2The Role and Reputation of Interest Groups Defining Interest GroupsAn organization of people with shared policy goal entering the policy process at several points to try to achieve those goals. Interest groups pursue their goals in many arenas.Political Parties fight election battles, Interest Groups don’t - but they may choose sides.Interest Groups are policy specialists, Political Parties are policy generalists.
3Theories of Interest Group Politics Pluralist TheoryElite TheoryHyperpluralist TheoryClick on name to go to that slide.
4Theories of Interest Group Politics - Pluralism Definition:Politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.Many centers of power and many diverse, competing groups.No group wins or loses all the time.Groups provide the key link between the people and the government.
5Theories of Interest Group Politics - Pluralism Continued…Groups competeNo group becomes too dominateGroups play by the rules of the gameGroups weak in one resource can rely on another resource.Lobbying is open to all, therefore, not a problem.
6Theories of Interest Group Politics - Elitism Definition:Societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.Numerous groups means nothing, power is not equally divided among them - some have much more.The largest corporations hold the most power.
7Theories of Interest Group Politics - Elitism Continued…The power is strengthened by a system of interlocking directorates of these corporations and other institutions.Corporate elites are willing to lose the minor policy battles, but work to win the major policy issues in their favor.Lobbying is a problem because it benefits the few at the expense of the many.
8Theories of Interest Group Politics - Hyperpluralism Definition:Groups are so strong that government is weakened. Extreme, exaggerated form of pluralism.Iron Triangles keep government from working properly.Interest groups have become too powerful since the government tries to serve every interest.
9Theories of Interest Group Politics - Hyperpluralism Continued…The many subgovernments (iron triangles) aggravate the process.When the government tries to please all the groups, the policies become confusing and contradictory.But with more interest groups getting involved, these subgovernments may be dissolving.
10What Makes an Interest Group Successful? The Surprising Ineffectiveness of Large GroupsPotential group: All the people who might be interest group members because they share a common interest.Actual group: The part of the potential group consisting of members who actually join.Collective group: Something of value that cannot be withheld from a group member
11What Makes an Interest Group Successful? Free-Rider problem: Some people don’t join interest groups because they benefit from the group’s activities without officially joining.The bigger the group, the larger the free-rider problem. (Olson’s law of large groups)Large groups are difficult to keep organized.
12What Makes an Interest Group Successful? Small groups are better organized and more focused on the group’s goals.Thus consumer groups have a difficult time getting significant policy gains - the benefits are spread over the entire population.Groups that can provide selective benefits is a way to overcome this problem.
13What Makes an Interest Group Successful? IntensitySingle-Issue groups: Groups that focus on a narrow interest and dislike compromise.Groups may focus on an emotional issue, providing them with a psychological advantage.May be more likely to use protests and other means of political participation than traditional interest groups that use lobbyists.
14What Makes an Interest Group Successful? Financial ResourcesNot all groups have equal amounts of money.Monetary donations usually translate into access to the politicians - a phone call, a meeting, etc.There is a bias towards the wealthier groups.But, the wealthier groups don’t always win in the policy arena.
15How Groups Try to Shape Policy Lobbying“communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decisionmaker with the hope of influencing his decision.” (Lester Milbrath)Two basic types: Those that are employed by a group, and those that are hired temporarily.
16How Groups Try to Shape Policy Lobbyists are a source of information.Lobbyists can help politicians plan political strategies for legislation.Lobbyists can help politicians plan political strategies for reelection campaigns.Lobbyists can provide ideas and innovations that can be turned into policies that the politician can take credit for.
17How Groups Try to Shape Policy ElectioneeringDirect group involvement in the election process.Political Action Committee (PAC): Used by interest groups to donate money to candidates.PACs help pay the bill for increasing campaign costs.Most PAC money goes to incumbents.
18How Groups Try to Shape Policy LitigationIf an interest group fails in one area, the courts may be able to provide a remedy.Interest groups can file amicus curiae briefs in court cases to support their position.Class Action lawsuits permit small groups of people to try and correct a situation on behalf of a much larger group.
19How Groups Try to Shape Policy Going PublicGroups try and cultivate a good public image.Groups use marketing strategies to influence public opinion of the group and its issues.Groups will purchase advertising to motivate the public about an issue.
20Types of Interest Groups Economic InterestsLaborAgricultureBusinessEnvironmental InterestsEquality InterestsConsumer and Public Interest Lobbies
21Understanding Interest Groups Interest Groups and DemocracyA wide open government would force groups to compete and counterbalance each other.More groups mean more lobbyists and thus better democracy to some.Others argue that groups are not equal and some get more than they should, which is not good for democracy.
22Understanding Interest Groups Interest Groups and the Scope of GovernmentInterest groups seek to maintain policies and programs that benefit them.Interest groups continue to pressure government to do more things.But as the government does more things, does that cause the formation of more groups?