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Date: February 8, 2011 Topic: Interest Groups Aim: How do interest groups impact the political process? Do Now: Chapter 11 Vocabulary Quiz Friday 2/11.

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Presentation on theme: "Date: February 8, 2011 Topic: Interest Groups Aim: How do interest groups impact the political process? Do Now: Chapter 11 Vocabulary Quiz Friday 2/11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Date: February 8, 2011 Topic: Interest Groups Aim: How do interest groups impact the political process? Do Now: Chapter 11 Vocabulary Quiz Friday 2/11 CHAPTER 11

2 March 2, 2011 Do Now: Multiple Choice Questions Do Now: Multiple Choice Questions Notes. Notes. Test Friday Chapters 9, 10, and 11. Test Friday Chapters 9, 10, and 11. I need, not want, but need AP checks if not submitted already. I need, not want, but need AP checks if not submitted already. I NEED NEED THEM. THEM.

3 The Role and Reputation of Interest Groups Defining Interest Groups Defining Interest Groups An organization of people with a shared policy goal, entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals. Interest groups pursue their goals in many arenas. An organization of people with a shared policy goal, entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals. Interest groups pursue their goals in many arenas. Political Parties fight election battles, Interest Groups don’t- but they may choose sides. Political Parties fight election battles, Interest Groups don’t- but they may choose sides. Interest Groups are policy specialists. Interest Groups are policy specialists. Interest Groups are policy specialists. Interest Groups are policy specialists. WHY IS A POLITICIAN WHO IS ACCUSED OF CATERING TO SPECIAL INTERESTS THOUGHT OF IN A NEGATIVE LIGHT?

4 The Role and Reputation of Interest Groups Why Interest Groups Get Bad Press Why Interest Groups Get Bad Press The writers of the Constitution disliked organized groups- parties and interest groups. The writers of the Constitution disliked organized groups- parties and interest groups. Dishonest lobbyists get more press than the honest ones- even though there are far more honest lobbyists. Dishonest lobbyists get more press than the honest ones- even though there are far more honest lobbyists. The term “lobbying” in general has negative connotations. The term “lobbying” in general has negative connotations.

5 Click on name to go to that slide. Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralist Theory Pluralist Theory Elite Theory Elite Theory Hyperpluralist Theory Hyperpluralist Theory YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN INTEREST GROUPS IN LIGHT OF THESE THREE THEORIES! OH REALLY? REALLY?

6 Theories of Interest Group Politics- Pluralism Definition: Definition: Politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies. Politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies. Many centers of power and many diverse, competing groups. Many centers of power and many diverse, competing groups. No group wins or loses all the time. No group wins or loses all the time. Groups provide the key link between the people and the government. Groups provide the key link between the people and the government. OH YEAH! LINKAGE INSTITUTION! OH YEAH!

7 Theories of Interest Group Politics- Pluralism Continued… Continued… Groups compete. Groups compete. No group becomes too dominant. No group becomes too dominant. Groups play by the rules. Groups play by the rules. Groups weak in one resource can rely on another resource. Groups weak in one resource can rely on another resource.

8 Theories of Interest Group Politics- Elitism Definition: Definition: Societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization. Societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization. Numerous groups means nothing, the power is not equally divided among them- some have much more. Numerous groups means nothing, the power is not equally divided among them- some have much more. The largest corporations hold the most power. The largest corporations hold the most power.

9 Theories of Interest Group Politics- Elitism Continued… Continued… The power is strengthened by a system of interlocking directorates of these corporations and other institutions. The power is strengthened by a system of interlocking directorates of these corporations and other institutions. Corporate elites are willing to lose the minor policy battles, but work to win the major policy issues in their favor. Corporate elites are willing to lose the minor policy battles, but work to win the major policy issues in their favor. Lobbying is a problem because it benefits the few at the expense of the many. Lobbying is a problem because it benefits the few at the expense of the many.

10 March 3, 2011 Do Now: Multiple Choice Questions Do Now: Multiple Choice Questions Notes. Notes. Video Time. Video Time. Notes. Notes. Test Tomorrow chapters 9,10, and 11. Test Tomorrow chapters 9,10, and 11.

11 Theories of Interest Group Politics- Hyperpluralism Definition: Definition: Groups are so strong that government is weakened. Extreme, exaggerated form of pluralism. Groups are so strong that government is weakened. Extreme, exaggerated form of pluralism. Iron Triangles  closed, mutually supported relationships between interest groups and the government - keep government from working properly. Iron Triangles  closed, mutually supported relationships between interest groups and the government - keep government from working properly. Interest groups have become too powerful since the government tries to serve every interest. Interest groups have become too powerful since the government tries to serve every interest.

12 Iron Triangles

13 Theories of Interest Group Politics- Hyperpluralism Continued… Continued… The many subgovernments (iron triangles) aggravate the process. The many subgovernments (iron triangles) aggravate the process. When the government tries to please all the groups, the policies become confusing and contradictory. When the government tries to please all the groups, the policies become confusing and contradictory. But with more interest groups getting involved, these subgovernments may be dissolving. But with more interest groups getting involved, these subgovernments may be dissolving.

14 The Top 10 from Table 11.1 What Makes an Interest Group Successful? What Makes an Interest Group Successful? 1. American Association of Retired Persons 2. National Rifle Association 3. National Federation of Independent Business 4. American Israel Public Affairs Committee 5. AFL-CIO 6. Association of Trial Lawyers 7. Chamber of Commerce 8. National Right to Life Committee 9. National Education Association 10. National Restaurant Association

15 What Makes an Interest Group Successful? The Surprising Ineffectiveness of Large Groups The Surprising Ineffectiveness of Large Groups Free-Rider problem: Some people don’t join interest groups because they benefit from the group’s activities without officially joining. Free-Rider problem: Some people don’t join interest groups because they benefit from the group’s activities without officially joining. The bigger the group, the larger the free-rider problem. The bigger the group, the larger the free-rider problem. Large groups are difficult to keep organized. Large groups are difficult to keep organized.

16 What makes Interest Groups powerful? Size Size Power of AARP – 25% of the population 50 and over. Power of AARP – 25% of the population 50 and over. Intensity – Drive or effort put forth (single issue groups fall into this category). Intensity – Drive or effort put forth (single issue groups fall into this category). Money Money Form a PAC (Political Action Committee) – donate money to campaigns and advertising. Form a PAC (Political Action Committee) – donate money to campaigns and advertising.

17 What Makes an Interest Group Successful? Intensity Intensity Single-Issue groups: Groups that focus on a narrow interest and dislike compromise. Single-Issue groups: Groups that focus on a narrow interest and dislike compromise. Groups may focus on an emotional issue, providing them with a psychological advantage. Groups may focus on an emotional issue, providing them with a psychological advantage. May be more likely to use protests and other means of political participation than traditional interest groups that use lobbyists. May be more likely to use protests and other means of political participation than traditional interest groups that use lobbyists.

18 What Makes an Interest Group Successful? Financial Resources Financial Resources Not all groups have equal amounts of money. Not all groups have equal amounts of money. Monetary donations usually translate into access to the politicians- a phone call, a meeting, etc. Monetary donations usually translate into access to the politicians- a phone call, a meeting, etc. There is a bias towards the wealthier groups. There is a bias towards the wealthier groups. But, the wealthier groups don’t always win in the policy arena. But, the wealthier groups don’t always win in the policy arena.

19 Figure 11.3 The Interest Group Explosion

20 How Groups Try to Shape Policy Lobbying Lobbying “communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decisionmaker with the hope of influencing his decision.” “communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decisionmaker with the hope of influencing his decision.” Two basic types: Those that are employed by a group, and those that are hired temporarily. Two basic types: Those that are employed by a group, and those that are hired temporarily.

21 How Groups Try to Shape Policy Lobbyists are a source of information. Lobbyists are a source of information. Lobbyists can help politicians plan political strategies for legislation. Lobbyists can help politicians plan political strategies for legislation. Lobbyists can help politicians plan political strategies for reelection campaigns. Lobbyists can help politicians plan political strategies for reelection campaigns. Lobbyists can provide ideas and innovations that can be turned into policies that the politician can take credit for. Lobbyists can provide ideas and innovations that can be turned into policies that the politician can take credit for.

22 How Groups Try to Shape Policy Electioneering Electioneering Direct group involvement in the election process. Direct group involvement in the election process. Political Action Committee (PAC): Used by corporations and unions to donate money to candidates. Sometimes used by groups as well. Political Action Committee (PAC): Used by corporations and unions to donate money to candidates. Sometimes used by groups as well. Groups are often picky about who gets money. Groups are often picky about who gets money. Groups can do more than just donate money. Groups can do more than just donate money.

23 How Groups Try to Shape Policy Litigation Litigation If an interest group fails in one area, the courts may be able to provide a remedy. If an interest group fails in one area, the courts may be able to provide a remedy. Interest groups can file amicus curiae briefs in court cases to support their position. Interest groups can file amicus curiae briefs in court cases to support their position. Class Action lawsuits permit small groups of people to try and correct a situation on behalf of a much larger group. Class Action lawsuits permit small groups of people to try and correct a situation on behalf of a much larger group.

24 How Groups Try to Shape Policy Going Public Going Public Groups try and cultivate a good public image. Groups try and cultivate a good public image. Groups use marketing strategies to influence public opinion of the group and its issues. Groups use marketing strategies to influence public opinion of the group and its issues. Groups will purchase advertising to motivate the public about an issue. Groups will purchase advertising to motivate the public about an issue. Currently, some groups use a more “soft sell” approach style of public relations. Currently, some groups use a more “soft sell” approach style of public relations.

25 Types of Interest Groups Economic Interests Economic Interests Labor Labor Agriculture Agriculture Business Business Environmental Interests Environmental Interests Equality Interests Equality Interests Consumer and Public Interest Lobbies Consumer and Public Interest Lobbies

26 Understanding Interest Groups Interest Groups and Democracy Interest Groups and Democracy A wide open government would force groups to compete and counterbalance each other. A wide open government would force groups to compete and counterbalance each other. More groups means more lobbyists and thus better democracy to some. More groups means more lobbyists and thus better democracy to some. Others argue that groups are not equal and some get more than they should, which is not good for democracy. Others argue that groups are not equal and some get more than they should, which is not good for democracy.

27 Understanding Interest Groups Interest Groups and the Scope of Government Interest Groups and the Scope of Government Interest groups seek to maintain policies and programs that benefit them. Interest groups seek to maintain policies and programs that benefit them. Interest groups continue to pressure government to do more things. Interest groups continue to pressure government to do more things. But as the government does more things, does that cause the formation of more groups? But as the government does more things, does that cause the formation of more groups?


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