyzed and sometimes displayed graphically by using many mathematical tools that are available. In many cases, once you have defined and set up the problem properly, numerical methods are required to solve the mathematical equations. Microsoft’s Excel spreadsheet software has many numerical procedures built directly into its program structure.

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 3 Spreadsheets’ Capabilities Store, process, and sorts data Graphically display data (Engineering application) Perform statistical analysis Fit equations to curves (Engineering application) Solve single and system of algebraic equations (Engr. Appl.) Solve optimization problems (Engineering application) Draw Flow Charts Data Analysis Tools

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 Ken Youssefi PDM I, SJSU 4 Material Strength Standard Tensile Test Standard Specimen σ (stress) = Load / Area ε (strain) = (change in length) / (original length) Ductile Steel (low carbon) S y – yield strength S u – fracture strength

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 5 currently active cell (A1) menu bar formula bar worksheet tabs File management options

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 6 Entering Data into Cells (Cell Content)

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 7 Copying Cells “Fill Down” : select the cell containing the active formula and the range of cells you need to fill the range of cells you need to fill select “Fill” on the Home menu and choose “Down” select “Fill” on the Home menu and choose “Down” 1.Using icons in the ribbon menu a) Click on the Cells to be copied Copy” on the Home toolbar b) Select “Copy” on the Home toolbar c) Click on the Cells to paste the copied contents d) ” or “Special Paste” on the Home toolbar d) Select “Paste” or “Special Paste” on the Home toolbar 2.Using keyboard - Ctrl C to copy & Ctrl V to paste 3.“Pull Down corner” at Lower Right Corner (recommended for a range of cells) (recommended for a range of cells) a) place the cursor on the LRC of the active cell a) place the cursor on the LRC of the active cell b) Click and drag over the cell rage b) Click and drag over the cell rage

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 8 Relative Addressing 1. =B3+C3 adds the content of cells B3 and C3. 2. As the formula is copied into D4, D5 and D6, cell addresses of the formula are incremented.

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 9 Absolute Addressing Using the absolute cell address, $B$1, will keep the cell reference constant for all calculations.

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 10 Basic Math Operations Operation Algebraic Excel Format adda+b subtracta-b multiplyab, axb, a.ba*b dividea/b exponentialanan a^n number format 5.07x10 +12 5.07E12 5.07*10^12 3.15x10 -3 3.15E-3 3.15*10^(-3)

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 11 Excel Formulas In Excel, a formula expresses dependency of one cell on others in the worksheet. Formula entry for a Cell begins with clicking on the Cell first and then either typing the equal sign “=“ in the Cell itself or clicking on the Formula Bar, and ends with “Enter”. A Formula can be edited by first clicking on the Cell and then editing the formula on the active Cell or on the Formula Bar. A Formula may contain functions. The value of x is in cell A15 Example Math syntax: 3 x 2 + e (-0.3 x ) - 10 x =3*(A15^2) + EXP(-0.3*A15) - 10*A15 Excel syntax:

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 12 Using Excel Built-in Functions After clicking on the Cell Click on the “Formula Bar” (f x ), follow instructions on the “Insert Function” window. Or, in the “Formulas” menu select “Insert Function“ Follow instructions on the “Function Argument” window, e.g., select the value, or range of values for the function.

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 13 Frequently Used Excel Functions MathExcel SyntaxPurpose: Returns the: (Assume value of x is in cell A15.) πPI()value of π (3.141593…) exex EXP(A15)Value of e x where e is the base of Natural Log √ xSQRT(A15)Value of the square root of x log 10 (x)LOG10(A15)Logarithm of x, with base 10 ln(x)LN(A15)Natural logarithm of x, with base e SUM(x1,x2,x3)SUM( A15:A17)x1+x2+x3 cos(x)COS(A15)Cosine of x sin(x)SIN(A15)Sine of x tan(x)TAN(A15)Tangent of x Average(x1,x2,x3)AVERAGE(A15:A17)(x1+x2+x3)/3

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 14 Example: “My Expense Table”

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 15 “My Expense Table”- Aug. Expense =SUM(B5:B10)

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 16 “ My Expense Table”- Aug. Expense (cont.)

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 17 “Eliminating Repetition” Place cursor in the lower right corner of cell B11, “click-and-drug” along row 11 for the rest of the total of the rest of the months Repeat procedure for the “Total” of each category

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 18 “My Expense Table” - Completed

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 19 Insert menu Plotting Data 2007 version 2013 version

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 20 Data menu 2007 version 2013 version

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 21 View menu 2007 version 2013 version

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 22 MAX and MIN Functions =MAX or MIN(X1, X2, X3…) will take the maximum or minimum of the numbers in the parentheses. =MAX or MIN(X1:X4) will take the maximum or minimum of all the numbers from X1 to X4. COUNT Function =COUNT(X1, X2, X3…) will count the number of cells that contain numbers and the arguments in the list that are numbers. =COUNT(A1, A2, A3) will return 2, because of the 4 and 9. =COUNT(A1:A4) will return 3, because of the 4, 9 and 3. =COUNT(A1:A4, -17, “world”) will return 4, because of the 4, 9, 3 and -17. Example

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 23 COUNTIF Function =COUNTIF(range, criteria) will count the number of cells in the range that match the criteria. Note: if the criteria consists of a relational expression, such as “>5”, it must be enclosed in double quotes. =COUNTIF(A1:A4, “>5”) will return 2, because 6 and 9 are greater than 5. =COUNTIF(A1:B4, “=6”) will return 3, because three cells in the range contain 6. Example

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 24 IF Logical Function =IF(logical_test, value_if_true, value_if_false) returns the second argument if the test is true, and the third if it is false. =IF(A1>3, “A1 is larger than 3”, 0) would return “A1 is larger than 3”. =IF(A4>3, “A1 is larger than 3”, 0) would return 0. Example

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 25 VLOOKUP or HLOOKUP Function =VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_number, not_exact_match) finds the value in the top row of a table and returns the corresponding column value. Not_exact_match: Can be either True or False. True means it will find the closest value to the lookup value. False means you only want the value returned if it is an exact match. Table_array: The table that the function looks through. Col_index_number: The column number from which the function should return (search for) the value. Lookup_value: The value that the function looks for in the first column. Vertical search Horizontal search

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 26 Question: find the price for item with ID# 12 VLOOKUP Function - Example =VLOOKUP(12,Q50:S53,2,,2,FALSE) =VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_number, not_exact_match) QSR 50 51 53 52 Answer = 14.33

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E ngineering College of San Jose State University Engr.10 27 HLOOKUP Function - Example =HLOOKUP (12, A1:E3, 2, False) means that you are looking in the second row for the value corresponding to the value 12 in top row, and you are looking for an exact match to 12. This would return $14.33. =HLOOKUP (10, A1:E3, 2, False) means that you are looking in the second row for the value corresponding to the value 10, and you are looking for an exact match to 10. Since there is no 10 in top row, it would return #N/A. =HLOOKUP (50, A1:E3, 3, True) means that you are looking in the third row for the value corresponding to the value 50 in top row. Since there is no 50 in the top row, it returns the match corresponding to the largest value in the top row that is less than the lookup value of 50. In this case, it returns 8. If range lookup is TRUE, the values in the first row of table array must be placed in ascending order:...-2, -1, 0, 1, 2,..., A-Z, FALSE, TRUE; otherwise, HLOOKUP may not give the correct value. If range lookup is FALSE, table array does not need to be sorted. Row 1 is not in ascending order

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