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AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions.

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Presentation on theme: "AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions

2 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions

3 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions

4 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions

5 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions Yesterday during Period 6 Law & Society a Mr. Maxwell Henrie was seen engaged in an extended hug with IRLANDA Sorry, Danny

6 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions

7 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions

8 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Linkage Institutions

9 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Quotable Quote Americans of all ages, all conditions, and all dispositions constantly form associations. Alexis de Tocqueville

10 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Basic Definition An organization of people with shared policy goals... Enters the policy process at several points to try to achieve these goals

11 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Interest Groups v. Political Parties Both promote democracy by... Linking citizens to the political process However... Individual interest groups have a narrower range of interests than political parties

12 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Basic Categories * Economic * Environmental * Equality * Consumers

13 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Economic – Environmental – Equality – Consumers – Public Interest

14 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Economic – Environmental – Equality – Consumers – Public Interest

15 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Economic – Environmental – Equality – Consumers – Public Interest

16 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups The MOST INFLUENTIAL according to Fortune magazine From my cold, dead hands!

17 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups How Groups Try to Shape Policy * Lobbying * Electioneering * Litigation * Going Public

18 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Lobbying Attempt to influence governmental decision maker... Made by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf

19 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Lobbying... Positives * Source of information & expertise * Help politicians with political strategy for passing legislation * Help politicians formulate campaign strategy and gain group’s support * Source of ideas and innovation

20 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Reminder... The mutually dependent relationship between... * Bureaucracy * Congressional Committees * Interest Groups IRONTRIANGLE

21 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Electioneering Direct group involvement in elections * Fund campaigns * Provide supportive testimony * Form Political Action Committees

22 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups PACS Organizations set up to channel MONEY to political campaigns Helps interest groups gain access to legislators

23 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups PACS & Interest Groups Support both Democrats & Republicans Goal is to affect legislation Reminder: Who usually wins Congressional elections?INCUMBENTS

24 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups PACS Number in 1974 = Number in 2006 = The biggest increase has been in PACS representing... ? 608 4,210 LABOR ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS CONSUMERS EDUCATION

25 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Business must learn the lesson that political power is necessary; that such power must be assiduously cultivated; it must be used aggressively and with determination... Lewis Powell Attorney Represented tobacco companies in many lawsuits In a Memo written to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in 1971 Named to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1972

26 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Litigation If cannot get favorable action in Congress Sometimes groups turn to Courts with: * Class Action lawsuits... which permit a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people “similarly situated”

27 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Litigation If cannot get favorable action in Congress Sometimes groups turn to Courts with: * “Friend of the Court” briefs... known as Amicus Curiae briefs

28 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Going Public May appeal to the public for support * Call on people to contact representatives * Build public goodwill * Employ PR firms * Use advertising

29 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Which of the following models / theories of American democracy would say that the workings of interest groups is a good thing? Pluralist Elite & Class Hyperpluralist

30 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Which of the following models / theories of American democracy would say that the workings of interest groups is a bad thing? Pluralist Elite & Class Hyperpluralist

31 AP U.S. GOVERNMENT & POLITICS – Linkages Interest Groups Which of the following models / theories of American democracy would say that interest groups generally favor the wealthy? Pluralist Elite & Class Hyperpluralist


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